Unit 1 Ch. 4

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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F OOD SCI ENCE AND T ECHNOL OGY

UNIT 1 CH. 4

THE ROLE OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY


Science and Technology play a vital role in
food, from farming to cooking.


Science

is the study of the physical world.


Technology

is the application of scientific
knowledge.


Brainstorm ways in which food has been
affected or improved by science and
technology.








WHAT IS FOOD SCIENCE


Food Science
is the study of all aspects of food
including processing, storage and preparation.


Food science is considered a natural science,
because it uses biology, chemistry and physics, to
solve practical problems.


Food Scientist have developed new products
through the years to keep the food supply safe.


WHAT IS FOOD TECHNOLOGY


Food Technology is the application of food
science


the tools and techniques used in
processing, storage and preparation.


Example: Scientist ask why does food spoil and
then develop technologies such as freeze drying
and controlled atmosphere storage to keep food
fresh.

TECHNOLOGY ADVANCES IN FOOD
HISTORY


Early Farming


Relied on animal power, human labor, and handmade
tools. Then the invention of the cotton gin and the
mechanical reaper made harvesting much easier for
cotton and grain.


Modern Advances


Nowadays machinery does most of the work for humans.
From seeding to harvesting.


New technologies are constantly being developed to
improve food production, processing, distribution,
packaging, and transportation.

MODERN ADVANCES


Production



Climatologist are better equipped to predict weather
patterns


Veterinarians use new vaccines and antibiotics to protect
livestock from diseases that once wiped out entire flocks.


Processing and Distribution


Food science helps with the creation of new foods to help
meet variety needs.


Food Scientist are also working to make already existing foods
more nutritious or more shelf stable


Manufactured Food
-

a product developed as a substitute for
another food.


Increases choices for people on restricted diets or incomes

MODERN ADVANCES


Processing and Distribution


Analogs
-

are foods made to imitate other foods.


Meat and dairy analogs are made from textured soy
protein, tofu, vegetables or grains


Formed Products
-

foods made from an inexpensive
food product to imitate an expensive food.


Example
-

Surimi
-

flavored and shaped to resemble crab or
lobster


Egg Substitute
-

made from egg whites.


With the yolk removed there is little to no cholesterol and fat
content.

MODERN ADVANCES


Packaging
-

3 Types


Modified Atmosphere Packaging
-

uses carbon dioxide,
oxygen and nitrogen to slow bacteria growth


Aseptic Packages


(ex
.

juice boxes)
-

consist of layers of
plastic, paperboard, and aluminum foil


Shrink
Wrap
-

removes remaining
air


Quick Freezing
-
preserves food by exposing it to temps
below
-
238 degrees


GENETIC ENGINEERIN
G


Genetic Engineering
-

genes are removed
from one organism, such as a plant, and
transferred to another organism.


Plants and Animals that have been genetically
modified are referred to as genetically modified
organisms (GMOs).


GMOs can give a plant or animal a trait or
characteristic that can make them become resist
to certain chemicals and diseases.

ADVANTAGES OF GMO’S


May increase the food supply by helping crops
survive weed and pest damage


Can improve the nutrition and taste of some foods
and remove substances that cause allergic
reactions.


Farmers may need to use fewer pesticides on plants
with built in resistance.


May have a better resistance to spoilage


Science can engineer new and better varieties of
food.

DISADVANTAGES OF GMO’S


May cause health problems, such as allergic
reactions.


May threaten the environment and the food supply.
Harms biodiversity


Plants that have built in pesticides may kill beneficial
insects, such as bees and butterflies.


Causes more
superweeds

that resist herbicides and
also could cause harmful insects to become
immune to the pesticides used by the farmer.


GMOs are patented by large corporations.

CLONES


Form of Genetic Engineering


Clone
-

a genetic copy of an organism


Organisms cloned include
-

cattle, pigs, dogs, and other
animals.


Advantage
-



Scientist believe it could expand the food supply


Disadvantage


Critics believe it could destroy biodiversity


Causes animal suffering


Health defects such as inflamed brains and spinal cords

IMPROVING HEALTH


There is a direct link to diet and health


Better Nutrition in foods:



Enrichmen
t: restoring nutrients that were lost in
processing


Fortification
: adding a nutrient that is not normally
found in a food. Ex.)Vitamin D is add to milk


Functional Foods
: foods with ingredients that offer
specific


Three Categories:


Natural Whole Foods, Enhanced Foods, and Foods created
by Science

FUNCTIONAL FOODS


Natural Whole Foods:


Super Foods
-

foods that have antioxidants to help
prevent disease


Examples: Blueberries, broccoli, salmon, garlic, and oats


Whole Foods, or foods that have not been
processed, fir well into a healthful diet.


Enhanced Foods:


Foods that have had nutrients added to them to
improve health.


Examples: Fiber is added to cereal to improve digestive
health, also some orange juice has added Calcium.


FUNCTIONAL FOODS


Food Created by Science:


Food scientist create new foods with specific
health benefits.


Example: Some margarines are engineered to lower
cholesterol.


These foods are referred to as
Nutraceuticals
,
they are still being studied and long term results
will be a long time to come. Do not rely on these
foods, it is better to choose a food from a natural
source.


IMPROVING MEAL PREPARATION


All cooks use science and technology in everyday
cooking.


By using cooking techniques, appliances and computers


Cooking Techniques: foods are chemicals and a recipe is a
chemical formula. If the simplest ingredient or instruction is
changed, it can affect your final product


Appliance:


Make meal preparation more efficient and simpler.


Refrigerators prolong shelf life


Computers:


Changing the way cooks shop, plan and prepare meals.


How do you think computers shape this
change?



CRITICAL THINKING


Evaluate

the Pros and Cons of genetic
engineering.


Explain

how scientists’ discoveries about
the relationship between diet and health
may have contributed to a longer average
human life span.