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kitteninterestΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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1


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, April 16th, 2009

Man
-
made Cellulose Fibres as
Reinforcement for Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)
Composites

International Congress

Innovative Natural Fibre Composites for
Industrial Applications

April 15th
-
18th 2009


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig

Hochschule Bremen / University of Applied Sciences

Faculty 5 / BIOMIMETICS

Biological Materials

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2


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Content

Use of natural fibres for industrial applications

Impact characteristics

Production of composites

Results


Fibre characteristics


Composite characteristics


Influence of processing parameters

Summary, conclusions & outlook

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3


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Bio
-
based materials for industrial applications

Biological materials,
procedure & application

Amount (region)

Biodegradable plastics

(packaging industry)

60,000
-
70,000 t (Western Europe,
2007)

Biodegradable plastics

(permantent use)

30,000
-
40,000 t (Germany, 2007)

Compression moulding with natural
fibres, without cotton

(automobile industry)

29,000 t (Germany, 2005)

Compression moulding with cotton
fibres

(truck manufacturer)

79,000 t (Germany, 2003)

Natural fibre injection moulding and
extrusion

3,000
-
4,000 t (Europe, 2006)

(Gahle, 2008.
-
changed)

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4


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

(anonym, 2006)

(NEC)

+

PLA/Kenaf


mobile phone

(Nviroplast)

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5


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Flax / PLA urn by Jakob Winter

(Satzung, Germany)

(Grashorn, 2007)

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6


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

PLA/Kenaf spare tire cover made by Toyota

Spare tire cover in Toyota RAUM (2003) made from kenaf fibre
reinforced PLA (based on sugar beet)

LCA on the spare tire cover showed reduced CO
2

emissions
volume by as much as 90 % compared to conventional petroleum
-
based plastics

(Anonym, 2007 )

Carbon neutral
effect

Index

100

50

0

Petroleum based
plastics

Bioplastics

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7


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Problem: Impact


Bast fibre reinforced composites mostly display
high stiffness and tensile characteristics




But: impact characteristics are often the

limiting factors for a use as construction

materials due to the force elongation

characteristics of the bast fibres

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8


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Load
-
strain curves of different cellulose fibres

Tensile
strength,
N/mm²

Elongation, %

200

100

300

400

500

600

700

800

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Hemp

Cotton

Lyocell

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9


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Impact strength of different composites

Kind of fibre

Charpy impact
strength of
composites in
kJ/m²

Charpy impact
strength of neat
PLA in kJ/m²

Reference

40 % hemp

10

24

(Graupner, 2009)

40 % flax

11

15

(Oksman et al., 2003)

40 % kenaf

9

24

(Graupner, 2008)

40 % cotton

29

24

(Graupner, 2008)

40 % Lyocell

40

24

(Graupner, 2008)

30 % Cordenka

70

16

(Bax & Müssig, 2008)


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10


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Lyocell as additive for impact improvement

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Pure PLA sample
Hemp-PLA
Lyocell-PLA
Hemp/Lyocell/PLA
Charpy impact strength in kJ/m²
Mixing 50 % hemp and 50 % Lyocell fibres increased the impact strength
clearly

Unnotched Charpy impact strength

(Graupner, 2009)

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11


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Production of Lyocell/PLA composites

Reinforcement: 3 kinds of Lyocell fibres
(industrially gained fibres based on 100 %
cellulose, density: 1.5 g/cm
3
) produced by
Lenzing AG (Lenzing, Austria) in different
fineness (15.0, 6.7, 1.3 dtex)



(Topkapi)

(Packaging International)


Matrix: Nature Works
™ PLA polymer
6202D, density: 1.24 g/cm
3
, melting
temperature 160
-
170
°
C, glass transition
temperature: 60
-
65
°
C



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12


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Production of semi
-
finished parts

Production of multilayer webs and needle felts with fibre loads of
20 and 40 mass
-
% and a mass per unit area of 2000 g/m²


Fibres

Carding
machine

Single
layer web

Needle felt
machine

Needle felt

Positioned
multilayer
web

(Müssig, 2001)

Cross layer

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13


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Compression moulding

Pre
-
cut parts of 300 x 250 mm
2

were
compression moulded (Rucks,
Glauchau, Germany)

Pre
-
heating at 180
°
C for 10 min

Compression moulding with 3.2 MPa at
180
°
C for 10 min

Aluminium slats as spacer (thickness: 2
mm)

Demoulding at approx. 60
°
C

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14


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Results: Characteristics of 3 kinds

of Lyocell fibres for composite production

Fibre
width, µm

Tensile
strength,
N/mm²

Young
´
s
modulus,
N/mm²

Elongation
at break, %

Lyocell 1.3

10.5

46.7

5260

15.3

Lyocell 6.7

23.3

30.9

3744

13.0

Lyocell 15.0

32.5

23.0

3013

11.9

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15


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
40% Lyocell 1.3
40% Lyocell 6.7
40% Lyocell 15.0
Tensile strength in N/mm²
Multilayer webs
Needle felts
Neat PLA
Results: Tensile strength of composites
made from multilayer webs vs. needle felts

Composites made from the needle felts show significant higher tensile
strength compared to composites made from the multilayer webs

Influence of fibre fineness can be seen

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16


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
20% Lyocell 1.3
40% Lyocell 1.3
20% Lyocell 15.0
40% Lyocell 15.0
Tensile strength in N/mm²
Multilayer webs, MD
Pure PLA sample
Results: Reduction of fibre mass

content of the multilayer webs

Reduction of fibre mass content of the multilayer webs lead to
increased tensile strength of the composites

