, Green Communities
Confidential Project Proposal
A Project of the San Francisco Foundation Community Initiative Funds
Palo Alto, CA
r for Urban Transportation Research,
College of Engineering
University of South Florida
ESRC Research group on Lifestyles, Values and Environment
University of Surrey, Guildford
Cities21 / CUTR
. Key Personnel
Drawing only a small annual budget, Cities21 produces more innovation than many large for
consulting firms. Cities21's points of differentiation: a) outside
box problem solving methodology
international brainstorming network, b) broad, cross
disciplinary approach encompassing
marketing, management, software, and planning disciplines, c) social entrepreneurs' energy level, passion,
"I am especially impressed with the compreh
ensive approach to implementing an innovative
transportation system that has been devised by Cities21 people and think it represents a model
that should be emulated by others around the country who wish to participate in our needed
n. More and more cars, however green, are not the answer we need to
ward off a growing dependency on foreign oil and to help limit, perhaps reverse somewhat, the
degradation that has been imposed on our cities by the automobile. We can do much better but
e have to form large coalitions of like
minded people in order to overcome the tremendous
vested interests that wish only to maintain the status quo. Cities21 has shown us how this can be
done. One can hope it will be emulated across the land."
neider, Professor Emeritus,
University of Washington.
The "power of ideas" allows Cities21 to lead high
profile projects wit
h influential teaming partners:
Principal Investigator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's "Transforming Office Parks into
sit Villages Study," teamed with U.S. EPA, Oracle, MTC (Bay Area Metropolitan Transit
Commission), Bay Area Council, Cambridge Systematics (a large transportation consulting firm),
City of Pleasanton, California Center for Land Recycling, Alameda County Co
Management Agency, and
East Bay Community Foundation.
Project Lead, "Walk to Work Housing and Upward Mobility Project," teamed with U.S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Urban Land Institute, Fannie Mae
Foundation, California Sta
te Department of Housing & Community Development, California
State Senate Transportation and Housing Committee, Silicon Valley Leadership Group, National
Association of Realtors, AIA Housing Policy Committee, National Housing Law Project, Sierra
portation & Land Use Commi
ttee, and Reconnecting America.
Project Manager, BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit District) Group Rapid Transit Investigative
Study, teamed with BART, Port of Oakland, City of Alameda, Kimley
consulting, and PGH Wo
ng transportation consulting.
"Our current transportation policy path in the U. S. is clearly unsustainable. Traffic, its
environmental impacts and its impact on quality of life continue to get worse virtually everywhere in
the country. Innovative new ide
as and new approaches are badly needed. We need a portfolio of
innovative approaches spread across the United States, with each one pushing the envelope towards
a more sustainable future transportation system. Cities21 and its Suburban Silver Bullet should
this portfolio. It is innovative; it is forward
looking; it addresses many key transportation challenges;
and the potential benefits
if widely disseminated
Stephen Offutt, U.S. Environmental
Cities21 delivers hi
gh quality results in the following areas
Policy development and economic analysis for transportation, land use, housing, a
Cities21 / CUTR
Market research and customer
centered new product de
aphic Information Systems (GIS)
mation & transit simulation, with specialty in real
ime, interactive virtual worlds
Travel Demand Forecasting
“New mobility” system design
it system design and alignments
Transportation Demand Management (T
DM) / automobile trip reduction
elligent Transportation Systems Design, with specialty in train control systems, smart parking,
cking, RFID, fare box interface
Social networking design
Physical model design with specialty in lightweight, portable, full size replicas
is founder of Cities21.org, research
advanced smart growth for suburban edge cities
Palo Alto, Emeryville, Pleasanton,
Redmond. He holds three masters: business, software,
and transportation from Columbia, RPI, and Berkeley. He is th
e Principal Investigator on the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency’s
Transforming Office Parks into Transit Villages
Pleasanton’s Hacienda Business Park. He has
led product and project efforts
at Microsoft, Citigroup, and
Silicon Valley start
ups. He was project manager for BART's Group Rapid Transit study. He designed a
version of Cybertran's Group Rapid Transit train control system.
His "wireless carpool assistant,"
TrakRide, is patent pending.
He served as Training Coordinator for Habit
at for Humanity
for East Palo
He first described
LMC in his 2002 transportation masters thesis.
researching a workforce housing
Silicon Valley Leadership Group
in Coyote Valley.
The plan will reduce carbon dioxide pr
oduction by 100 million pounds per year for the new
e plan i
ncludes an affirmative jobs/housing program f
income Latino families.
RESOLVE is a novel, cross
disciplinary research collaboration between four sepa
rate groups in the
University of Surrey: the Centre for Environmental Strategy, the Environmental Psychology Research
Group, the Surrey Energy Economics Centre and the Department of Sociology.
The overall aim of RESOLVE is to develop a robust understan
ding of the links between lifestyle, societal
values and environment. In particular, RESOLVE will work to provide robust, evidence
based advice to
makers in the UK and elsewhere who are seeking to understand and to influence the behaviors and
ices of 'energy consumers'.
is Professor of Sustainable Development at the University of Surrey and Director of
RESOLVE is f
unded under the TSEC (Towards a Sustainable Energy Economy) program
Tim sits on the UK Sustainable Developme
nt Commission and chairs their Economics Steering Group. In
addition to his academic work he is a professional playwright with numerous radio
writing credits for the
Tim read Mathematics at Cambridge, and has postgraduate degrees in Philosophy and
in Physics. He
joined the University of Surrey in January 1995, after five years working as a senior researcher on energy
and environmental issues at the Stockholm Environment Institute. In April 2000, he was appointed
Professor of Sustainable Development
at Surrey, the first such chair to be created in the UK. Between
January 2003 and April 2005, Tim was awarded a professorial research fellowship on the social
psychology of sustainable consumption, supported by the ESRC's Sustainable Technologies Program.
