THE BIRTH OF TELEVISION

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24 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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RTV 3007 • Intro to Television

THE BIRTH OF TELEVISION

THE RISE AND FALL OF THE RADIO AMATEUR

1920
-
1923

THE RISE
AND FALL
OF THE RADIO AMATEUR


After World War 1,
ham radio exploded
, as “amateurs” sent and received
broadcasts all over the US.


In
1920

an enthusiast in Pittsburgh regularly broadcast phonographic
recordings under the call letters
8XK
. A Pittsburgh department store picked
up the broadcast for its customers, and sold radio kits for $10.


The
Westinghouse

Corp. learned of this and set up the first radio station,
KDKA
. It debuted on November 2 to broadcast the
1920

presidential election
returns from 8pm
-
12am.


Success of KDKA led to
Westinghouse stations

in Newark, NJ; Springfield,
MA; and Chicago
. General Electric
started radio stations in Schenectady,
San Francisco and Denver.
RCA

started stations in Jersey City and
Washington, DC.

THE BEGINNINGS OF PROFESSIONALIZATION

1923
-
1927

BROADCASTING & COPYRIGHT


In the earliest days of radio
, actors, singers and other entertainers performed
for free

to test out the new medium.


For several years, broadcasters played
phonographic recordings

free of
charge.


In
1923

ASCAP

(American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers)
demanded payment for broadcasts of protected works.


Courts upheld ASCAP’s claim. Stations paid $250 per year for rights to
broadcast copyrighted material.


Today radio stations and Webcasting stations pay annual fees to
ASCAP,
BMI and SESAC

(collectively called Performance Rights Organizations).

THE MONETIZATION PROBLEM


Early radio pioneers had to find a way to make radio sustainable. To make
enough money to keep the stations going. Several schemes were proposed:


Government financing
(similar to roads and schools).


A
tax on radio receivers
. Taxes would be used to support ongoing radio
operations. (TV in the UK uses this model.)


Patronage

by wealthy individuals who would sponsor radio programming.


Toll broadcasting
, where anyone could air any content, provided they paid for
the privilege.


THE RADIO ACT OF 1927


The Radio Act enabled the creation of a
national radio broadcasting network


Of stations
on temporary licenses


Linked by
telephone lines


Supported by
advertising


Managed by a regulatory system based on “the
public interest



The Radio Act of 1927 was written in such a way to include
television
.


The Radio Act helped propel the development of television.

THE ROAD TO TELEVISION

1927
-
1939

THE ROAD TO TELEVISION


In
1927
, the
Radio Act
enabled the creation of a national radio broadcasting
network


In
1927
,
The Jazz Singer
debuted as the first “talkie,” or talking movie


In
1927
, the
Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS
) was born, the first
competitor to NBC.


Radio, “talkie” movies and TV experiments boomed
.


NBC stock prices
rose 600% between 1927 and
1929
.

THE GREAT DEPRESSION


In November
1929,
the
Great Depression
hit the US, led by a meltdown in
the stock market.


RCA stock fell to 1/10
th

of its previous value.


Average
Americans stopped buying radio sets
.


Money for TV development slowed.

RADIO SAVES TELEVISION


People who had radio sets before the Depression kept them.


Quality of radio programming increased
.


President Roosevelt broadcast his
Fireside Chats
.


Vaudeville theater actors turned to radio

as live theaters closed down.


Radio advertising increased
.


RCA’s David Sarnoff used
radio ad revenue to fund the development of
television
.


Beginning
1938
,
CBS radio becomes a competitive force
by offering
better content than NBC: more news, experimental drama, more
entertainment.



THE COMMUNICATIONS ACT OF 1934


Established the
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

to regulate
both broadcasting and telephony.


FCC became
responsible for allocating spectrum

for wireless
communication.


FCC
set technical standards
for telephony, radio and the emerging television
industry.


In 1940 FCC forced the TV industry to use FM radio technology for sound.



THE WORLDS FAIR OF 1939


RCA president David Sarnoff decided to introduce television to the
world at the World’s Fair in 1939.


RCA made a film of Sarnoff’s announcement.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4hPX_PLC
-
o


NBC began regular TV broadcasts on April 30, 1939.