A.Background of the Study

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1


CHAPTER 1

Introduction



A.

Background of the Study





Styrofoam is an important part of the modern economy. It's a very versatile product, used
for cups, plates, and even some interior decorating items. Another very popular use is that of
packing material. Packing Styrofoam comes in either loose form, or as "
peanuts." As consumers,
we use this product every day. However one has to understand that the utility of Styrofoam
extends greatly from the common household purposes which we commonly attribute this product
to. Architects often use Styrofoam in concrete fo
rm because it has air pockets that make it
excellent as an insulator. In roofs and slabs, it works as lightweight and durable panels that
prevent the elements from entering the interior. Whether it’s cold or heat, Styrofoam is an
excellent source of insula
ting material. Even as an insulator of noise, this product is unsurpassed.
Builders often use Styrofoam when creating a home theater areas or recording studios.



Over the years, Styrofoam

has managed to find its way into a growing number of
industries as

people become more familiar with its versatility and convenience. Architects,
builders, home remodelers, and even homeowners use it for a wide variety of products and for
many reasons. The shipping industry also makes good use of it to protect fragile ite
ms, or to
prevent packaged items from moving around in the box. Moreover,
Styrofoams

are also gaining
popularity in the recycling industry. A lot of investigations have been successfully done
2


indicating the use of
Styrofoams

as an additive material to org
anic products like oyster shells in
the production of ceramics, as well as in the production of glues and paints.

With th
e known utility of Styrofoam to different areas comes the enthusiasm to probe on
more avenues at which it can still be placed into good

use
.

The researchers of this paper then
thought of using the material as an additive ingredient to the production of concrete tiles and
compare the finished product to the usual concrete tiles made without the addition of Styrofoam
bits. The researchers a
lso want to take into consideration the differing preferences of users when
it comes to the characteristics of products such as density, thermal conductivity, or even texture.
Thus, in this paper, they also intended to compare the characteristics of concre
te walls using
Styrofoam dissolved in gasoline as an additive ingredient.

This paper therefore aims to determine

two things


the feasibility of making concrete
tiles using Styrofoam as an additive ingredient and the extent at which the characteristics of
the
products change if it were to be Styrofoam dissolved in gasoline is used.

Such action extends to
possible improvement of the characteristics of
Styrofoam

which has been proven to be great use
in both households and industries. The possible changes o
n t
he basic characteristics of S
tyrofoam
upon addition of limonene will enable prospective users to come up with a wider array of
applications of the material.


B.

Statement of the Problem

The research shall deal with the determination
of the feasibility of maki
ng concrete tiles
using pure Styrofoam and Styrofoam dissolved in gasoline as additive ingredients. The
characteristics of the produced concrete walls shall also be determined and compared.
Characteristics that shall be determined include the products’ col
or, density, texture, durability,
3


and thermal conductivity. Concrete tiles without the addition of Styrofoam will be used as the
controlled set
-
up while the two set
-
ups with both pure Styrofoam and the ones dissolved in
gasoline shall be the experimental g
roups.

The following questions shall be answered at end of the investigation
:

1.

What

are the characteristics of

controlled group?

2.

What are the characteristics of the experimental groups?

3.

Is there a significant difference on the characteristics of all groups?


C.

Hypothesis of the study

1.

There is no significant difference on the characteristics of all groups in terms of color,
texture, durability, and thermal conductivity.


D.

Objectives of the Study

The researcher aims to achieve the following objectives:

1.

Determine
the characte
ristics of concrete tiles

in terms of its color, texture, durability,
de
nsity, and thermal conductivity without any additive ingredient.

2.

Determine the characte
ristics of concrete tiles

in terms of its color, texture, durability,
density, an
d
thermal conductivity with pure Styrofoam and Styro
fo
am dissolved in
gasoline as additive ingredients.

3.

Compare
the characteristics of all concrete tiles with and without additive ingredients

in
terms of the abovementioned specific characteristics.



4


E.