Cities21 / CUTR
Tim's recent research interests have focused on the relationship between lifestyle, wellbeing and the
environment. He has a particular interest in the energy and carbon impacts of lifestyle and has explored
both quantitative and qualitative dimensions of
this relationship. Tim has also pioneered the development
of 'adjusted' national accounts ('green GDP') and written extensively on the conceptual and empirical
dimensions of the relationship between wellbeing and sustainability.
In March 2004, Tim was
appointed to the UK Sustainable Development Commission as chair of the
Economics Steering Group. In November 2004, he was appointed as the sole academic representative on
the UK Sustainable Consumption Round Table. He also sits on the Whitehall Wellbeing
Defra's Sustainable Consumption and Production Evidence Base Advisory Group and Defra's Behaviour
Change Forum. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Arts, an Associate of the New Economics
Foundation and sits on the advisory board of
the Sustainable Development Research Network.
(2006) Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Consumption, London: Earthscan.
(2005) Motivating Sustainable Consumption: a review of the evidence on consumer behaviour and
ange. A report to the Sustainable Development Research Network. London: Policy
(2004) Consuming Paradise? Unsustainable Consumption in Cultural and Social
in Hubacek, K, A Inaba and S Stagl (eds) Driving For
ces of and Barriers to Sustainable Consumption,
Proceedings of an International Conference, University of Leeds, 5 th
6 th March 2004.
Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
Established in the U
niversity of South Florida
College of Engineerin
g in 1988 by the Florida Legislature
and the Florida Board of Regents, CUTR has become recognized nationally and serves as an important
resource for policymakers, transportation professionals, the education system, and the public. With
emphasis on developi
ng innovative, implementable solutions to transportation problems, CUTR provides
high quality, objective transportation expertise in the form of technical support, policy analysis, and
research support that translates directly into benefits for its project
A significant factor in CUTR’s success and a unique aspect of the Center is the responsiveness resulting
from its faculty of full
time employees dedicated to conducting research. The multidisciplinary research
staff includes experts in economic
s, planning, engineering, public policy, and geography who develop
comprehensive solutions for all modes of transportation while combining academic and
CUTR conducts nearly $8 million in research annually for a variety of public a
nd private sector sponsors
in Florida and the United States, including federal, state and local governments, agencies, and
organizations. Areas of research include public transportation, transportation planning, mobility policy,
systems (ITS), transportation demand management (TDM), transportation
economics and finance, corridor planning, and ethnography and transportation systems, among others.
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Program
Philip L. Winters, Program Director
Cities21 / CUTR
CUTR’s multidisciplinary TDM team is unique in its integration of technical skills and TDM knowledge,
blending transportation and land use planning education, analytical skills, and training. The team applies
its knowledge to address local or regional TDM
needs, including operations, policies, and procedures.
Specialties include TDM strategic planning, carpool/vanpool program design, high occupancy vehicle
facilities, teleworking, TDM program evaluation, transportation management associations/organizations
bicycle and pedestrian issues, and TDM training.
Automating the Collection and Processing of Household Travel Patterns to Deliver Personalized
Feedback to Change Travel Behavior
The foundation of this current research effort was a 19
99 study conducted by CUTR for the Florida
Department of Transportation (FDOT),
Reducing Vehicle Trips and Vehicle Miles of Travel through
Customized Travel Options.
The study collected household travel data using paper activity diary and
patterned the b
ehavior of each household. The study analyzed these patterns and provided personalized
advice to participants to influence household travel habits and thus reduce vehicle trips and vehicle miles
of travel. An analysis of covariance conducted on the avera
ge contributed vehicle miles of travel and
vehicle trips used the post
advice period’s travel patterns as the dependent variable. The provision of
suggestions had a statistically significant effect on vehicle miles and trips contributed. Overall, this
periment showed that the provision of travel information would reduce vehicle miles of travel.
However, the labor and time
processing costs hampered widespread application.
The expanded capabilities and falling prices of Personal Digital
Assistants (PDA) and cellular phones
when coupled with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) offer an opportunity to improve the quality of
collected data while reducing associated collection and processing costs and errors. CUTR’s current
research is based on
the development and testing of a system, TRAC
IT, which provides tailored travel
feedback based on actual household patterns to affect change in travel behavior for commuting and non
commuting purposes. Based on the hypothesis that such technology applic
ations will improve the
accuracy and costs of data collected, TRAC
IT was developed as an electronic travel diary with
capabilities to automatically return suggestions that can modify travel behavior.
The research also focuses on a personalized feedback
system that provides suggestions encouraging
participants to utilize other modes than the drive
alone option. These suggestions were sent to
participants after the trip data has been transferred from the TRAC
IT unit into a database developed to
travel behavior and generate appropriate feedback to participants. Tasks involved in the creation
of the TRAC
IT system included developing user
interface software, designing databases to hold the
collected data, creating algorithms to process and analyze
the data in order to provide advice.
Participating CUTR Faculty
is a Research Associate at the Center for Urban Transportation Research at the
University of South Florida and a Ph.D. candidate in applied anthropology.
of the Transportation
Demand Management (TDM) Team at CUTR, he has worked on a variety of research topics, from
work vanpool systems to county
range TDM projects. His primary research
interests are transportation demand management p
lanning and evaluation, alternative transportation, and
bicycle and pedestrian issues. He also has work extensively with the EPA’s COMMUTER Model to
measure the impacts of TDM programs and strategies.
Cities21 / CUTR
Nevine Labib Georggi
is a Research Associate at the C
enter for Urban Transportation Research at the
University of South Florida.
She received her M.S. in Civil Engineering from the University of South
Florida in 2000.
