of Media Imperialism

klapdorothypondΚινητά – Ασύρματες Τεχνολογίες

23 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

99 εμφανίσεις

Reconsidering the Concept
of Media Imperialism

(Oliver Boyd
-
Barrett, Bowling Green State University
& Baptist University of Hong Kong)


Summary (1)


Several different theories related to the rubric of media
imperialism emerged in the 1960s
-
1970s


Although these theories related quite well to the
evidence available at the time, they were later deemed
by many critics to be out
-
of
-
date or overly simplistic


Some of these criticisms missed the point. And even
with respect to the role of the US in the 21
st

century, the
death of US media imperialism has been exaggerated

Summary (2)


Relevant post
-
1970s theorization
provides multiple
conceptual advances: cultural
imperialism,
hegemony,
globalization
,
glocalization
, post
-
colonial theory, “
scapes
”,

networks,” soft power”, “perception management,” etc.


The phenomena
of imperialism (e.g. “free
trade / neoliberal
imperialism”;” “humanitarian
” imperialism
and the
“colonization of consciousness”)
and their relationship to
communications, has
been obscured,
historically
and
contemporaneously.


Now need to
redefine the debate in a more open
-
ended way
:
focusing on direct
, indirect, and dialectical
relationships between
media and
imperialism, including
media
and
resistance
,
today and yesterday. What are the
principal research questions?


Schiller (1969) Mass
Communication & American
Empire

E
lectronics and economics serving an American century

Marriage of economics & electronics substitutes for
coercion to achieve empire and “empires of free trade”

E
ntertainment distracts the populace from costs of empire

US control of information confuses, misinforms subject
peoples; encourages allegiance

And everywhere US media inform about and instruct
practices of consumption, with high premium on impulse
and immediacy

These patterns are described as “freedom”



Schiller (2)


His view of media content was elitist, but he introduced
to the literature
a
distinctive focus
on industrial
structure, business models and regulatory
systems


He provided a critique of limited diversity and
opportunities forgone, and tied it to an interest in the
military
-
industrial complex and imperialism


Argued that media contribute to the structural
transformation of society


Sole focus was on the US and on the present

Schiller (3)


Attended to consolidation
of corporate power in
broadcasting and
sidelining
of
educational/public
interest


Inquired into spectrum allocation and
prioritization
of
military needs
in context
of a permanent war society


With respect to satellite he argued that communications
technology, centered on COMSAT and INTELSAT
following the marriage of military research and private
enterprise, was at the core of US global policing


Noted
central
role of profit in the system as a whole
including the heavy dependence of electronics on
government/military
buyers


Schiller (4)


Not the content that counts as the business model
behind the content


International spread of US media essential to profits of
the communications industry profits, to US industry in
general, through the importance of media as an
advertising medium.


Satellite was essential to the spread of US media


Satellite and advertising interests helped undermine
public service broadcasting traditions in other countries,
promoting privatization and
commercialization,
spreading western content, ideas and values,
consumerism


Note the post
-
colonial context


Schiller (5)


“The United States communications presence overseas
extends far beyond the facilities owned, the exports, and
the licensing agreements secured by major American
broadcasting companies and electronics equipment
manufacturers, considerable as these are. Equally, if not
more important, is the spread of the American system,
the commercial model of communications, to the
international arena” (p.93).

Tunstall
(1977)


Tunstall’s

The Media Are American (1977) supported
Schiller’s thesis but operated on different political premises


Later, 2007 work, called The Media Were American (2007)


Tunstall

chronicled rise of US domination of many national
markets, in developed and developing worlds, and
particularly concerned to factor in the continuing influence
of older empires, including the British and the French.


He also paid attention to emerging or established
alternative, usually regional, centers of media power


P
rimary driving factor of US media expansion was the
relative wealth of US consumer markets, This enabled US
media to recover production costs in the US and sell at
strong advantage overseas, rivaling other international
competitors and domestic producers.