Signifi
cance of the Study

With the promise that S
tyrofoam holds in the recycling industry comes

the enthusiasm to
further investigate on what other avenues can it be useful. Considering the insulating property of
the said material, the researchers thought that it

would be ground breaking to determine the
feasibility of using the material as an additive ingredient to the production of concrete tiles.
Moreover, the researchers also take into consideration the differing preferences of costumers
when it comes to satis
faction. People would always want the best. But getting the best is relative.
Thus, by determining the extents at which the characteristics of concrete tiles with Styrofoam be
changed when gasoline is introduced we also
open up possibilities on how to best

improve
products to suit the needs of customers
.
By coming up with an informatio
n on the changes that
gasoline can make to the concrete tiles,
prospect users are now given a wider array of
Styrofoam

applications. Such information is seen to benefit a numb
er of stakeholders i.e. manufacturers of
Styrofoam

and the users of it as well. Moreover, this research shall become a baseline to future
related investigations on the improvement on the characteristics of raw materials other than the
subject used in the s
tudy.


F.

Scope and Limitation

In general, the focus of this study is directed towards
two things


determination of the
feasibility of using Styrofoam as an additive ingredient to the production concrete tiles and the
comparison of the characteristics of concrete tiles with pure Styrofoam and Styrofoam dissolved
in gasoline are used as addi
tive ingredients. The method used in the production of concrete tiles
is based on the procedure given by a mason interviewed by the researchers themselves. As to the
amount of Styrofoam added, it shall be proportioned to the amount of sand to be added when

the
5


control group was made. Moreover, determination and c
omparison of characteristics shall extend
to the samples’ color, density, texture, durability, and thermal conductivity. Dissolution shall be
done through the use of gasoline
,

a hydrocarbon proven t
o dissolve polysterene
. Determination

of the mentioned characteristics shall be done in two ways


laboratory activity and survey. The
former will be used to determine the density, durability, and thermal conductivity of the samples.
A 30
-
respondent survey

will be utilized to determine the color and texture of both samples.


G.

Operational Definition of Terms

Color

That aspect of things that is caused by differing qualities of
the light reflected or em
itted by them, definable in terms of the
observer or of the light (
www.freedictionary.com
)

Density

defined in a quantitative manner as the measure of the relative
“heaviness” of the objects with a constan
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6


Chapter II

Review of Related
Literature and Studies


Polystyrene

is an
aromatic

polymer

made from the
monomer

styrene
, a liquid
hydrocarbon

that is manufactured from
petroleum

by the
chemical industry
. Polystyrene is one of
the most widely used
plastics
, the scale being several billion kilograms per year. It is a
thermoplastic substance that is solid state at room temperature, but flows if heated above its
glass
transition temperature

of about 100 °C, and becomes solid again when cooled. Pure solid
polys
tyrene is a colorless, hard plastic with limited flexibility. It can be cast into molds with fine
detail. Polystyrene can be
transparent

or can be made to take on various colors (Natta and
Corradini, 1960).

In chemical terms, polystyrene is a long chain hy
drocarbon wherein alternating carbon
centers are attached to
phenyl groups
, a name given to the aromatic ring
benzene
. Polystyrene's
chemical formula is (C
8
H
8
)
n
; indicating that it contains the
chemical elements

carbon

and
hydrogen
. Polystyrene’s propertie
s are determined by short range
van der Waals

attractions
between polymers chains. Since the molecules are long hydrocarbon chains that consist of
thousands of atoms, the total attractive force between the molecules is large. When heated or,
equivalently,
deformed at a rapid rate, due to a combination of viscoelastic and thermal
insulation properties, the chains are able to take on a higher degree of conformation and slide
past each other. This
intermolecular

weakness versus the high
intramolecular

strength due to the
hydrocarbon backbone confers flexibility and elasticity. The ability of the system to be readily
deformed above its glass transition temperature allows polystyrene
and thermoplastic polymers
in general to be readily softened and molded upon heating (Maul et al., 2007)

