THE PERIODIC TABLE

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THE PERIODIC TABLE

Text 5.3: Page193
-
199

Agenda

1.
Minds On: Investigating Trends


Bohr
-
Rutherford
Diagrams

2.
The Periodic Table


Periods and Groups


Metals, Non
-
Metals and Metalloids


Families

3.
Activity: Mapping the Patterns in the Periodic
Table

4.
Check & Reflect


Learning Goals


By the end of the class, student will be able to:


Predict chemical and physical properties of elements
based solely on information from the periodic table

What Trends Did You Notice?

Periodic Table
-

Metals


Metals are found on
the
left and center of
the
table (blue)


Good conductors of
heat and electricity


Ductile and malleable


Shiny/silver coloured


All but one are solid at
room temperature


Mercury


Periodic Table
-

Non Metals


Non
-

metals are found
at the right
of the
table (yellow)


Poor conductors of
heat and electricity


At room temperature
may be solids, gases
and one is a liquid


B
romine


Periodic Table
-

Metalloids


Metalloids are found on
the “staircase” in
between metals and non
metals (pink)


Have
characteristics
that are intermediate
between metals and
non
-
metals


The Periodic Table
-

Periods


A horizontal row in the periodic table is called a
PERIOD


You can remember this by knowing a horizontal
sentence ends in a period


MEANING each row has



something in common…


What is it?


NUMBER of Electron Shells!

The Periodic Table
-

Groups


A vertical row in the periodic table is called a GROUP
or FAMILY


You can remember this by thinking of the vertical row
like a
family

tree


What does a family have



in common?


Same number of valence



electrons!


O
uter electrons are called



the VALENCE ELECTRONS



in the VALANCE SHELL


The Periodic Table
-

Groups


Groups or families have the same chemical properties


i.e. they way they “act”


i.e. no reaction vs. very reactive, good conductors vs. bad
conductors


Examples of Families


Alkali metals


Alkaline Earth metals


Transition metals


Halogen gases


Noble gases

Alkali Metals


All are very REACTIVE! But
why?


Because they want to “get
rid” of their one lone
valence electron! So they
want to bond with other
atoms


Soft and malleable


Silver/ Grey


React with water and
oxygen

Alkaline Earth Metals


Reactive
-

but less so than
the Alkali Metals


Alkaline? = pH greater than
7 or ‘basic’


Makes bonds very easy


Why?


Silver/Grey


Harder than Alkali Earth
Metals

Transition Metals


Examples of advanced shell and orbital ideas


Special


have two shells that are ‘unhappy’ therefore
bond in special ways.

Halogens


Very Reactive! Why?


They are only 1 electron short of
a full valence shell so want to
“steal” an electron by reacting
with near by atoms


Bond often with Group 1. Why?


Group 1 has one “extra”
electron and Group 7 is
“missing” one


Coloured

Noble Gases


Very UNREACTIVE! Why?


Have a full valence shell so
happy the way they are!


Inert gases (meaning non
-
reactive)


Colourless and odorless


Used to stabilize reactions
that would normally proceed
to quickly.

The Periodic Table


Families


Lanthanide


Rare
-
earth metals found in
superconductors, glass production, or lasers.


Actinide


all radio
-
active and some not found in
nature, short
-
lived, high atomic number


E.g. Americium (Am) in some metal detectors

Mapping the Patterns in The Periodic
Table

Check & Reflect


Check & Reflect on your understanding:


Textbook Page 204 ‘Pearson: Investigating Science 9’
answer
q
uestions 1
-
7, 10
-
11


Answer these questions in complete sentences
in your notes