bionics 1

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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BIONICS 1

Kevin Warwick


X 8210

What is Bionics?


Bionics is the application of methods and
systems found in nature to the study and design
of engineering systems and modern technology.
(Wikipedia)????


not a good definition



aka
biomimetics
,
biognosis
,
biomimicry
, or
bionical creativity engineering




Bionics =
Bio
(logy) + Electro(
nics
) ?

Medical Bionics


In medicine, Bionics usually means the
replacement or enhancement of organs or
other body parts by mechanical versions
or electrical add ons.




Bionic implants differ from mere
prostheses by mimicking the original
function very closely, or even surpassing
it.

Bionics


KW views!


Another name for linked Biological and
Technological systems.


Could be animals linked with technology,
could be humans.


Link needs to be either integral or
seemless.


Aimee Mullins













Example
-

Aimee


Mullins was born with
fibular hemimelia
(missing fibula bones),
and had both of her
legs amputated below
the knee when she was
a year old.


Her new legs, called
Cheetahs, allow her to
run at speed (100m in
15.77 seconds)


She is now also an
actress (see on imdb)

Limits?


Are Aimee’s legs copies of human legs?


How powerful can the springs be?


Could she have wheels or rollers instead?


She can change her legs


a pair for
sports, a pair for acting, a pair for dining
out etc


So is the Wiki definition OK?

Physical/Mental


The Bionic elements could be physical (as for
Aimee) or mental or a combination.


So they could be replacement body parts


They could be replacement/alternative mental
parts


A combination of the above


What about simple technical additions? e.g.RFID

Peter Cochrane
-

1997


“Just a small piece of silicon under
the skin is all it would take for us to
enjoy the freedom of no credit cards,
passports or keys. Put your hand out
to the car door, computer terminal,
the food you wish to purchase, and
you would be dealt with efficiently:
total freedom”.

RFID Implants


First human RFID implant carried out on
24
th

August 1998


in Reading (Dr.George
Boulos)


Provides identification/information


Allows/denies access


Certainly something extra


Like an implanted smart card


But is it Bionic?

http://biochipinhumans.blogspot.com
/2007/08/how
-
is
-
this
-
little
-
chip
-
implanted.html


Kevin Warwick described the surgery in such a
way:

"In theory, I was able to see what was going on,
but I was looking in the opposite direction most
of the time. The doctor pinched the skin and
lifted it up and sort of burrowed a hole . . .
underneath the skin and on top of the muscle.
It's well inside my body, in my left arm, just
above my elbow. [It's] held in place by three
stitches
-

partly so that the wound is held
together, but also so that the capsule doesn't
float around anywhere."

Use


Identified individual to the building
computer


Opened doors


Switched on lights


Said “Hello” (“Hello Mr. Chip”


Sun)


All in response to the RFID being
identified


Remember


that was in 1998

RFID Implants today


Several thousand in place in humans


Best known perhaps Amal Graafstra


see
IEEE Spectrum magazine March 2007 for
2 recent articles.


Mexican Government


Baja Beech Club


2004 OK by US Food & Drug Admin


Diabetes, Epilepsy etc

RFID


Close distance, in building, security
verification


Good for medical identification


Possible human passport use


Good for dog/cat passports


Not so good for tracking

Human Tracking


Either cell phone or GPS


Cell phone technology potentially
implantable


GPS still rather large


Cell phone


accurate to 10 metres?


GPS


accurate to 0.5 metres?


Implantable cell phone tech perhaps
suitable for humans


needs cooperation
of cell phone companies

Desires?


I’m not a scientist or engineer or whatever


Just a concerned mum which would like to be
able to track my baby in case of kidnapping etc.



Can the chip alert the person that they are
trying to be located? (schoolfriends)



We are very interested in having a tracking
device implanted in our child. We are absolutely
terrified of the idea of our child being kidnapped
and want to protect him.

Questions


Does a tracking device make someone
Bionic?


Is there any difference between a device
being implanted and one being worn?


Should we bother with such questions?

Other Implants


Breast


Hair


Heart Pacemaker


Artificial Heart


Artificial Hips


Implants linked with the nervous
system/brain

Heart Pacemaker


A
pacemaker

uses electrical impulses, delivered by
electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the
beating of the heart.


The purpose of a pacemaker is to maintain an adequate
heart rate, either because the heart is not fast enough,
or there is a block in the conduction system.


Pacemakers are externally programmable and allow the
cardiologist to select optimum pacing modes for
individual patients.


Some combine a pacemaker and defibrillator in a single
device. Others have multiple electrodes stimulating
differing positions within the heart to improve
synchronisation of the lower chambers of the heart.

Pacemaker


Pacemaker is fully
implanted, with
encased battery
pack and contact
electrodes.

Background


First experiments in 1889 (J.A.McWilliam)


In
1926

Dr Mark C Lidwell, in the Crown Street
Women’s Hospital, Sydney, resuscitated a
newborn baby by inserting the needle of a
device into its heart and administering 16
-
volt
impulses for 10 minutes.


Implantable pacemakers constructed by the
American Wilson Greatbatch Co. entered use in
humans in
1960

following extensive animal
testing.

Problems


Percutaneous


v


Implant (not to be
confused with Transcutaneous pacing)


Material used (hermetic sealing)


eventually Titanium casing


Battery used (ultimately Lithium
-
iodide)


Pacing used (how often to stimulate?)


depends on nature of problem


Therapy/Enhancement


Important questions here as to whether
the Bionic elements are purely therapeutic
or actually enhance the individual


Even enhancement can be regarded in
different ways!


This raises all sorts of ethical questions.

Related Topics


Cyborgs


Implants


Biomedical Engineering


BCI


Sensory Substitution


Human Enhancement


Telepathy !!!


Weeks Ahead


Animal Experiments


Body Parts


Arms and Legs


Enhancements


Medical Problems


PD, Epilepsy


Ethical Issues