7



A more common name given to polystyrene is Styrofoam, which in truth is actually a
brand name. Because of its inherent lightweight characteristic, Sty
rofoam has found many
household and industrial applications. Companies produce Styrofoam building materials,
including insulated sheathing and pipe insulation. Styrofoam insulation has been used in many
notable buildings and facilities in North America. Th
ey also produce Styrofoam as a structural
material for use by
florists

and in craft products. Dow insulation Styrofoam has a distinctive blue
color; Styrofoam for craft applications is available in white and green. Styrofoam can be used
under roads and oth
er structures to prevent soil disturbances due to freezing and thawing (The
Dow Chemical Company, 1995)

Just like other issues directly linked to the by
-
products of petroleum, polystyrene also
raised environmental concerns about its disposal. Discarded pol
ystyrene does not biodegrade for
hundreds of years and is resistant to
photolysis

(
Bandyopadhyay and Basak, 2007)
. Because of
this stability, very little of the waste discarded in today's modern, highly engineered landfills
biodegrades. Because degradation

of materials creates potentially harmful liquid and gaseous by
-
products that could contaminate groundwater and air, today's landfills are designed to minimize
contact with air and water required for degradation, thereby practically eliminating the
degrada
tion of waste (Rathje and Murphy, 1989).

Polystyrene foam is a major component of plastic debris in the ocean, where it becomes
toxic to marine life. Foamed polystyrene blows in the wind and floats on water, and is abundant
in the outdoor environment. Poly
styrene foams are produced using blowing agents that form
bubbles and expand the foam. In expanded polystyrene, these are usually hydrocarbons such as
pentane
, which may pose a flammability hazard in manufacturing or storage of newly
8


manufactured material,

but have relatively mild environmental impact. However, extruded
polystyrene is usually made with
hydrochlorofluorocarbons

(HCFC) blowing agents which have
effects on ozone depletion and on global warming. Their ozone depletion potential is greatly
reduce
d relative to
chlorofluorocarbon

(CFC) which were formerly used, but their
global
warming potential

can be on the order of 1000 or more, meaning it has 1000 times greater effect
on global warming than does carbon dioxide (
IPCC Third Assessment Report on

Cl
imate
Change, 2001
).

To respond to the possible detriments that Styrofoam could cause to the environment,
experts on sustainable development suggest that people recycle the product. As a matter of fact,
Polystyrene is easily
recycled
. Due its light weight,

especially if foamed, it is not economical to
collect in its original form. However if the waste material goes through an initial compaction
process the material changes density from typically 30 g/l to 330 kg/m3 and becomes a recycable
commodity of high
value for producers of recycled plastic pellets. It is generally not accepted in
curbside collection

recycling programs. In Germany polystyrene is collected, as a consequence
of the packaging law that requires manufacturers to take responsibility for recyc
ling or disposing
of any packaging material they sell. In the US and many other countries the interest in recycling
polystyrene has led to collection points being established. The producers of large quantities of
polystyrene waste (50 tons per year or more
) who have invested in the EPS compactors are able
to sell the compacted blocks to plastic recyclers.

Currently, most polystyrene products are not recycled due to the lack of incentive to
invest in the compactors and logistical systems required. Expanded p
olystyrene scrap can be
easily added to products such as EPS insulation sheets and other EPS materials for construction
applications. Commonly, manufacturers cannot obtain sufficient scrap because of the
9


aforementioned collection issues. When it is not use
d to make more EPS, foam scrap can be
turned into clothes hangers, park benches, flower pots, toys, rulers, stapler bodies, seedling
containers, picture frames, and architectural molding.

The research stems on extending the possible ways at which Styrofoa
m can be recycled.
With the properties of Styrofoam being mentioned above, the researchers thought of determining
the feasibility of producing concrete tiles using Styrofoam bits as an additive ingredient.
Moreover, the researchers also thought of comparin
g the characteristics of the produced tiles
when the added Styrofoam is first dissolved in gasoline.

Gasoline
is a toxic, translucent,
petroleum
-
derived liquid that is primarily used as a fuel
in
internal combustion engines
. It consists mostly of
organic
compounds

obtained by the
fractional distillation

of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Some gasolines also
contain
ethanol

as an
alternative fuel
. Under normal ambient conditions its material state is
liquid, unlike
liquefied petroleum gas

o
r "natural gas” (Dabelstein et al, 2007).