Employed at CUTR since 1993 conducting research in a variety of areas, she is currently
eveloping a methodology for measuring the impacts of employer
based transportation demand
management (TDM) programs on transit system ridership and transportation system performance, in
particular from the management and operations perspective.
She is inv
olved in researching the impacts of
employing new technologies in advanced public transportation systems, advanced traveler information
systems, and transportation safety and security.
is a Research Associate at the Center for Urban Transpo
rtation Research and Ph.D.
student in the Department of Computer Science & Engineering at the University of South Florida.
graduated summa cum laude with a B.S. in Computer Science from USF in 2003. His research interests
are in the area of artificial
intelligence with a focus in mobile intelligent software systems and
applications utilizing Global Positioning Systems (GPS) for Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and cell
is the Director of the New North Transportation Alliance and
a Senior Research Associate for
the Center for Urban Transportation Research in Tampa. Her background includes nine years of creating
and establishing alternative transportation programs for private and public sectors while working as a
re Manager for the Utah Transit Authority. During this post, she was appointed to
serve on the Salt Lake Mayor’s Transportation Advisory Committee and was a board member of the Rio
Grande Community Council. Her leadership includes serving as President of
the Rocky Mountain
Association for Commuter Transportation and the Utah International Telework Association and as a
Regional Director for the Association for Commuter Transportation. She received a B.S. in Business
Administration from Southern Utah Unive
delves into some of the theory behind communities and what makes them work well.
covers ten supporting theories that contribute to
success. A summary
Cities21 / CUTR
Community theory appendix
LMC success characteristic
B1. Tipping Point
Forces 100% participation, a cultural/behavioral tipping point
B2. eBay Philosophy
supporting, add meaning to lives, unleash goodness
ommunity Bldg on the Web
Dual communities (on & off line) are uniquely powerful
B4. Textual Poachers
Unexpected creativity flows from single purpose communities
B5. Communities of Practice (COP)
Focused on a domain of knowledge. Builds up expertis
B6. Different Drum
Inclusivity, commitment, safety, experimentation, etc.
B7. Social Marketing Persuasion
Uniquely strong combination of reciprocation, commitment,
consistency, social proof, liking, authoritative source, scarcity, and
Friendly competition between LMCs will be fostered
B8. Augmented Social Network
Motivator: pride in contributing to an important idea
The expanding networks of LMCs will exhibit high trust
Smart Mobs / Reeds's law: Unbounded creativity & prob
B9. Social entrepreneurship
Act local, think global: viral spread with mutation
B10. Tragedy of Commons
LMC cultural sub
world overcomes the tragedy
B1, B3, B5, B7 combined
LMC dual community is COP with tipping point and uses social
Compared to past efforts to apply community theory in an attempt to have a large, practical impact on
human behavior to address major world problems, LMCs have important advantages. LMCs represent a
unique combination of dual communi
ty, community of practice, Tipping Point, and social marketing
The Tipping Point
The Tipping Point
, Malcolm Gladwell describes how, all of a sudden, sufficient momentum
behind an idea to make it very popular
goes one step further, by “forcing” a tipping point to occur,
by having all incoming residents in new housing development embrace green principles. Gladwell’s
basic theory works well for Cabbage Patch Dolls and toothpaste, but to change auto
culture in a restrictive public policy context, the tipping point needs a push. LMCs will create positive,
reinforcing peer pressure because all residents know that all other residents have made the same
commitment to reduce solo driving. With such a
shared purpose and with more available spare time
because of reduced commute time, LMCs will be very different from typical suburban residential
communities, and should experience very high demand as other like
minded people seek to join this
B2) eBay philosophy
adding meaning to people’s lives
You're talking about changing travel behavior in
centric culture. This is very, very hard
to achieve. The one thing that does work to change behavior is to create a great community. At
Bay, we added meaning to people's lives. Some individuals previously had few friends, but, due
to their partic
line communities, they developed many friends. The Low Mile
Cities21 / CUTR
Community has to become
It should be very active. People working together should
create a community that is rewarding to participate in. At
Bay we rely on the goodn
people, and their latent desire to help others. Within the housing development, there should be
community activities (potlucks twice per year, etc.) that people can voluntarily attend. The
electronic chat board should become a repository of solution
s. People will develop expertise and
contribute their knowledge and experiences for the common good. At
Bay, our communities
running. That's important. It's important to start the community with strong
leadership, but the training wheels event
ually need to come off. At
Bay, it's very inexpensive to
host thriving communities. Obviously, to make this work, there must be significant benefits
granted to real
estate developers to ensure their going along with this community concept.
Product Manager and wife of Cities21’s Steve Raney.
"The Perfect Store"
"inside EBay" book
“If someone came on and said, ‘Please help me,’ there were 25 people who would rush to help.
… A core group of regulars emerged who functioned as a de
page 29. Example of self
running communities unleashing human goodness.
The [AuctionWeb] boards also developed an informal “neighborhood watch.” If someone was
being mistreated .. board regulars often too
o their own hands. “We used to band
together and find the bad guys and make their lives miserable.”
Twenty users dedicated
themselves to righting reputation feedback “wrongs,”
claiming the motto, “Only Do Good.”
The Perfect Stor
, by Adam Cohen
Community Building On the Web
Author Amy Jo Kim lists critical success factors for online communities:
There must be sharing of collective wisdom.
Electronic chat is useless unless a moderator keeps it, edits it, and publishe
s a transcript. IE a
moderator should collect the
into a knowledge base / FAQ.
For specific personal challenges, the community should be able to share lots of information and
wisdom quickly. For instance, a person undergoing a job transition has t
hese needs (as does
someone switching from an single occupancy auto commute to a bicycle commute).
“Dual communities” (combined
online and offline communities
) are uniquely powerful
national online groups grow, many spawn local chapters and allow hum
PlanetWork’s San Francisco, Seattle, and NYC chapters provide an example of dual communities.