Tensile strength

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17


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
20% Lyocell 1.3-PLA
40% Lyocell 1.3-PLA
20% Lyocell 15.0-PLA
40% Lyocell 15.0
Charpy impact strength in kJ/m²
Multilayer webs, MD
Pure PLA sample
Results: Impact strength of

composites made from the multilayer webs

Increasing impact strength with raising fibre mass content

Composites with a low degree of compaction

No significant influences whether multilayer webs or needle felts were used

Unnotched Charpy impact strength

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18


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Results: SEM micrographs of

tensile fractured surfaces

40 % Lyocell 1.3 needle
felt/PLA composite

40 % Lyocell 1.3
multilayer web/PLA
composite

20 % Lyocell 1.3
multilayer web/PLA
composite

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19


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Results: Influence of process parameters

of 40 % Lyocell multilayer web / PLA

(Graupner, 2009)

Clear inluence on:

-

10 min pre
-
heating, 180
°
C

-

10 min compression moulding 180
°
C

-

3 h pre
-
drying, 105
°
C

-

20 min compression moulding 180
°
C

Process parameters

compaction

coating of fibres with matrix

interfacial interactions between fibres and matrix

-

10 min pre
-
heating, 180
°
C

-

10 min compression moulding 180
°
C

Tensile strength: 42 N/mm²

Young
´
s modulus: 4142 N/mm²

Impact strength: 33 kJ/m²

Tensile strength: 82 N/mm²

Young
´
s modulus: 6784 N/mm²

Impact strength: 40 kJ/m²

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20


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Summary, conclusions & outlook

Lyocell fibres have great potential as reinforcement (high tensile
strength and high elongation at break)

Lyocell and PLA fibre are processable with conventional textile and
formpressing techniques

Semi
-
finished textile products and process parameters have a clear
influence on the composite characteristics

Compression moulding times and temperatures as well as the
influence of pre
-
drying and pre
-
heating are important factors

Full potential of Lyocell fibres could not be achieved due to suboptimal
process parameters using multilayer webs

Needle felts lead to better composite characteristics than multilayer
webs

An optimised production leads to Lyocell/PLA composites which show
high impact properties combined with good tensile characteristics

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21


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig


University of Applied Sciences

Faculty 5 / BIOMIMETICS

Biological Materials


email: nina.graupner@hs
-
bremen.de

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22


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

Acknowledgements

We thank …

Dr. Sames (Lenzing AG, Lenzing, Austria) for supplying
Lyocell fibres

Dipl.
-
Ing. C. Grashorn (IST Ficotex, Bremen, Germany) for
supplying PLA

Prof. Dr. A. S. Herrmann (Faserinstitut Bremen e.V., Bremen
Germany) and G. Gödecke (NAFGO GmbH, Neerstedt,
Germany) for support in semi
-
finished product and composite
production

the students of the course Materials Research at University of
Applied Sciences Bremen


Biomimetics for measuring tensile
and impact strength of needle felt reinforced composites

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23


Nina Graupner & Jörg Müssig /

Lyocell/PLA Composites, 2009

References

Anonym (2006):

Complete mobile phone housing made of PLA. In: Bioplastics, Vol. 1, (06/01), p. 18


19


Anonym (2007):

Bioplastics in Automotive Applications. Bioplastics Magazine, Vol. 2 (1), p. 14
-
18



Bax, B., Müssig, J. (2008):

Impact and tensile properties of PLA/Cordenka and PLA/flax composites. Composites
Science and Technology 2008; 68: 1601
-
1607



Gahle, C. (2008):

Nova
-
Institut: Biowerkstoffe


Werkstoffe mit Zukunft: Aktuelle Marktdaten und attraktive
Produktbeispiele. In: Biowerkstoff Report, Okt., Nov., Dez., p. 26


Grashorn, C. (2007):

Erstes Serienprodukt aus naturfaserverstärktem PLA im Spritzguss.
In: Nova Institut, Hürth,
Germany; 5. N
-
FibreBase Kongress. Hürth 21st
-
22nd Mai 2007.

in German



Graupner, N. (2008):

Application of lignin as natural adhesion promoter in cotton fibre
-
reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA)
composites. Journal of Materials Science 2008; 43 (15): 5222
-
5229




Graupner, N. (2009):

Improvement of the Mechanical Properties of Biodegradable Hemp Fibre Reinforced Poly(lactic
acid) (PLA) Composites by the Admixture of Man
-
made Cellulose Fibres. Journal of Composite Materials 2009;
Vol. 43 (6): 689
-
702


Müssig, J. (2001):

Untersuchung der Eignung heimischer Pflanzenfasern für die Herstellung von naturfaserverstärkten
Duroplasten


vom Anbau zum Verbundwerkstoff
-
. Fortschritt
-
Berichte VDI Reihe 5 Nr. 630. Düsseldorf: VDI
Verlag 2001, (ISBN 3
-
18
-
363005
-
2)



Nviroplast:
http://www.nviroplast.com/images/corn2resin.jpg&imgrefurl
, 01.04.2009


NEC:
http://i.treehugger.com/files/kenaf_phone.jpg&imgrefurl
, 01.04.2009


Oksman, K., Skrifvars, M., Selin, J.
-
F. (2003):

Natural fibres as reinforcement in polylactid acid (PLA) composites.
Composites Science and Technology, 63: 1317
-
1324


Packaging International
:
http://www.packaging
-
int.com/images/companies/2017/veriplastimage2.jpg
, 01.04.2009



Topkapi
:
http://www.topkapi
-
iplik.com.tr/images/prod_images/lyo3.jpg
, 01.04.2009