Chemistry and Nanotechnology - Curriculum Support

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Biomimetic

Chemistry

Research Group

School of Chemistry

THE UNIVERSITY OF

NEW SOUTH WALES

Tall Poppy

NSW

What has
Chemistry

ever done for us

and what can

Nanotechnology

do for us?

Dr. Pall Thordarson

(Palli)

Senior Lecturer

Chemistry

UNSW

My background:


1971: Born Vopnafjordur, Iceland, grew up on a farm

1991: High School, Egilsstadir, Iceland


Natural Science stream

1995: BSc. Chemistry


University of Iceland, Reykjavik

1996: Research worker


Science Institute


Main project: Polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil

1997: Came to Australia, PhD at the University of Sydney


Main project: Self
-
replicating systems

2000: Volunteer at the Olympics (including horse handler)

2001: PhD Graduation, The University of Sydney

2001: Marie Curie Fellow, Nijmegen, The Netherlands


Main project: Mimicking DNA
-
enzymes

2003: Back to Australia, The University of Sydney

2006: Australian Research Council


Australian Research Fellow

2007: Australian Citizen

2007: Senior Lecturer UNSW

2008: NSW Tall Poppy Science Award

Biomimetic

Chemistry Research Group

School of Chemistry

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES

What do I do now?

(not much


my co
-
workers do it all!)

I
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s
p
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s
p
a
c
e
r
h
v

(
L
I
G
H
T

S
I
G
N
A
L
)
Self
-
assembled gel

Light
-
driven bio
-
hybrids

Self
-
assembled gels for drug delivery

My co
-
workers:


4 BSc. Hons. students

4 PhD Students

2 Post
-
doctoral Fellows

1 Research Assistant

What has
Chemistry

ever done for us

and what can

Nanotechnology

do for us?



1.
What has Chemistry ever done for us


Would you be alive without modern chemistry?

Would you be alive without modern chemistry?

Penicillin


still saving people from deadly infections

(did you ever get an ear infection?)

Relenza


might save us TOMORROW from the Swine
-
Flu!

(invented by Australian Chemists in 1989)

Would you be alive without modern chemistry?

Artificial Fertiliser:

Ammonium nitrate (NH
4
NO
3
)


has it allowed up to 4 billion
more people on this planet?

World population:

1900 = 2 Billion

2000 = 6 Billion


NH
4
NO
3

first made
in ca. 1910


Coincidence?

Chemistry has also had an enormous social impact

Ethinylestradiol

Norethisterone

When these two steroids
are mixed we call it


“The pill”

Time 7
th

April, 1967

Chemistry has also had an enormous social impact

Sildenafil

30 years later


Chemists at the Drug company Pfizer were
looking for a new drug for high blood pressure:

These scientists discovered some
interesting
side
-
effects
in male
patients

The marketing people called it:

VIAGRA

(the “blue pill”)

Time 4
th

May, 1998

What has
Chemistry

ever done for us

and what can

Nanotechnology

do for us?



2.

So what can Nanotechnology do for us?


What is Nanotechnology?

What is Nanotechnology?

The science of very small things

This is not small, these are micro, not Nano

The making of useful devices or machines where in
at least one dimension the fabrication is controlled
in the nanometer scale

http://mems.sandia.gov/scripts/images.asp

What is nanotechnology?

Device Manufacture

Molecular
Science

Nanotechnology



10
25
m

~1 billion light
years, the
approximate
range of
universe
observed by
human being



10
14
m


100 billion km
(or 0.1 Pm,
Petametre)
the complete
orbit of planet
Pluto


10
21
m


~ 100,000
light years,
roughly the
size of Milky
Way




10
7
m


10,000 km,
we can see
most of the
world

The Scale in Meters


The Scale in Meters


10
3
m



1 km

we can see the
arrangement of
houses





10
-
2
m



1 cm

details of the
skin

10 m



we can see
the players in
the field





10
-
4
m


100 mm

we can see
the cells in

a

human body
(~17
m
m)


The Scale in Meters


10
-
6
m



1
m
m, clustering
of
chromosomes





10
-
9
m


1nm, the
mo
le
cular
structure of
DNA



10
-
7
m


100nm, we can
see a strand
of DNA




10
-
10
m



100 pm (pico),
the size of an
atom
surrounded
by electron
cloud


The Scale in Meter


10
-
13

m


100fm (femto),
we can see the
nucleus of an
atom




10
-
15
m


1fm, we can see
the quarks
which form the
protons and
neutrons



10
-
14
m



10fm, we can
see the
protons and
neutrons in
the nucleus




10
-
16
m



100 am (atto),
the quarks in
details (~10
-
19
m)


WHY NANOTECHNOLOGY?