Boyd
-
Barrett


Proposed media
-
centric view of media imperialism focusing on
unequal relations of media power between media systems of
different nations. Approach influenced by


S
tudies of the international news agencies (at that time led by AFP,
AP, Reuters and UPI)


Drew on analysis of Hollywood box office domination in many
countries of the world


Analysis of television showed high percentage of US and western TV
products in many countries of the world, and dominating role in the
trade of international television products


H
is experience of British domination of the Irish media market


His study of the influence of imperial powers on media development
in their colonies and domains of influence


His theory was multi
-
factoral

incl. not only ownership, structure,
distribution and content, as well as values of practice.



International news agency market still dominated by AFP
and AFPTV, AP and APTV, Bloomberg, Thomson
-
Reuters
and Reuters TV.


(As before) there is a wide (perhaps wider) variety of
other institutions that gather & distribute news globally


M
ostly western (CNN, BBC, DW, News Corp’s Dow Jones,
France 24);


Most linked to their respective governments (BBC, CNC
of China, RT and TASS of Russia, DW of Germany, Al
Jazeera (Qatari),
Telesur

(Venezuela), and Xinhua.

Have things changed so much?
International news agencies

Have things changed? Hollywood


Industry dominated in revenue terms
by
six
principal
studios of Hollywood and the multinational
conglomerates that own them (News Corporation’s
Twentieth Century Fox
, Viacom’s
Paramount
, Sony’s
Sony Pictures
, GE and Comcast’s
NBC/Universal
,
Walt
Disney
, Time Warner’s
Warner Bros
),


E
ven
as other centers of global production such as
Mumbai (Bollywood) in India, and Lagos (
Nollywood
)
make more movies and even reach larger audiences.


Almost
40% of revenue for global movie production and
distribution (worth $86.7 billion in 2012) is generated
from North American audiences, followed by Europe with
23.5% (
IbisWorld
, 2012
).

Hollywood
ctd


MPAA
studios and studio subsidiaries accounted for a
modest number, 141, of films released in
US in 2011
, most
film
-
makers
must work
with these giants for assistance in
finance and/or distribution.


Of
top
25 films in terms of 2011 box office, 24 came from
the big six studios.


US/Canada accounted
for approximately one third
($10.2 billion) of the global box office ($32.6 billion
)


Most of this spent on

US
product primarily, many billions
ahead of the next largest national markets, Japan ($2.3
billion), China ($2 billion) and France ($2 billion), and a few
decimal points behind the whole of Europe, Middle East and
Africa ($10.8 billion) and ahead of the whole of the
Asia/Pacific region ($9 billion) (MPAA, 2012).


Have things changed? Television


Of total
revenues represented by the global television
market (from advertising, subscription and public
funding), North America had the largest share in 2009,
accounting for 39% of almost 270 billion EUR, followed
by Europe (31%), Asia Pacific (21%), Latin America
(8%), Africa and the Middle East (2%)(International
Television Expert Group, 2010).

Have things changed? Recording


Global music
recording
dominated
by
3 players
(Sony
BMG, Time Warner’s Warner Music Group, and Vivendi’s
Universal Music Group


a fourth player,
EMI, is now
owned by UMG).


These account for
approx

88% of global sales, 2011


UMG 30%;SONY 29%;Warner 19%;Indies 10%; EMI 9%


US
is
top
national market,
at
$4.37
bn

in 2011, ahead of
Japan ($4.09
bn
) and Germany ($1.47
bn
)(International
Federation of the Phonographic Industry, IFPI, 2012).

Have things changed? Computing


S
ignificant
growth of
respective
industries in India and particularly
China


G
lobal
computing hardware
dominated
by US
-
based corporations
such as AMD, Apple, Cisco, Dell, Hewlett
-
Packard, IBM, Intel, and
Oracle


which now owns Sun Microsystems and
Java


US
-
based
corporations remain exceptionally strong
in
software and
Internet
(including
Amazon, eBay


which owns
PayPal
-

Facebook
,
Google, Microsoft,
Twitter)


M
any
of these
nurtured
by
concentration
of talent
and venture
capital
in San Jose’s Silicon valley, California (Boyd
-
Barrett, 2005).


