Communication Infrastructure for Next-

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Converged Broadband Optical and Wireless

Communication Infrastructure for Next
-
Generation
Telehealth


Arshad

Chowdhury
, Hung
-
Chang
Chien
,
Sourabh

Khire
,
Shu
-
Hao

Fan,
Nikil

Jayant

and Gee
-
Kung Chang


Georgia Tech Broadband Institute



Presentation by John
Shu

Agenda


Terminology


Trends


Motivation


Key Issues


Solutions


Implementation


Results


Conclusion

Terminology



Telehealth
/Telemedicine Systems:



Systems that facilitate the exchange of electronic information e.g.
medical images and real time video for remote monitoring,
diagnosis,
telesurgery

etc. [
Arshad

Chowdury

et al]


Radio Over Fiber:


A transmission technology where by light is modulated by a radio
signal and transmitted via an optical fiber link to facilitate wireless
access. (
Wikipedia
)

Terminology cont’d


RAU


Remote Antenna Unit used in conjunction with the Radio
-
Over
-
Fiber backbone to transmit and receive from wireless devices.


IMGR


Intelligent Modality Gateway Router provides signal processing for
various protocol
-
independent wireless
-
band conversion (RF,
Microwave, and millimeter wave), routing functionalities, necessary
media conversions, local buffering and storage, and authentication
and security functions. [
Arshad

Chowdury

et al]



Motivation


Telehealth

and related fields are used world wide to
remedy the non
-
uniform distribution of healthcare
professionals.


According to the authors, these systems facilitate the
exchange of information e.g. CT Scans, Radiology
images or Real time videos.


This permits remote diagnosis, monitoring,
telesurgery

etc

Motivation cont’d


Increase patient reach in rural areas


Facilitate access to specialty health care in urban areas


Obtain second opinion from remotely located experts


Support remote health monitoring


Facilitate remote education of upcoming professionals

Trends in the Field


In the past, low bit rate voice or text based phone
consultation as well as monitoring patients.


Currently, more HD quality video
-
centric super high
resolution image
-
intensive remote diagnosis
applications.


Also, real time delivery of multimedia such as in
Telesurgery

which has numerable benefits e.g.
education or obtaining second opinions


Key Issues


Transmission of high resolution images



A single Whole Slide Image (WSI) of 20mm X 15 mm
sampled at 0.25 microns at about 24 bits/pixel can
occupy up to 15GB



Furthermore, if Z
-
Stack images are being used i.e. using
multiple focal lengths. The resulting file size will be in the
order of hundreds of GB or even TB






Key Issues


Issues with real time or time sensitive applications



Applications such as Frozen section diagnosis, dynamic
pathology and real time
tele
-
radiology.



Transmitting 500MB MRI coast
-
to
-
coast has RTT of about
10 hours over 1.5Mb/sec T1 lines and 50 sec with 1Gb/s
line


Key Issues


Compression could be a potential solution, but
aggressive ‘
lossy
’ compression can introduce
objectionable artifacts.


The problem of transmission technology which includes
closed networks from service providers that limit broad
band adoption in hospitals


There is also the issue of network penetration in the
hospital buildings. Some of them can have very
secluded areas with dense walls.

Proposed Solution



Distributed Antenna based optical wireless systems
realized by radio over fiber technology can solve
penetration issues.


An integrated network architecture and communication
system using broadband optical wireless radio over
fiber technology.


Proposed systems provides multi
-
service, multi
-
carrier
broadband modalities of the telemedicine system

Implementation

FIg.1
Converged Broadband Optical and Wireless Communication Infrastructure for Next
-
Generation
Telehealth



Implementation


Radio
-
over
-
fiber networks providing connectivity
through out large buildings.



In
-
building backbone to transmits the signal. Remote
Antenna Unit (RAU) distributes wireless signal.



Devices such as text, multimedia, radiology, pathology
or just monitoring devices can access the network.

Implementation


At the core is the Intelligent Modality Gateway Router
(IMGR)


The IMGR provides signal processing for various
protocol independent wireless band conversions (e.g.
RF, Microwave, millimeter wave).


It also handles routing functionalities, media
conversions, local buffering and storage, authentication
and security

Network Interconnection in Health care
facility.

Fig.2
Converged Broadband Optical and Wireless Communication Infrastructure for Next
-
Generation
Telehealth



Implementation


Communication between MRI, radiology, remotely
mounted camera in operation room and conference
room


IMGR receives hi
-
res as well as uncompressed images
and HD video signals and performs up conversions for
wireless modalities.


Hi
-
res images can be examined by remote specialist or
students a remotely view procedures in real time or
stand
-
by specialist can offer their opinions

Proof of Concept
Experimental Setup


Setup optical wireless network using 60 GHz mm wave
radio
-
over
-
fiber technology.



Unidirectional real time uncompressed HD video link
between labs on Georgia tech campus



Link comprised of optical fiber network for 25 km and a
wireless transmission for distance of 5 meters.


Experimental Setup

Fig.3
Converged Broadband Optical and Wireless Communication Infrastructure for Next
-
Generation
Telehealth



Results



A 1.5Gb/s output stream was
up
-
converted to 60GHz mm wave
and transmitted over
radio
-
over
-
fiber link


Wireless signal was received by a 60 GHz radio
receiver and displayed on an HD TV


Live feed was that of
Glioblastoma
. Pictures were clear
with no perceptual loss of quality

Conclusion


Proposed next
-
generation broadband transport and
access architecture using integrated wireless radio
over fiber technology


Demonstrated with proof of concept setup experimental
setup using single mode optical fiber and RAU.
Achieved virtually no perceptual loss of quality


Employed existing and emerging 3G,4G/LTE,
Wi
-
Fi
,
Wi
-
Max all routed through their IMGR

References


A.
Chowdhury
, H
-
C
Chien
, Y
-
T
Hsueh
, G
-
K Chang,
"Advanced System Technologies and Field Demonstration
for In
-
Building Optical
-
Wireless Network with Integrated
Broadband Services," J. of
Lightwave

technologies, vol. 27,
no. 12, pp1920
-

1927, June 2009


I.
Pratap

et al, "Comparative technical evaluation of various
communication media used for
telemedical

video
-
conference,"
HealthCom

2008, July 2008, pp 1
-
2


D.K. Kim et al, "A Mobile telemedicine system for remote
consultation system in cases of acute stroke," Jour.
Telemedicine and
Telecare
, Vol. 15, pp. 102
-
107,2009