Information Technology

Defense

Health and Medicine

Minerals/Chemical Processing

Cosmetics


Nanotechnology has impacted us primarily in:

WHY NANOTECHNOLOGY?

Fundamentally new properties


Exciting new mechanisms


Strange and Fancy Size Dependent Behavior!!

Colour of nanophase materials vary according to

the size of their constituent grains, or

clusters.

All four vials above contain Cadmium Selenide. But because these
otherwise identical samples all have different
-
size clusters, each
takes on different hue under white light (
left
) and ultraviolet light
(right).


From Nature to Science

The lotus leaf is
considered sacred
in Oriental religions
for its ability to stay
dry and clean.
When water drops
on the leaf, it beads
up and rolls off the
waxy surface,
washing away dirt
as it goes.

When a
lotus leaf
is examined
under a high
-
powered microscope, it d
oes

not have the
waxy, smooth surface that appears to the
naked eye. Rather, it is bumpy

a
characteristic that aids repelling water


NanoPowders



It’s what you can’t see


Nanopowders are transparent to visible light.

-

TiO
2

film

Porphyrin
dye

Electrolyte
with I
-
/I
-
3

Conducting
glass

Biomimetic

Chemistry Research Group

School of Chemistry

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES

Biomimetic Nanotechnology

Cheap solar cells from nanocrystalline TiO
2
to
reduce greenhouse gas emission

Biomimicry

(Electricity from the Sun)

Biomimetic

Chemistry Research Group

School of Chemistry

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES

What do I do?


I
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p
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p
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x
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+
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s
p
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s
p
a
c
e
r
h
v

(
L
I
G
H
T

S
I
G
N
A
L
)
Light
-
driven bio
-
hybrids

Nanotechnology in Medicine

Tiny detectives: this
optical nanofiber can be
used to study a
particular cell without
destroying it.


G
.

A
.

Silva,

C
.

Czeisler,

K
.

L
.

Niece,

E
.

Beniash,

D
.

A
.

Harrington,

J
.

A
.

Kessler

and

S
.

I
.

Stupp,

Science
,

2004
,

303
,

1352
.

Nanofiber gels and tissue engineering

N
H
H
N
O
O
O
N
H
H
N
O
O
N
H
H
N
N
H
O
O
O
H
N
O
N
H
H
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N
H
O
O
O
H
O
O
N
H
2
H
N
O
N
H
H
N
O
O
O
H
C
18
-
GlyGlyGlyGlyAlaAlaAlaGluIleLysValAlaVal

(C
18
-
GGGAAAAEIKVAV)

Hydrophobic




Hydrophilic

Growth promotor

for neural cells

(epitope)

G
.

A
.

Silva,

C
.

Czeisler,

K
.

L
.

Niece,

E
.

Beniash,

D
.

A
.

Harrington,

J
.

A
.

Kessler

and

S
.

I
.

Stupp,

Science
,

2004
,

303
,

1352
.

Self
-
assembly

Promotes neural

regrowth in spinal
injuries!

Self
-
assembly

1
m
m

Nanofiber gels and tissue engineering

G
.

A
.

Silva,

C
.

Czeisler,

K
.

L
.

Niece,

E
.

Beniash,

D
.

A
.

Harrington,

J
.

A
.

Kessler

and

S
.

I
.

Stupp,

Science
,

2004
,

303
,

1352
.

Self
-
assembly

Nanofiber gels and tissue engineering

Promotes neural

regrowth in spinal
injuries!


Movies

Self
-
assembled gels and Tissue Engineering

Mimicking the Extracellular Matrix (ECM)

The ECM controls cell
-
cell interactions and growth

Important for tissue regeneration, tumour growth…

Biomimetic

Chemistry Research Group

School of Chemistry

THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES

What do I do?

Self
-
assembled gel

Self
-
assembled gels for drug delivery

Drug

release

from

self
-
assembled

gels

Cancer drug
release

Thanks to:


My group:

Sabrina, Josh, Alex, Shiva, Katie,

Danny, David, Lip Son, Warren,

Ski, Ben and Alice


$$$ for my work:

Australian Research Council

NSW Cancer Institute


My wife for her patience


For giving me the opportunity to speak to you:

Australian Institute of Policy & Science/The Tall Poppy Champaign


And finally



YOU!