Reference: Amy Jo Kim,
Community Building on the Web
. Her consultancy web can be found at
. See also this article:
such as StarTrek fan culture.
When a community f
orms around a single
passion (such as StarTrek), creative and original work occurs
, such as fans writing their own StarTrek
novels. And, there are subtleties, such as StarTrek fans embracing the StarTrek governmental philosophy
as the ideal they hope the w
orld can attain
there are bits of political movements waiting to come
out of such cultures. As far as L
provides examples of a) the unexpected
Cities21 / CUTR
creativity that flows from communities of people organized with a single focus, a
nd b) the power of
Textual Poachers; Television Fans and Participatory Culture (Studies in Culture and
y Henry Jenkins
B5) Community of Practice (COP)
An LMC is a COP.
is a COP. “Unlike other forms of group engagement,
COPs are organized around the achievement of specific objectives. COPs are focused on a domain of
knowledge and over time accumulate expertise in this domain. They develop their shared practice by
teracting around problems, solutions, and insights, and building a common store of knowledge.”
A COP is a group of people who share an interest in a domain and engage in a process of
collective learning that creates bonds between them: a tribe, a garage ba
nd, a group of engineers
working on similar problems.
PlanetWork is an
example of a community with environmental goals that does not have the
domain focus of a COP.
There are a number of thriving on
line COPs featuring like
by vocational discipline. Characteristics are as follows:
3+ message posts per day
no commercial messages
competitive and supportive tone
willingness to bring newbies along and treat poorly conceived messages grace
willingness to brainstorm solutions and provide links to helpful research
moderation by a senior member who culls posts into a permanent knowledge base
monitored by a small
group of informal leaders who take ownership of the community
line forums are characterized by “g
tdm list serv is an exemplary COP.
There are 870 members from the traffic reduction
field, with primarily, but not exclusively, U.S. membership.
Many of these professionals are
working for a city or a corporation, and spending a portion of their time working on
commute trip reduction. There are also important contributions from consultants
, solution vendors,
While it might seem that there
would be ample opportunity for disparaging remarks
about competitors from vendors and consultants, this does not occur, nor are blatantly promotional posts
find that their basic questions generate multiple, helpful
responses. Seasoned members
answer some questions with research reference lists, often having undertaken the research themselves.
Practical questions about how to implement and market programs are frequently asked, and these generate
helpful responses. Often, when one questioner sub
mits a question, others chime in that they would like to
see the answer as well. Thus transp
tdm serves as a national think tank and supportive place for people
working in the space.
requests for proposals) and job announcements
are also posted, as t
is a uniquely productive networking forum
is virtual think tank
collect ideas and
feedback on open
ended concepts such as LMC and “what are the best options for folks carting groceries
home without a car?”
des a very productive way to conduct
Cities21 / CUTR
Supporting Communities of Practice: A Survey of Community
, March, 2001.
& select “transp
tdm.” A transp
tdm “grocery cart
message thread” led to
the following knowledge base:
The Different Drum: Community
Making and Peace
This book has a strong reputation among psychology books about community
theory. The author lists
uccessful community characteristics: inclusivity, commitment, feeling of safety in all members, the
ability for members to experiment with new types of behaviors, the ability to fight gracefully, a place
where all members are lea
LMC relies heavily on these characteristics. The Low Mile
very important in establishing commitment by all LMC members. “
The process of community
begins with a commitment
a commitment of the members not to drop out, a comm
itment to hang in
there through thick and thin.
” Community support for experimentation is crucial for LMC to invent new
traffic reducing techniques. The author also provides an excellent definition of community: “
is a group of two or more people
who, regardless of the diversity of their backgrounds, have been able to
accept and transcend their differences, enabling them to communicate openly and effectively, and to work
together towards common goals, while having a sense of unusual safety with on
” Finally, the
author warns against exclusivity, “
The great enemy of community is exclusivity. The boundaries between
students and teachers, young and old, etc., must be soft.
The Different Drum: Community
Making and Peace
ott Peck (Simon & Shuster, 1987).
B7) Social Marketing Psychological Persuasion to Change Behavior
Seethaler lists six principles of psychological persuasion that will be applied to make LMCs successful.
“people feel obligated to resp
ond to positive behavior received (gifts, favors, etc.)
with positive behavior in return.” Thus, LMCs are very different from a typical suburban
neighborhood, because of the high rate of back and forth giving between LMC neighbors.
“once a freely chosen position” (such as the signing of a Low
Pledge) “has been taken by an individual, a tendency to act in line with the commitment
will guide further actions.” “This commitment
consistency mechanism has been reported to
self enforcing, especially when the commitments are written or made in public.” Once such a
position has been taken, such people are likely to embrace even stronger commitments when
“the willingness to comply with” low mile
behavior “is increased when supported
by evidence that similar peers” in the LMC “comply with it as well.”
“People are inclined to follow a request brought forward by someone they like.”
“the credibility of the source is an important
feature of persuasive communication.”
Thus for LMC pilot projects, we will require authoritative local influencers (city council, local
transit agencies, etc.) to provide written statements of support and active participation.
of scarcity reflects the fact that as opportunities become scarce
perceived as more valuable.” For the first few years before LMCs take off, such residential
communities will be quite scarce in the U.S.
Mohr adds some additional po
Cities21 / CUTR
intentioned social marketing campaigns fail. “A massive 1978 national home energy
conservation campaign failed because it did not pay adequate attention to the human side of
promoting more sustainable energy use.” Economic analysis showed t
hat home energy retrofits
paid for themselves, but the campaign “overlooked the rich mixture of cultural practices, social
interactions, and human feelings that influence the behavior of individuals, social groups, and
institutions.” Locally, the Bay Area
Air Quality Management District’s “Spare the Air” peak
reduction campaign is an ongoing failed example.
