Lake Baikal

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21 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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Lake Baikal



Deep water stratification and mixing



Alfred Wüest

31 October 2012, UniGE


Limnological Institute (RAS)


Physical Institute (ISU)


Earth Crust Institute (RAS)


Eawag (Swiss Fed)

Lake Baikal research



a collaborative effort

Lake Baikal South Basin



to shore 1.05 km

Depth 550 m

to shore 3.6 km

Moorings in South Basin

Depth 1363 m

N
et sedimentation

sed
-
water exchange

G
ross

sedimentation

3
.
0
0
3
.
1
0
3
.
2
0
3
.
3
0
3
.
4
0
3
.
5
0
T
e
m
p

°
C
L
a
k
e

B
a
i
k
a
l

N
e
u
t
r
i
n
o

s
i
t
e
T
R
1
0
0

8
8
2
0

1
3
6
3
m
1
1
-
M
a
r
-
0
3
2
5
-
M
a
r
-
0
3
8
-
A
p
r
-
0
3
2
2
-
A
p
r
-
0
3
6
-
M
a
y
-
0
3
2
0
-
M
a
y
-
0
3
3
-
J
u
n
-
0
3
1
7
-
J
u
n
-
0
3
1
-
J
u
l
-
0
3
1
5
-
J
u
l
-
0
3
2
9
-
J
u
l
-
0
3
1
2
-
A
u
g
-
0
3
2
6
-
A
u
g
-
0
3
9
-
S
e
p
-
0
3
2
3
-
S
e
p
-
0
3
7
-
O
c
t
-
0
3
2
1
-
O
c
t
-
0
3
4
-
N
o
v
-
0
3
1
8
-
N
o
v
-
0
3
2
-
D
e
c
-
0
3
1
6
-
D
e
c
-
0
3
3
0
-
D
e
c
-
0
3
1
3
-
J
a
n
-
0
4
2
7
-
J
a
n
-
0
4
1
0
-
F
e
b
-
0
4
2
4
-
F
e
b
-
0
4
9
-
M
a
r
-
0
4
2
3
-
M
a
r
-
0
4
T
i
m
e
Temperature at Neutrino site

Temperature

Temperature

at 1363 m depth

Cooling event

Mid Dec 2003

D
T =
-
0.18
o
C

3
/
8
/
0
2
3
/
2
2
/
0
2
4
/
5
/
0
2
4
/
1
9
/
0
2
5
/
3
/
0
2
5
/
1
7
/
0
2
5
/
3
1
/
0
2
6
/
1
4
/
0
2
6
/
2
8
/
0
2
7
/
1
2
/
0
2
7
/
2
6
/
0
2
8
/
9
/
0
2
8
/
2
3
/
0
2
9
/
6
/
0
2
9
/
2
0
/
0
2
1
0
/
4
/
0
2
1
0
/
1
8
/
0
2
1
1
/
1
/
0
2
1
1
/
1
5
/
0
2
1
1
/
2
9
/
0
2
1
2
/
1
3
/
0
2
1
2
/
2
7
/
0
2
1
/
1
0
/
0
3
1
/
2
4
/
0
3
2
/
7
/
0
3
2
/
2
1
/
0
3
3
/
7
/
0
3
3
/
2
1
/
0
3
T
i
m
e
3
.
0
0
3
.
1
0
3
.
2
0
3
.
3
0
3
.
4
0
3
.
5
0
T
e
m
p

°
C
T
R

1
0
0
0

8
8
2
7

1
3
6
3
m
m
Temperature

at 1363 m depth

Cooling event

Early Dec 2002

Temperature at Neutrino site

D
T =
-
0.35
o
C

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
3.0
3.5
4.0
Temperature [

C]
Depth [m]
temperature of
maximum density
typical temperature profile
in June and December
Deep
-
water renewal!

how to push water below 300 m depth?

How to maintain
deep
-
water
temperature cold?

-
400 m

-
1460 m

Turbulent mixing

K
400m

= 12.5 m
2

s
-
1

Deep water intrusions

50 to 100 km
3

yr
-
1

z

Upwelling

w
400m

= 9 m yr
-
1

Long
-
term deep
-
water balance

How much methane is released?

Babushkin shallow

Yuri Parfenov

Elena Vologina

Nikolai Budnev

(1)

The deep
-
water below 300 m is permanently

stratified

(2)

The renewal of the water is by deep intrusions

after strong winds: 1% replaced per year

(3)


The water constituents follow the balance of

water replacement


downward diffusion

(4)


This mechanism is robust to climate change


(5)


The methane release is very small despite


the hydrants and the gas plumes.

Conclusions

Thank you