Top
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) globally are US corporations
Comcast Cable (7.15%), Road Runner (4.58%), AT+T (2.5%) and
Verizon
FiOS

(2.15%).


Global
desktop browser markets are dominated by Microsoft’s
Internet Explorer (55% of the market in 2012), Mozilla’s Firefox


affiliated with Time Warner’s Netscape (21%), Google’s Chrome
(17%) and Apple’s Safari (5%) (
Netmarketshare

2012).

Computing
ctd
.


Microsoft: 90%+control
of the global desktop operating
system market for PCs (91.5% in 2012), followed by
Mac (7.3%) and Linux (1.25%)(
Netmarketshare

2012).


In
the mobile/tablet
market, dominant OS supplier
is
Apple’s
iOS

with 61% of the market, followed by
Google’s Android (28%) and Oracle’s Java ME (7%).


Google global
share
84+%
of
desktop
search engine
market, followed by Yahoo (8%)
&Microsoft’s
Bing (5
%).


Google’s
lead is even stronger in the mobile/tablet
search engine market
at 91%, followed by Yahoo (6%)
and Bing (2%).

Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales

Computing (mobile)


Mobile subs 2011: 5981m worldwide with 1092 in China, 907 in
India, 322 in USA, 206 in Indonesia, 197 in Brazil, 142 in Russia,
129 in Japan


3G/4G mobile subs 2011: 1594 world with 256 in US, 212 in China,
104 in Japan, 71 in India, 66 in Brazil, 48 in Indonesia, 27 in Russia


Worldwide
phone
manufacturers (market share) dominated
,
2013
,
by Samsung (24%), Nokia (15%) and Apple (9
%).


By country South Korea (Samsung and LGE) has 28%, Finland
(Nokia) 15% and China (Huawei, ZTE, TCL,
Lenovo,Y

ulong
) 11.6%


Smartphone manufacturer market share (2012): Samsung (30%),
Apple (19%), Nokia (5%)


By Operating System,
global
market
dominated
, 2012, by Android
(Google) at 72%, Apple (14
%), (Canadian
)
RIM at 4.5%, (Nokia’s)
Symbian (3%)


(Sources: Mobithinking.com; Gartner; netmarketshare.com)

Global Mobile Operators


(In US$ millions, 2010
)(Subs)


1

China Mobile (
China) 594.2m

China Mobile


$
71,571.6m


2

Vodafone Group (
UK) 338.9m

Verizon (US)


$
63,407.0m


3

America
Movil

(
Mexico) 224.4m

Vodafone Group

$
60,779.7m


4

Telefonica

(Spain)



216.9m

AT&T



$
58,500.0m


5

Bharti

Airtel

(India)



199.2m

Telefonica



$
52,729.1m


6

China Unicom (
China) 169.3m NTT
DOCOMO (Japan
) $
48,462.5m


7

AT&T (US)


148.8m

Deutsche
Telekom


$
45,694.5m


8

SingTel (Singapore)


133.9m

America
Movil



$
29,940.4m


9

France Telecom (France)

129.5mFrance
Telecom


$
29,718.0m


10Reliance
Communications (
India)125.7mSprintN $28,597.0m


Source:
Portio

Research (
2011) via
:
mobiThinking

Have things changed? Social
networks


In terms of number of active users, Facebook still
dominates the global social networking landscape, with
Google Plus, YouTube, Twitter and Chinese internet giant
Tencent's

Qzone
, filling out the other top positions according
to market research firm
Trendstream's

Global Web Index
.


Facebook currently has more than a 700 million active users
(and about 1.1 billion user accounts), accounting for 51% of
global social networking use, followed by Google Plus with
25% and YouTube with 21%. The number of Twitter users
has reached 288 million
.