Ad campaigns that attempt to foster sustainable behavior fail mainly because they underestimate
the difficulty of changing behavior. Advertising
is effective in altering our preference to purchase
one brand over another. But altering consumer preferences is not creating new behavior, rather
it involves altering an existing behavior. These small changes in behavior generally require little
or effort and no dramatic change in lifestyle. In contrast, encouraging individuals to
engage in a new activity, such as walking or biking to work, is much more com
lex. A variety of
to walking or biking to work, such as concerns over time,
safety, weather, and
Behavior change is most effectively achieved through initiatives delivered at the community level,
which focus on removing barriers to an activity while simultaneously enhancing the activity’s
More on commitment
In a wide variety of settings people who have initially agreed
to a small request, such as to wear a button saying they support the purchase of products with
content, have subsequently been found to be far more likely to agree to a
such as actually purchasing these products. When people go along with an initial request, it
often alters the way they perceive themselves.
Seek commitments in groups: If possible, seek commitments from groups of people that are highly
hesive, such as a church group. The close ties of these individuals, coupled with the
importance of being consistent, make it more likely that people will follow through with their
LMCs provide an ongoing social group where being consistent a
will be doubly important.
To date, few programs have emphasize
the development of community
people engaging in sustainable behavior.
” is a pattern or trait taken to be typical in the
of a social group.)
Norms should be made visible. The very act of taking recyclables to
the curbside communicates a community norm about the importance of recycling. Find ways to
publicize involvement in sustainable activities, such as providing ongoing
community feedback on
the amount of water that has been saved.
For the LMC project, CUTR’s TRAC
IT will be used
to provide ongoing performance measurement and feedback.
This feedback will help to set
expectations for green behavior.
Competition is a
great motivator. Friendly competition will be fostered between the five pilot LMCs. We
upsmanship” to push each LMC to measure up well against other LMCs.
Seethaler, R.K. and Rose, G. (2003).
Application of Psychological Prin
ciples to Promote Travel
. 26th Australasian Transport Research Forum, Wellington, NZ, October 1
eethaler, R.K. and Rose, G. (2005).
Using the Six Principles of Persuasion to Promote Travel
Preliminary Findings of Two TravelSmart Field Experiments
. TUTI Report
2005, paper submitted for presentation at the 28th Australasian Tran
sport Research Forum,
Sydney, September 2005
Cities21 / CUTR
Mohr and William Smith (1999).
ble Behavior, an
Introduction to Community
Based Social Marketing.
The Augmented Social Network
“Online community tools should be extended to more effectively advance the values of engaged
citizenship and democracy, facilitating: a) sharing relevant information and media with one another, b)
organizing, c) forming alliances to engage constructively with our neighbors and fellow citizens.
organizing groups are increasingly apprec
iated for their central role in civil society. The next
generation of online community should be a manifestation of flourishing, innovative democracy that
encourages the active participation of its citizenry.”
The Future of Ideas
, Lessig argues that
the great motivator in creating the internet was pride in
contributing to a healthy public commons, not “getting rich.” Following this analogy, a thriving network
of LMC networks, though motivated in the public interest, may also be highly lucrative.
“The early Internet is an inspirational model for how a system with the appropriate initial conditions can
generate trust among its participants, providing fertile ground for collaboration that leads to extraordinary
innovation. Might the next
Internet [or network of LMCs] be a locus of trust on a grand scale
that could reinvigorate society?”
A network of trusted LMCs will enable personal introductions across LMCs. Every LMC network
member will share a common objective and will have made a sim
ilar personal commitment. That allows
a unique level of trust between strangers.
The Strength of Weak Ties
shows how trust is conveyed through third parties,
enabling individuals to gain access to needed information or resources that
support the achievement of
specific goals. LMCs will deliberately facilitate this process.
Reed’s Law claims the value of social networks grows exponentially through interconnectivity
onnectivity and various network properties create new and previou
sly unknown types of value. In
, Rheihgold speaks of the chance to do new things together, cooperating on scales and in
ways never before possible.
Norman Johnson studied “collective problem solving,” a la LMC. Johnson examined “how networked
communications improve collaboration among groups engaged in a task. They found that the greater the
range of appropriate knowledge available to the problem solvers, the more effective their work became.
They demonstrated the importance of having a dive
rse range of information sources available when
addressing complex tasks.”
The Augmented Social Network: Building Identity and Trust into the Next
A Link Tank Report
by Ken Jordan, Jan Hauser, and Steven Foster
How to Change the World
Social Entrepreneur Theory
The Skoll Foundation funded a book explaining their social entrepreneurship ph
ilosophy. They explain
how an “act local, think global” approach, with a small initial budget and a requirement that the model
Cities21 / CUTR
can be easily replicated works well. They cite successful examples of micro
credit, India street children
program, and AIDS pre
vention. Skoll emphasizes “viral program spread and mutation” as two important
factors for success. This LMC proposal follows that philosophy.
How to Change the World, Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas
10) Tragedy of the Commons
specific issue of automobile dependence
tragedy of the commons
The tragedy of the commons is a metaphor used to illustrate the conflict between individual
interests and the common good. The term was popularized b
y Garrett Hardin in his 1968 Science
article "The Tragedy of the Commons." Where there is no clear ownership of rights to a public
resource (roads, clean air, etc), the users of the resource are likely to overexploit it. The cause
of any tragedy of the
commons is that when individuals use a public resource, they do not bear
the entire cost of their actions. If each seeks to maximize individual utility, she ignores the costs
borne by others.
Hardin uses the example of English Commons, shared plots of gra
ssland used in the past by all
livestock farmers in a village. Each farmer keeps adding more livestock to graze on the
Commons, because it costs her nothing to do so. In a few years, the soil is depleted by
overgrazing, the Commons becomes unusable, and th
e village perishes.