Gasoline has been
used as solvent since a
ny groups attached to

the carbon backbone will help
dissolve polystyrene.
Hydroxyl groups are too polar, so glycerin and alcohols don't do

it. Gasoline
attack
s

styrene
foam
because it has modest percentages of benzene, toluene, and xylene.
Other possible solvents
are also available.
Paint
-
store denatured alcoh
ol has 10% acetone

in it as the d
enaturant, so it
will attack Styro
foam a little. Al
l cousins of acetone will attack
polystyrene.
Paraffin wax, drug
-
store minera
l oil, and candle oil
won't quite

dissolve Styrofoam except when heated (NEWTON
AND ASK A SCIENTIST, 2007).

There have been a lot of related articles showing the extents at which Styrofoam can be
recycled.
Styrof
oam is commonly pressed into solid insulation boards or made into loose
-
fill
insulation. However, there has been suggested backseats to this

since standard polystyrene in
10


small bits is highly flammable. Polystyrene can emit hazardous gases when exposed to
heat.
When it is used for building materials, municipal building codes typically require a fire barrier
(Vulcan, 2010)
. Also, a blog indicated the feasibility of using Styrofoam as a raw material in the
production of a sealant. The researcher used

gasoline

to melt t
he Styrofoam to produce a sticky
solution which was then used a sealant to holes in household roofs. The drying time was
determined and was compared to commercial sealants. Furthermore,
Tsutomu Noguchi of the
Sony Research Center found that the o
il from orange peels would dissolve polystyrene. By using
a product called Limoene, that contains .5% of the orange peel oil Noguchi found that the
polystyrene would break down into a liquid form that created a very strong glue and can be used
to create st
yrene pellets that go back into the

production of more polystyrene (Karr, 2010)

From the reviews done by the researchers, none indicated that an investigation about
comparing characteristics of concrete tiles with dissolved and undissolved Styrofoam has
been
done. Hence, this study.











11


Chapter III

Materials and Methodology


A.

Research Design

The research will be experimental. It will deal on the investigation of the feasibility of
using Styrofoam as additive in concrete production. Furthermore, the
research shall also compare
the characteristics of the concrete when the additive used is dissolved in gasoline. The research
will utilize Complete Randomized Design (CRD) since the all of the variables involved in the
research are homogenized except on ho
w the additives will be prepared


whether or not it is
dissolved in gasoline before it will be added to the cement mixture.

B.

Materials and Equipment

Materials

Equipment

Gasoline

Thermometer

Appliance Styrofoam

Boiling flask

Water

Heating mantle

Sand

Wire or rubber band


Triple beam balance


Rules, cutter, scissors









12


C.

Product Development

The conduct of the research will take four phases. These phases include the
-

a)
preparation of samples to be investigated, b) determination of density,
durability, and thermal
conductivity of the samples through calculations, c) determination of the color and texture
through a survey, and lastly d) comparison of the gathered characteristics using inferential
statistics. The detailed description of each p
hase is provided below.

C.1.
Preparation of Samples


The researcher shall prepare six cups of grated Styrofoam (steel brush can be used in
grating the Styrofoam). These Styrofoam bits will serve as aggregates that will be added to the
cement
-
sand mixture
in concrete production. In the production of concrete bricks, the researchers
only followed the 1:3 volume proportion provided by a mason they interviewed. The specific
composition of each of the set
-
ups as well as its replicates is provided in the next se
ction of this
paper. The finished products will be placed in wooden mold and will be allowed to dry up.