Trendstream

expects Twitter's user base to grow fastest
based on accelerating growth over the past year
.


http://
www.wantchinatimes.com/news
-
subclass
-
cnt.aspx?id=20130130000115&cid=1202

Jan 30, 2013

Social Networks,
ctd


Have things changed? Advertising

(
Zenithoptimedia
)


Top Ad Markets in current US$ millions, 2011&2014

USA




0154129



0173950

Japan



0049949



0052964

China



0032299



0043940

Germany


0025571



0026828

UK




0019204



0021088

Brazil



0016819



0022216

France



0013788



0014216

Australia


0012767



0013770

Canada



0010974



0012394

S Korea



0010232

Russia








0012394

Advertising
ctd
: Share of World
Market


(AdAge.com)
--

United
States accounts for 5% of the
world's population, 20% of global GDP and 34% of total
worldwide advertising, making the U.S. by far the
largest ad
market


China accounts
for 20% of the world's population, 13%
of global GDP and
--

for now
--

just 5% of total
worldwide advertising.

Advertising
ctd


Ad Spend by Region
US$million
, current prices
2011/2014


North America


165104



186344


W Europe



108688



112642


Asia/Pacific



132172



157155


C&E Europe



026151



031089


LatAm




035344



045600


MidEast
/
Nafr



004155



004412


Rest





011592



014812


Total





483206



552054



Advertising
ctd
: By region, 2010


Advertising
ctd


% Share by Medium 2011/2014


Newspapers



20.2



16.8


Magazines



09.4



07.9


TV





40.2



40.3


Radio




07.1



06.7


Cinema




00.5



00.5


Outdoor




06.6



06.3


Internet




16.0



21.4

Advertising: who are the
advertisers?



Advertising
ctd
: Who are the
advertisers?

Top
100 global advertisers
invest 61%
of
measured
-
media
budgets outside
U.S
.
in 2009 (Ad
Age's Global
Marketers:a

study covering 96 countries, territories and
regions

Among
46
U.S.
-
based marketers
in Global 100,
12 firms do
more than half
of ad
spending abroad, largely tracking with
where they generate revenue and expect to find
growth

Among the 54 non
-
U.S. companies on the Global 100 list,
six marketers
--

including four
pharma

firms
--

do more
than half of their advertising in the U.S. market

Top 30 Global Marketers 2011
(
Allbrands

data)


Proctor and Gamble

Kraft


PSA Peugeot/
Cit


Unilever




Fiat



Time Warner


L’
Oreal




Mars


Glaxco


General Motors


J&Johnson

Honda


Nestle




Ford


Disney


Coca
-
Cola



Comcast

Yum (
KFCetc
)


Toyota




PepsiCo


Ferrero (It)


Volkswagen



Sony


Danone

(
Fr
)


McDonalds



Pfizer


Deutsche Telekom


Reckitt Benckiser(H) Nissan


Bierrsdorf
/
Tchibo












(
G:Nivea
)

Big5 Ad/Marketing/PR Holdings
2012


Dentsu

(Japan) $14bn (50% NA)


WPP (UK) $16bn (33% NA)


Publicis

(
Fr
) $9bn (34% NA)


Havas

(
Fr
) $2bn


Interpublic (US) $7bn (57% NA)

Have things changed? IPR


IBISWorld’s

estimates that the 2010 U.S. domestic intellectual
property licensing and franchising market alone was valued at
US$27.5 billion with 20.3% of that total (or US$5.58 billion)
attributed to patent and trademark licensing royalty income.


October
22, 2005
Economist stated “In
America alone, technology
licensing revenue accounts for an estimated $45 billion annually;
worldwide, the figure is around $100 billion and growing fast.”


IMF
data suggest that the US patent market generated transactions
worth $500 million in 2006 and IP
-
related damage awards and
settlements were $3.4 billion in the
US alone


Ocean
Tomo

(2010) estimates that in 2009, nearly 81% of the value
of the companies comprising the S&P 500® stock index comes from
intangible assets


the largest component of which is IP.


Millien

writes that in 2005 alone, IBM was awarded 2,941 U.S.
patents, and in 2007 earned about $1 billion annually from its
portfolio.

Licensing and franchising


O
verall
value of U.S. intellectual property in 2005 was $5.5 trillion,
more than the nominal gross domestic product of any other country
,


Intellectual
property trade accounted for 60% of US exports
(totaling $900
bn

in 2007) in a country whose GDP
was
$14
tn
.