When people switch to greener transportation options, society benefits from less congestion and
pollution; when people stick with solo driving, society suffers more congestion and pollution.
ommons grazing and solo dri
ving are desirable, but difficult. If the sheep farmer stops grazing the
common, the benefit accrues to the other farmers. Likewise, individuals selecting greener transportation
incur a loss of time and flexibility while benefiting solo drivers who exper
ience less crowded freeways.
The tragedy may be restated as “do
gooders provide benefits to do
gooders do not even
receive positive social feedback for their efforts; their sacrifices are often met with derision.
Individuals acting alon
e can’t have much of a
eduction impact, but a community of people can.
will make it
to travel via greener means
arsharing researcher Susan Shaheen
argues that a
is a prerequisite to bring about sign
ificant change in travel behavior.
By creating a small, self
contained suburban community with a localized low
positive social feedback and support from neighbors whose opinions matter,
the commons can be overcome.
LMCs create a sub
world where doing good is valued.
Appendix C. Ben
A) Two million new
The creation of large new residential developments in the U.S. is quite rapid.
According to the Brookings
, 50 percent
of buildings will have been bu
ilt since 2003. In addition, a
Cities21 / CUTR
population increase is expected in most major U.S. metropolitan areas in the next 30 years.
new residential communities that are potential LMCs will form in the near future.
new residential developments
will also join the Low Mile
movement over time.
adjacent residential developments will
agglomerate themselves into
single family home neighborhoods
will eventually join.
For existing developments, a 75% vote in favor will be required for
ater, we expect the model to
spread from residential communities
ore piloting is problematic, but is necessary for order
magnitude calculations to
quantify the potential impact of LMCs. Assuming a conservative ten
year LMC penetration in the “auto
centric” portions of the world (U.S., Canada, and Europe), then “only
” 5,000 LMCs will form. Assuming
an average of 400 drivers per LMC, these 5,000 LMCs will yield two million new
will build deep, loyal relationships with
LMC members both individually and
Regional Visioning and Sustainability
”, by Cities21, November, 2005.
A number of community
based social marketing “trip reduction experiments” have been undertaken.
These programs emphasi
one education to
Motion is a
to encourage residents to drive less and
travel more by bus, carpool, bicycling, and walking.
In one 2,800
efforts were successful in recruiting 280 participants, a ten percent participation rate. These participants
less driving alone, 22
more walking, 46
more carpooling and 76
Because of high marketing budgets to recruit participants, these innovative trip reduction programs are
not yet economically viable. In
Motion’s cost per “vehicle mile reduced” was a whopping $19 per mile.
In addition, observed
green behavior tends to taper off once program funding is over.
The LMC program represents a significant improvement over In
Motion because of:
LMCS have 100 percent participation instead of ten percent.
LMCs achieve a cultural tipping point
designed to be self
sustaining, so that green behavior doesn’t taper off over time.
Successful LMCs are expected to undertake new green endeavors once
stablized, such as: recycling, composting, solar, and green rooftops.
oncentrate trip starting points at a single physical location, thus solo driving alternatives
such as carpooling are much more effective than “dispersed trip starting point” programs such as
Motion’s high costs stem from significant marketi
ng budget to recruit participants. LMCs
obtain members at no cost, because developers fund a substantial marketing program to attract
new residents (who all make Low Mile
LMC anthills generate and freely share new solutions whereas In
concentrates only on
existing solutions and experiences an information bottleneck because of one
provided by a limited set of educators.
Cities21 / CUTR
Thus, we expect
to beat In Motion’s 33% solo driving reduction (per active participant) while ach
100 percent participation.
Reference: “In Motion
Neighborhood Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Pilots. Community
Marketing for Trip Reduction
. Final Report.”
reater Seattle King County Metro Transit age
economic value from
Benefit calculations produced the following four areas of annual value:
Reduced mitigation fees
Cost of living decrease
"Pay for performance"
Details of these calculations follow below, starting from an assumption of two million
: Most large proposed residential real
estate projects meet some resistance
move from early conceptualization to city approval, with traffic impact one of the major
points of discussion. T
, where new development
induced traffic is remedied in some
way, is always a critical part of the negotiation for approval
substantial cost item for new
. Often incurred as “development impact fees,” the fee is typically applied per
new housing unit.
For Palo Alto, the fee is $2,200 for each new housing unit. Thus,
a LMC can substitute for a substantial portion of the impact fees. Assuming a bottom
cost reduction to developers of $500 per housing unit, we have:
1 MM new LMC housing units * $500 savings per unit =
$500 MM mitigation fee savings to real
CO2 reductions trading
market is voluntary in the U.S. and currently has a low
trading price. In Europe, CO2 trading is about to become mandatory, and the market price is
. Assuming European pricing
spreads to the U.S. in five years, then we can calculate:
Each driver averages 12,000 miles per year
LMCs produce a 33% mileage reduction, or 4,000 miles per year
Each vehicle mile generates one pound of CO2
4,000 miles per yea
r is equivalent to 2.0 tons CO2 reduced
Thus we have:
2,000,000 drivers * 2.0 tons CO2 reduced per driver per year * $30 per ton =
$120 MM per year value in reduced CO2.
Cost of Living Decrease
: At the new 2006 auto mileage expense rate of $0.445 per mi
le, the annual value
of the mileage savings in reduced cost of living to LMC residents is:
2,000,000 drivers * 4,000 miles per year saved per driver per year * $0.445 per mile =
$3.56 BB per year.
