Science based innovation - Noppa

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23 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Science, technology and innovation

Science based innovation:

What is the role of science in
technological innovations?

Scientific knowledge in the industrial society


Steve Fuller’s thesis
:


1. If scientific knowledge is a ‘public good’, then the government needs to scrutinize
both the rate and the distribution of return on the public investment in science.


2. If scientific knowledge is not a public good, then special interest groups should
invest in the sorts of inquiries that are most likely to serve their respective
constituencies. This will involve consideration of both the process by which
knowledge is produced and the product of themselves.


3. It is by no means clear, that those who pursue continuous academic careers turn
out to be the most significant knowledge producers.


4. Academic guild barriers prove to hinder rather than help in addressing persistent
social and economic problems that require the coordination of different expertise.


Vannevar

Bush: ‘Science, the Endless Frontier
’:


The government should provide financial support for basic medical research in the
medical schools and universities.


There should be adequate military research in peacetime through a civilian
-
controlled
organization with close liaison with the Army and the Navy


The government should promote industrial research by increasing the flow of new
scientific knowledge through the support of basic research and by aiding the
development


6/2010

Management of useful knowledge


Predominance of the linear model of innovation: Scientific research is the first
essential step in a multi
-
stage process that leads to innovation.


Who is responsible of providing circumstances for basic research?


1. Public sector and the government


Science and technology policy


2. Large industrial companies


Applied research and product development (R & D)


3. Innovative companies


Scientists applying the knowledge into specific
technologies.


For example Polar Electro
Oy
:
Seppo

Säynäkangas

(professor of
electronics in Oulu University)


Founder of Polar Electro in 1977 while still holding
the chair in the University of Oulu: Connecting academic research (electronics,
medical, physiology, sports
-
medicine) to technology (electronics, monitoring, wireless
communication)


Problems of managing useful knowledge:


1. Science is a public commodity


scientific discoveries are published and openly
evaluated by the scientific community.


2. Scientific ideas are owned by individuals whose actions cannot be controlled.


3. Basic science is ‘useful’, but ‘essential’ for the innovation process. How to manage
‘useless’ knowledge?

6/2010

Science in industry


Managing industrial R &D is like walking on the thin ice: How much money
should be allocated to the research and how long the company should fund
research?



Scientists are trained in universities where research culture promotes
individuality and freedom of thinking.



In industrial companies R&D is directed and controlled by managers who
are responsible to the company management.



When science becomes an organizational resource, scientific ideologies
and managerial objectives intersect
.



Is it possible to manage scientific research in the company environment and
what are the ways in which creativity can be preserved and enhanced?


6/2010


Science, a collective enterprise



Fundamental questions: Who asks questions and who gives answers
?


Scientific inquiry is often conducted individually by scientists.


In the company environment, scientific work becomes a collective enterprise



Karim

Lakhani

and Lars Bo
Jeppersen
: “On average each problem got the
attention of 200 people and received 10 solutions
”.



Lakhani



Jeppersen

thesis:


1
. Problems should be broadcasted to people in various fields because radical
innovations often happen at the intersections of disciplines.


2
. Scientists and engineers are expecting financial rewards for solving problems,
but the enjoyment of novel questions is a bigger draw.


3
. Experience scientists or insiders are important, because they know which
problems are important and how they can be solved.


4
.
R&D is usually located in the very core of the organization, but is it possible to
outsource scientific research.


6/2010

Negotiating with experts



No company can create and manage all knowledge required for innovation.


Networks of expert knowledge are essential for novel ideas and ‘innovation
roots’.


Corporate R&D must be integrated to the public sources of useful
knowledge (universities and public laboratories).


The division of labor is often unclear: What is the role of the company and
what are the roles of the others (core technologies and core knowledge)


Where does the novel idea take place?


Searching for innovative
interfaces. Joint R&D projects, brain
-
storming sessions, knowledge transfer
through publications, knowledge transfer through informal contacts


Corporate culture and corporate R&D. Does the culture of the company
support new search for innovative ideas? Tradition


strategy


tolerance of
risks


open or closed corporate structures.


6/2010

Knowledge sharing for innovation


One of the key features of the science based innovation is the circulation of
knowledge between research institutions.



This is done by disseminating knowledge (seminars, workshops, projects)
and circulating experts from one institution into another.



Innovation process can start in the company, move to the basic or applied
research unit and come back for commercialization to the company.



The management of knowledge sharing is difficult because of high rate of
uncertainty, long time span and unclear targets.



If the process is successful, high technology company and research units
can form a cluster or an ecosystem for continuous innovations.

6/2010

CASE
Vaisala
; science and
technology in the global company


Vaisala

is today the global leader in environmental and industrial
measurement.


Vaisala

focuses on meteorology and industrial and environmental
measurements.


Vaisala

invests more than 10% of the annual revenue to the R&D and the
company organization and strategy are centered around the R&D and
innovations.


“The world needs accurate and reliable weather measurements and
observations every day, to provide weather forecasts and to enable safety
and timely decisions at airports, roads, rails, marine or energy
production.


Many industrial processes, like those in life science, require
precise monitoring of the conditions during manufacturing, storing or
transportation. As a global leader and expert in weather and industrial
measurement,
Vaisala

is ideally positioned to respond to these
requirements.
We know the weather, it is our business
.”


6/2010

Vaisala

innovation strategy



has been closely connected to the academic research and most customers
are academic communities working in various fields of natural and
environmental sciences
.



Flows of knowledge and information:
Vaisala

has invested more than 10%
of annual revenue to R&D. It’s success is based on continuous innovation
that is targeted to very small group of customers specializing in scientifically
and technologically ambitious fields (humidity, weather forecasting, wind
measuring, lightning, tsunamis
)



Vaisala

R&D has profited from the close collaboration with the customers
and
scientifically orientated customers
have
directed
Vaisala

R&D
by posing
questions and
challenges.


6/2010

Innovation path


Vaisala

made radical innovation already in the 1930’s (
radiosonde
) and
created a generic product family and technological system based on that
innovation.


Vaisala’s

innovation path or trajectory was fed by the need for more
accurate measurements and increasing variety of elements that needed to
be measured:


Basics: Wind, pressure, humidity, temperature


Advanced: Radio activity (radiation), dew point, lightning, ozone,
environmental hazards


Need for more sophisticated instruments



Search for new innovation: MEMS (

6/2010


Short Intro


• A group of companies and institutions in Finland seem to find common interest


regularly and are attracted to joint projects and other cooperation



Regular members:




VTT




VTI Technologies




Okmetic



Every now and then
:




Nokia




Vaisala




Picosun




Beneq




Aalto University



Ways of cooperation
:




Supply chain: research
-
> materials for microsystems
-
> microsystem products




Planning of national microsystem strategy and related initiatives




Membership in project consortia

6/2010

MEMS products


http://www.euripides2011.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=nYn4KY%2Fpaaw%
3D&tabid=1035

6/2010