C
ompares to total
value of global trade in information and
communication technology (ICT) of $4
tn

in 2008 (Slater, 2011).


I
nternet
economy alone amounted to 4.1% of GDP across the G
-
20
nations ($2.3
tn
) in 2010.


Slater
(2011)
records intensive
IT
-
using industries account for 25%
of GDP and 25% of economic growth, whereas IT
-
producing
industries (semiconductors, computers, communications, software)
account for 3% of GDP and 25% of economic growth.


In
2007, the U.S. spent 2.67% of total GDP on R&D, or US$374.11
bn
.

All media


Total
US revenue for publishing, film and sound recording,
telecommunications and Internet industries in 2009
over $1
trillion
.


Telecommunications
accounted for almost half ($494 billion);
publishing accounted for a quarter ($264 billion), Internet service,
web services and data processing for less than a tenth ($103
billion), broadcasting for about the same ($99 billion) and motion
pictures and sound recording a little less ($91 billion), with the
remainder accounted for by the categories of Internet publishing
and broadcasting ($20 billion) and “other” ($7 billion). (U.S. Census
Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012, p.710
).


Xinhua: Total
output value of China's media industry doubled
in the past five years to hit 580.8 billion
yuan

(89.2
bn

U.S.
dollars) in
2010.Fastest
growing sectors in 2010 were online
advertising, the film industry and radio broadcast
advertising
.


http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/indepth/2011
-
04/22/c_13841792.htm


All media


The National Science Board (
2012): global
value
-
added by ICT
industries (semiconductors, communications equipment, computers,
communications, computer programming and data processing)
more than doubled from $1.2 trillion in 1995 to $2.8 trillion in 2010


ICT
industry accounts for 6 percent of global GDP. Of the total, the
US alone accounted for 26%. Asia as a whole, including Japan,
China and the “Asia 8” accounted for 33%, and Europe 22%.


United
States has
highest
ICT share of fixed capital investment
(26%) of large OECD economies, with the United Kingdom a close
second.


United
States is
leader
in ICT business infrastructure among the
larger developed economies (table 6
-
2), with an index score
substantially higher than those of France, Germany, the United
Kingdom, Japan, and South Korea.


All within broader context of
“knowledge and technology
-
intensive”
industries (KTI) whose global value added totaled $18.2 trillion in
2010, representing 30% of estimated world gross domestic product
(GDP).

The Issue of Reception

R
egardless of whether audiences agree with, negotiate or
reject the dominant or hegemonic meanings of texts….

Whatever restricts access of producers to technologies of
communication and to audiences, reduces the range and
diversity of representations available, or the ease with
which audiences may access them is a legitimate matter of
democratic and human concern

Large media conglomerates, many substantially dependent
on global brand advertisers, operating both online and
offline, through every aspect of the communications
process, including the gatekeeping of content flows through
networks of cable, satellite, telephony, internet restrict
access and diversity.

They are the new colonizers of consciousness

Reception (2)


Hall,
Morely

and other cultural theorists of the 1980s were
writing in advance of the emergence of strong “framing”
and “indexing” theories. These suggest audiences
are
vulnerable to
the systematic
foci, emphases and
exclusions
of mainstream media, as
agenda setting theory would
also
suggest


Schiller (19690: exaggerated fear
of “Wall
-
to
-
Wall Dallas”
and cultural
homogenization,


Yet there
has

been significant homogenization


the
homogenization of neoliberalism


and Dallas was
symptomatic of the ways in which new communication
technologies would be harnessed to promote the ideologies
of extreme
capitalism, and of free trade imperialism, or
neoliberalism
-
by
-
pretext (“humanitarian intervention,”
democracy, getting
-
rid
-
of
-
”tyrants”)


Back to Imperialism

P
ractical contemporary issue of neo
-
liberal / “free trade” /
“extreme capitalistic” imperialism operating territorially and
digitally, significantly dependent on perception
management to gain consent for the neo
-
liberal order