Cities21 / CUTR
Pay for performance programs
More rational cost/benefit a
is beginning to
planning. In the past, efforts were
only made to solve traffic congestion
new capacity (such as
Silicon Valley’s “
BART to San Jose
or the Highway 85/101 flyover
of these capacity increases cost more than a
BMW for each new
Now, states such as Washington
are experimenting with
pay for performance,
proposals for either capacity expansion OR demand reduction
. From the
take the lowest bidder, paying a dollar value for each passenger mile
. Thus, once the demand
reduction benefits of L
LMCs could qualify as a “pay for performance” program where a
state such as
on may pay
a set fee
for each passenger mile of demand reduction. L
a tiny fraction of the cost of
Assuming $.05 for each passenger mile of
demand reduction, the “pay for performance” model yields:
vers * 4,000 miles per year saved per driver per year * $0.05 per mile serviced =
$400 MM per year.
Additionally, the LMC online platform could generate significant advertising revenue. Trust
vendors could be granted favored access to LMC member
D) Inspires more creative solutions
An anthill community pools the problem solving talents of many individuals, creating a task
virtual think tank capable of delivering original solutions. For
, our anthill benefits from the
. Often a task solution will require contributions from multiple
knowledge domains, something much more natural for a super
capable anthill, rather than an individual,
In contrast, public sector transportati
oriented problem solving relies on only a few
time. For specific task
such as obtaining groceries, the anthill has no limit on the range of possible
Within the public sector, there is
of roles arranged
, rather than
by customer. Thus,
public sector problem solving
lacks customer orientation
"Unlike private sector companies, transit agencies avoid modern market research techniques.
Transit agencies commonly conduct only on
surveys and use the results to refine
services. Yet the vast pool of potential riders are those not riding, and it is their needs that are
not being served by the current transit service."
Cambridge Systematics, transportation
consultants, from thei
r Metropolitan San Diego Transportation Plan.
It is expected that communities will develop their own
traffic reduction expertise. The fact
that many trips share the same trip origination creates a distinct advantage.
carpooling to the grocery store
carpooling to school to drop multiple kids
arise. Group scheduling of common activities
will have sufficient
scale to negotiate specialized services with o
utside vendors. For instance, a community might choose to
arrange for weekly
by a bicycle repair shop. It may even become a badge of prestige for
outside vendors to be associated with a
E) Unleashes human goodness
Two transportation l
eaders believe there is an untapped resource,
to help solve
transportation problems. Ken Schmier is an Emeryville
based innovator in GPS bus
who describes latent
that is waiting to be tapped for si
mple solutions such as
Cities21 / CUTR
Susan Shaheen describes a
for reducing pollution and traffic cong
with Silicon Valley and Seattle tech workers furth
consistently, tech workers are willing to spend a few minutes a day to help other commuters
spend hours writing interesting software that does good
In addition, the eBay
community model is a great
example where good people voluntarily help others.
A key part of unleashing human goodness is to make it easy. LMC groupware and physical proximity
will make it easy for the entire residential community to spend just a few minutes per day to make a
fference. No tech worker is offering to drive their neighbor around on errands for 45 minutes, but
minutes? That’s no problem. LMCs will be a very efficient way to share task
oriented expertise, and
once a few residents develop expertise within a pa
rticular knowledge sub
domain (such as safe biking
routes in Silicon Valley) their pride as self
taught experts leads them to very generously share their
knowledge (while subtly conveying their superior knowledge and environmental commitment). In
, LMC members can expect to get back more than they put in, because their contributions and the
contributions of others feed right back into the community. The giving benefit is local.
I don't mind stopping for a moment to give a ride to a M
ployee (or Honeywell, or
whoever will be there) along the way, as long as I have some indication of who they are (i.e. MS
employee badge initially, or just personal knowledge later). Sharing the ride with other MS
employees will be great: we can exchange i
deas about the products we are working on, as well as
find other mutual interests, or just to have a casual conversation. I don't expect to get paid for it
in any way, and would expect to see other Microsofties doing the same.
If we value LMC member time at $10 per hour, and if we assume each member provides six minutes of
good deeds per day, then we have:
2 million members * 1/10 hour per day * $10 per hour * 365 days per year =
$730 MM in human goodness enabled p
) Creates a unique new housing choice
A Low Mile
Community provides a new housing option, a new type of residential community where all
have a shared,
vision. This housing choice allows residents to cho
se to join a new type of l
thus it's a housing choice combined with a cultural choice. The nation's top housing policy
analysts lament the lack of innovative housing choices, pointing the blame at what they characterize as
industry is now led by a few lumbering giants that provide housing 'value' measured
by size and novelty. Genuine housing innovations have been mostly limited to the areas of
production efficiency and risk management, rather than any meaningful improvement
product offered to the consumer.
Housing Policy Debate
Homes are treated as generic commodities like pork bellies, which are all essentially the same,
rather than as consumer products like cars or clothing, w
hich vary greatly according to people's
preferences. This tired approach tends to determine how many homes people want, but not what
kind of homes or what type of residential neighborhoods people would select if given a choice.
Smart Growth America.
Cities21 / CUTR
people want to live in
Yes, surely, if only there was
such a choice!
Many people look back fondly on their college days, remembering the unique
enthusiastic, energetic, and intellectually curious
e they participated in.
LMCs will also provide a
unique, friendly, supportive, enthusiastic, and desirable culture.
In the book
, the author laments the recent reduction in suburban
U.S. and argues that this reducti
on is harmful. He paints a picture of suburbanites who enter their single
occupancy vehicle inside their garage in the morning, and return home to their garage cocoon, never
setting foot in their front yard and never making eye
contact with neighbors. LM
C brings back social
cohesion within neighborhoods.
, by Robert Putnam,
) Changes citizen apathy to
The world faces a growing number
of serious problems that are growing worse and seem to be unsolvable
via standard public sector
Individual citizens feel frustrated and impotent at their inability
to help the situation.