Experimental Set
-
up

In the determination and comparison of the characteristics of concrete products, three set
-
ups shall be prepared. The first set
-
up s
hall be the control. The two remaining set
-
ups shall be the
experimental set
-
up. Styrofoam bits shall be added to the experimental set
-
up. The experimental
set
-
ups are kept homogenous except to the type of aggregates added


one had pure Styrofoam
bits whi
le the other had Styrofoam dissolved in gasoline. Thus, nine set
-
ups shall be used and
measured in this investigation. The specifications of the set
-
ups are shown in the table below:


Variables

Set
-
up A

Set
-
up B

Set
-
up C

Styrofoam

none

1 cup

1 cup

13


Cement

1 cup

1 cup

2 cups

Sand

3 cups

2 cups

1 cup

Gasoline

none

none

½ cup

Water

1 cup

1 cup

1 cup


D.

Data Gathering


Density.
The density of all the samples shall be determined by obtaining the mass of the
sample and dividing it to its volume. The mass shall

be obtained using triple beam balance and
the volume shall be mathematically calculated using the formula:




(


)
(


)
(




)

(eq. 1)

Upon obtaining the mass and the volume, the researcher will use the density formula to get the
density for both the dissolved and undissolved samples. The said formula is given below:







(eq. 2)


Durability
.
The durability of the samples will be determined base on the amount of
weight the samples could carry before
it breaks. The samples will be elevated using planks on
both sides. Increasing weights shall be placed in the middle part of the sample where no support
is placed. The researchers will record their observations during a particular weight is being
placed in

a table provided below.

Weight

Observation

10 N


20 N


30 N


40 N


14




Thermal Conductivity.

In physics,
thermal conductivity
,
k
, is the property of a
material's ability to conduct heat. It appears primarily in Fourier's Law for heat conduction. Heat
transfer across materials of high thermal conductivity occurs at a faster rate than across materials
of low thermal conductivity. Correspondingly materials of high thermal conductivity are widely
used in heat sink applications and materials of low thermal
conductivity are used as thermal
insulation.


A direct measurement may be made by taping a thermomet
er to the samples and then
submerg
ing the item partially in hot water. The recommended tape to use is electrical or masking
or something similar. Every few seconds, record the temperature and the time. Make a graph of
temperature versus time for every item, and use the results to make a vi
sual comparison on how
quickly each one became
hot (
www.ehow.com
). The researcher will record the change in the
sample’s temperature per time interval.


Now, using the data gathered from the experiment, the researchers will now use the
formula for heat co
nduction to derive the value of the samples thermal conductivity, k. The
formula is given below.






(







)


(eq. 3)

Color and Texture
.
The color and texture of the samples shall be determined using
survey method. The researchers wil
l gather 30 respondents; all are IDS students, through
convenience sampling. The researchers will present the dissolved and undissolved samples
before them. The respondents will then rate the samples base on its color and texture using a
scale. The results

shall then be the basis of the representative color and texture of the samples.

E.

Statistical Tools to be Used

15


Comparison of characteristics shall be done using tools used in inferential statistics. Both
parametric and nonparametric tests are to be used in
the comparison of the characteristics of the
samples. Parametric comparison of values shall be done for the density, durability, and thermal
conductivity of the samples. Non
-
parametric test shall be used, on the other hand, in comparing
the color and textu
re of both dissolved and undissolved samples. The two inferential tools that
will be used in this research are the T test for the comparison of density, durability and thermal
conductivity, and Mann Whitney U Test for the comparison of color and texture of

the samples.


T


test
.
The t
-
test (or
student's t
-
test
) gives an indication of the separateness of two sets
of measurements, and is thus used to check whether two sets of measures are essentially different
(and usually that an experimental effect has
been demonstrated).

In the context of the research,
this text shall determine if there exist significant differences on the density, durability, and
thermal conductivity on Styrofoam without limonene and that with limonene.


Mann


Whitney U test.

The test

is a non
-
parametric statistical hypothesis test for
assessing whether two independent samples of observations have equally large values. It is one
of the most well
-
known non
-
parametric significance tests.

In the context of the research, this test
shall de
termine if both samples will exhibit significant differences in terms of color and texture
as evaluated by the respondents.


All of the calculations that will be done in the research shall be carried through a software
called MegaStat Excel, an add
-
on soft
ware to Microsoft Excel that processes statistical
calculations.




16