P
romoted by adoption of
Friedmanesque

economics by
Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan in the 1980s.
S
cuttled post
-
WW2 balance achieved between capital and
labor, returned us to the 19
th

century, and elevated the
hegemony of
Pax

Americana

One starting point is to identify the range of relationships
between communications media and imperialism

7 Relationship of Media to
Neoliberalism (1
-
3)


Media, information and communications industries interrelate with
processes of globalization in a variety of important ways:


(
1) they provide the enabling physical infrastructure for global
communications (e.g. overland and undersea cables, satellites and
satellite delivery systems, and wireless stations for wired and
wireless communication, including internet and telephony);


(
2) media and communication hardware and software industries are
themselves significant domains for international capital
accumulation, generally in the form of large multi
-
media
conglomerates operating internationally, and as such are full
-
blooded corporate members of what is sometimes described as a
neoliberal world economic order;


(
3) they provide vehicles for the advertising of goods and services
produced by member states and corporations of this order, most of
whom are signatories to the World Trade Organization;

7 Relationships of Media to
Neoliberal Imperialism (4&5)


(4) through their content and the representations of
lifestyles in their content, they trigger a "demonstration"
effect that stimulates continuing demand for goods and
services and that is generally positive for consumerism;


(5) many of these media also service the global financial
and commercial order through the provision of an
informational infrastructure, one that is increasingly
essential to the operation of modern capitalism, that
comprises sophisticated, interactive instruments for the
interrogation of massive financial, commercial and
corporate data
-
bases; in some instances such media
also provide electronic market places for trading activity;


7 Relationships of Media to
Neoliberalism (6&7)


(6) media also police the ideological boundaries of
tolerable expression at national and international levels


promoting content that increasingly serves the
interests of neoliberalism (mainly having to do with the
progressive abolition of national restrictions on trade in
goods and services), marginalizing, suppressing or
excluding content that does not and (


(7
) these industries provide critical support to the
development of the “surveillance society” or, in other
words, to the centralized collection of more and more
detailed, instantly accessible intelligence (to those few
who control or pay for it), to a degree unparalleled in
human history in a manner that is also increasingly and
literally “
weaponized
,” in the form of drone and other
forms of robotic warfare.


Scholarly Foundations


The problem is imperialism. Media are implicated with
imperialism in many different ways, directly, indirectly,
dialectically, and media are equally implicated in
processes of resistance to imperialism


The range of connections is represented by such
different scholars as Harold Innis and Marshall McLuhan,
Herman and Chomsky,
Daya

Thussu


Mainstream media uniformly support hegemonic power
to which they are subject. Through almost all the 50+
US interventions, invasions and destabilizations since
World War 2, mainstream US media have supported US
aggression, hypocrisy and evasion.

The Case of Hollywood


Liaisons between Pentagon, FBI and CIA


Entertainment as effective perception management


Think Quiet American (
Mankiewwicz

1958)(
Noyce

2002)


Think Alfred Hitchcock:
esp.Topaz
, Torn Curtain


Also need to understand Hollywood as an ideological
forum (think Executive Action, JFK or
Syriana

as well as
Zero Dark Thirty)


Often most troubling when seemingly most “real”


think
Good Shepherd, Charlie Wilson’s War or Green Zone and
other “Iraqi War Films” such as In the Valley of
Elah


Differentiate between support for the agents, the
institutions and for US foreign policy

The Case
of Iran


Accusing Iran of
aggression
, without e
vidence


Assuming
White
House and
anonymous official sources
tell the truth



As though” journalism:
pretending
that the reader has not been
paying
attention


Beefing up
western propaganda
against
Iran


Disinformation and
confusion


Dubious sources linked to dubious journalists
: that may be covertly
linked to the
military
-
industrial establishment
or
appear
consistently
to be behind stories that appear to work propagandistically


Preparing the
public
for
war
, and
blaming
it on Iran


Present Iran as n
egatively
as
possible
,
sometimes lying


Presumption of the
worst


Pretense
of
certainty
in
contexts
of
uncertainty
or
improbability