Evaluation of Native Grass Sod for

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21 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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Evaluation of Native Grass Sod for
Stabilization of Steep Slopes

Presented by:

Kenley Stone

M.S. Thesis Defense

Overview


Factors and concerns of erosion


Common methods used to control erosion


Literature Review


Native Sod


Hypotheses & Objectives


Methods


Data Collection


Data Analysis


Results



Factors that Accelerate

Erosion in Landscapes



Removal of
vegetation


Disturbed riparian
ecosystems


Steep slopes


Arid conditions


Phyto
-
toxic soil

Problems Associated with Erosion


Landslides/Mudslides



Sedimentation of
rivers and streams



Degraded water
quality







Common Methods Used to Control
Erosion on Steep Slopes


Broadcast seeding


Drill seeding


Hydroseeding/Hydromulch


Straw
-
coconut fiber blanket


Rip
-
rap

Broadcast Seeding and Drill
-
Seeding

Hydroseeding & Rip
-
Rap








Rip
-
rap

Straw
-
Coconut Fiber Blanket

Literature Review

Sodding is one of the most effective means of
controlling erosion and preventing sedimentation
damage (NCDWQ 1997).


It has been shown that sod can remove up to 99%
of the total suspended solids in runoff (USEPA
2002).


Using simulated rainfall, sod reduced runoff rates
54
-
59% more compared to the other treatments
that included wood excelsior, jute fabric, coconut
fiber blanket, coconut strand mat, and straw
(Krenitsky et. al. 1998).


In Montana, Jensen and Sindelar (1979) concluded
that if a large scale sodding machine could be
developed, dryland sodding will become a highly
desirable soil stabilization treatment.


Native Sod


Western wheatgrass
(
Agropyron smithii
)


Idaho fescue


(
Festuca idahoensis
)


Thickspike wheatgrass
(
Agropyron dasystachym
)


Canada bluegrass


(
Poa compressa
)

Potential Merits of Native Sod


Immediately enhances
aesthetic values of an
area


Provides immediate
stabilization of steep
slopes


Can reduce runoff and
sediment loss


Can reduce noxious
weed invasion


Hypothesis & Objectives

H
1
: Native sod will produce
significantly greater production and
cover compared to other treatments.


Objective
1
: Measure plant growth
characteristics on slopes treated with
native sod compared to other plant
establishment methods.


Hypotheses and Objectives
-
Cont’d

H
2
: Native sod will be more effective
at controlling erosion than the other
treatments


Objective
2
: Determine runoff,
sediment yield, and infiltration of
slopes treated with native sod
compared to other plant
establishment methods

Hypotheses and Objectives
-
Cont’d

H
3
: RUSLE2 will predict sediment loss
to be less on slopes treated with
native sod compared to the other
treatments


Objective
3
: Model sediment yield on
slopes treated with native sod
compared to other plant
establishment methods using RUSLE
version 2.0.

Hypotheses and Objectives
-
Cont’d

H
4
: Costs of native sod will initially
exceed those of the other
treatments, but will not need
maintenance in the future


Objective
4
: Evaluate the cost of using
native sod for steep slope
reclamation compared to other plant
establishment methods

Mine Waste

Methods

Study Sites

Highway Fill

Ski Slope

Highway Fill Site Description


Located 20 km west
of Bozeman


South facing road fill


40% slope, loam


Plant establishment
and erosion control
on similar sites has
been difficult


Treatments on the Highway Fill



3 replications

Plot dimensions: 3.2 x 9.1 meters

Broadcast
Seed/Hydromulch

Native Sod

Broadcast Seed/
Straw Blanket

Native Sod Mix

(All three sites)


Western wheatgrass (
Agropyron
smithii
)


Idaho fescue (
Festuca idahoensis
)


Thickspike wheatgrass (
Agropyron
dasystachyum
)


Canada bluegrass (
Poa compressa
)

Broadcast Seed Mix

(Highway Fill & Mine Waste)


Variety & Species



Slender
-
Pryor (
Agropyron tracycaulum
)


Thickspike
-
Critana (
Agropyron dasystachyum
)


Western
-
C) Rosana (
Agropyron smithii
)


Bluebunch
-
C) Secar (
Agropyron spicatum
)


Green Needlegrass
-
Lodorm (
Stipa viridula
)


Bluegrass, Big
-
C) Sherman (
Poa ampla
)


Fescue, Sheep
-
Covar (
Festuca Ovina
)


Coneflower, Yellow Prairie
-
V.N.S. (
Rudbeckia fulgida
)


Bee Plant, Rocky Mountain
-
V.N.S (
Cleome serrulata
)


Highway Fill


2003






2004

Ski Slope Site Description


Located at the
Yellowstone Club, Big
Sky, MT


A north facing ski
-
slope with a 35%
gradient


Clay loam


Previous attempts at
grass establishment
and erosion control
failed

Treatments on the Ski Slope



Native Sod


Broadcast Seed with straw
-
coconut
fiber blanket


Broadcast Seed


Three replications

Plot dimensions: 3.2 x 9.1 meters

Broadcast Seed Mix

(Ski Slope)