Cities21 tech worker interviews exposed untapped en
thusiasm for grassroots solutions, where individuals
are empowered to contribute to clever solutions where the public sector has failed. A smile always breaks
out on the face of interview respondents who imagine this scenario. There is a special satisfac
to solving frustratingly hard problems and providing proof of untapped human capability. Once proof of
clever grassroots solutions is shown, positive word
mouth will accelerate LMC viral spread.
Appendix D. Detailed Pilot Project Task
potential core team members.
on behalf of
estate developers to assist in the marketing of
these unique LMC commun
Dissect some of the methods used by developers for
Ladera Ranch, Brambleton, Dominion Valley, and Takoma Park.
literature review (
additional items to be read.)
Ascertain characteristics of successful cohousing communities.
supporting web pages to explain LM
Develop pilot LMC marketing concepts for progressive real
estate developers to attract
Create a “Low Mile
Pledge” Template as a starting point for each unique LMC pilot
for the pilot LMCs
how to be a
Our communication strategy will emphasize principles of positive persuasion.
Create PR material
Cities21 / CUTR
Secure article placements in national periodicals
and web sites
. Target relevant
professional magazines such as ACT’s TDM Review and the Home Builder’s Industry
Association. Goal is to draw significant web traffic and interest.
Develop a pre
read supporting web pages to explain the LMC concept to the general
public. “It’s myspace + meetup for traffic reduction.”
MC housing project
construction move to completion
While residential developers are under construction, some developers allow buyers to place
deposits on housing units. At this point, the buyers will also sign Low Mile
with a thorough PR campaign.
Measure “before” (and control group) trip making behavior with GPS tracking. CUTRs
algorithmically detect whe
ther a phone wearer is walking, biking, taking transit, or
This information is stored in a “trip log.” LMC members may modify the trip log.
envision Nextel/Sprint GPS phones as the preferred tracking device.
in residents on trip logging and provide customer support.
Promote individual LMC member GPS phone procurement as a means to obtaining more
data. We expect that some knowledge workers will be enthusiastic about long
consistent personal mileage tra
cking. Some folks just want to watch their own trend.
) Manage LMC
Measure “after” trip making behavior with TRAC
IT GPS trip logging. Provide this “hard data”
to LMC members to spur further mileage reduction.
(Feedback is persuasiv
Monitor and participate in the LMCs
Schedule educational interactive web trainings. Provide content on tips for community
success. Create training webcasts for on
aintain chat related to these
Ensure that local LMC
promote community interaction. Facilitate
ideas for bringing about low mile
also share their own
techniques and successes from past ex
perience. Use personal contact to model low mile
Facilitate potlucks, but be wary of the green bean casserole.
Create knowledge base of new trip reduction inventions
disseminate these techniques
and adjust them to fit local co
nditions. Compile best practices
Visit pilot communities and conduct interviews, IE collect feedback to then use to
improve both the
platform and the LMC implementation.
After LMCs are “up and running” for 3 months, facilitate th
eir creation of “green plans,” where
the communities map out their own goals/strategy for further reducing mileage. (We will
promote competition between the five pilots while also sharing the plans back and forth.)
Publicize the pilot project at differen
Provide regular project status reports
) Wrap up
measure “after” trip making behavior to observe an
tapering off of mileage reduction.
Author academic research on the pilot project
Cities21 / CUTR
Assist the pilot LMCs in becoming self
Develop plan to facilitate the exponential growth of
both nationally and
Appendix E. TRAC
IT Electronic Trip Diary
IT is CUTR’s patent
pending “smart, electronic trip diary.” TRAC
IT automates the c
allow for quantifiable analysis of new techniques to change
Automates much of the data collection process
Collects route inform
Increases quality and quantity of collected information
Results can easily be plotted on map
IT control flow from startup to data upload
Cities21 / CUTR
, speed, and route. User enters trip purpose and vehicle
IT algorithmically guesses the user’s travel mode (car, bus, bike, or walk) and user
may update the guess.
Appendix F. Low Mile
This is a very early draft of a pledge template. This pledge does not have to be “overly aggre
pledge signers will grow greener over time because of Social Marketing Persuasion (Appendix B7).
I have read and understand the material on the LMC philosophy
I am enthusiastic about moving into a very unique, pioneering community where everyo
and where everyone is actively united behind a vision for a) better
, b) less time spent stuck in traffic, and c)
reduced greenhouse gas and airborne
pollutants to make the world a better place for fut
I care enough to take on a very serious problem that appears to be growing worse. We LMC
members will use our own power to make good things happen.
am willing to spend time to help myself and others develop an understanding of altern
I will attend fun LMC events and potlucks. Compared to typical communities, I understand that a
LMC requires more friendly socializing with neighbors.
I will spend a minimum of six minutes per day doing good. I’m enthusiasti
c about reciprocating
the good deeds done to me by other LMC community members.
I will frequently login to
. All members will share our experience and
collective brainpower to reduce solo driving. We will experiment and bra
instorm and support
everyone’s collective attempts. We’ll try some crazy things, some of which will work very well.
will undertake "adventures in driving alternatives," to experience how well alternatives work to
accomplish certain trips, trying out c
arpooling, transit, biking, scootering, walking, etc. I
understand that for some trips, driving alone may end up being the best option.
However, I am
willing to undertake some inconvenience, provided my personal sacrifice is not too great.
y experiences with others.
I will stay positive about
attempts to reduce driving. I will not denigrate other residents for
their choices, even if I would personally choose differently.
I’ll listen and help facilitate
situations when human tensions a
rise. I’ll work to discover the uniquely valuable characteristics
I’m happy to join Mayor
Google / Yahoo!,
Traffic Congestion Relief Alliance,
Transit Authority in this important endeavor.
_________________ , Date: ______________________
: LMC Chat Detail
Five example cities were chosen to show some national geographic distribution.
The table below is provided to
in the table, there is
Cities21 / CUTR