Pryor
-
Slender wheatgrass
(
Agropyron trachycaulum
)


Mountain brome (
Bromus carinatus
)


White yarrow (
Achillea millefolium
)


Orchard grass (
Dactylis glomerata
)


Hard fescue (
Festuca trachyphylla
)


Canada bluegrass (
Poa compressa
)



Ski Slope






2003





2004

Mine Waste Site Description


Located
approximately 30 km
west of Helena


Abandoned mine spoil
on a 70% slope


pH 3.4, sandy loam


Prior attempts at
grass establishment
and erosion control
failed miserably


Treatments on Mine Waste Site




Three replications

Plot dimensions: 3.2 x 10 meters


Broadcast seed with straw
-
coconut fiber
blanket implemented by the USFS 3
years ago


Broadcast seed with straw
-
coconut fiber
blanket installed in 2003


Native sod


Redtop sod (
Agrostis stolonifera
)

Mine Waste Site



2003






2004

Data Collection


Plant Growth
Characteristics


Rainfall
Simulation/Sediment
and Runoff
Measurements


Model Sediment Loss
Using RUSLE


Cost Analysis

Plant Growth Characteristics



Above Ground
Biomass Production


Percent Basal Cover


Percent Canopy Cover


Percent Ground Cover


Runoff & Sediment Yield at the

Highway Fill Site


A Meeuwig rainfall
simulator was used
to create a peak 10
year, 24 hour
storm event on
each plot


Runoff and
sediment were
channeled to a
collection trough
and measured

Key Inputs of RUSLE


Rainfall/Runoff


Erosivity Index


Soil Erodibility


Slope Length and
Gradient


Cover Management

Eroded Hillslope

Data Analysis


Two way Analysis of Variance using
Sigma Stat


Determined whether there is a significant
difference between means of treatments
and replications at a p
-
value of 0.05


Student
-
Newman
-
Keuls Method

Parameters:

Basal, Canopy & Ground Cover, Production,
Sediment Yield, Runoff, Infiltration

Highway Fill Results 2004

(Perennial Grass)

Treatment

Native Sod

Broadcast Seed/
Straw Blanket

Broadcast Seed/
Hydromulch

Mean Production

(kg/ha)

748 a

286 b

102 b

Mean Canopy
Cover (%)

31.4 a

5.8 b

2.5 b

Ski Slope Results 2004

(Perennial Grass)

Treatments

Native
Sod

Broadcast Seed/
Straw Blanket

Broadcast
Seed

Mean Production
(kg/ha)

1488 a

509 a

662 a

Mean Canopy
Cover (%)

68.2 a

21.8 b

19.8 b

Mine Waste Results 2004

(Perennial Grass)

Treatments


Native
Sod

Redtop

Sod

Straw Blanket

Installed

2003 2001

Mean Production

(kg/ha)

631 a

417 ab

0 b

138 ab

Mean Canopy
Cover (%)

28.8 a

18.8 a

0 b

2.4 b

Sediment & Runoff


Results on the Highway Fill

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
% Runoff
(runoff/precipitation
applied) * 100
Native Sod
Broadcast Seed/Straw
Blanket
Broadcast
Seed/Hydromulch
a
a
b
0
100
200
300
400
Sediment Loss
(kg/ha)
Native Sod
Broadcast
Seed/Straw Blanket
Broadcast
Seed/Hydromulch
a
a
b
RUSLE2 Results

Native Sod

RUSLE2 Results
-
Cont’d

Broadcast Seed/Straw Blanket

RUSLE2 Results
-
Cont’d

Broadcast Seed/Hydromulch

Cost Analysis Results

Treatment

Native
Sod

Broadcast
Seed/Straw
Blanket

Broadcast
Seed/

Hydromulch

Total Costs

$34,216

$17,178

$4,051

*Estimated over a 1 hectare sloped area with a 100 km mobilization distance

Potential Applications


of Native Sod


Sensitive Areas


Steep slopes


Riparian areas


Channels and
drainage ditches


Ski slopes


Highway cuts

Acknowledgements

I thank Bitterroot Turf Farms,

Corvallis, MT. for funding a notable

portion of this research, propagating

the native grass, and providing

installation support during test plot

development. Special thanks is due

to the Montana Department of

Transportation, Helena, MT. , most

notably Mr. Phil Johnson, for providing

funds for this research and technical

support during test plot implementation

and report preparation. I thank the U. S. Forest Service, Helena,

MT. , specifically Duane Harp and Lois Olsen, for providing

support during test plot development. I also thank Mr. Bill

Hartsog who facilitated access to the Yellowstone Club, Big Sky,

MT. and provided support during test plot implementation. I

gratefully acknowledge the efforts of Melissa Mitchem, MSU

graduate student, for the support provided during field data

collection.