Technology in Action - Computer and Information Science

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 8 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

2

Technology in Action

Technology in Focus:


Information Technology Ethics

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Ethics Defined


Study of morals and moral choices


Match established ideas of right and wrong


Fairness


Equity


Guidelines for decision making

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Ethics Defined


Systems of ethical conduct


Relativism


Situational ethics


Religious traditions

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Ethics Defined


Societal ethics


A general set of unwritten guidelines


Rule utilitarianism


Espouses establishing moral guidelines
through rules (moral code)


Unethical behavior


Not conforming to a set of approved standards
of social or professional behavior


Not necessarily illegal


Not all illegal behavior is unethical

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Personal Ethics


Checklist of personal decisions


May be well defined


May be applied inconsistently

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Personal Ethics


How do personal ethics develop?


Family and cultural bias


Religious affiliation


Life experiences

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Define Your Personal Ethics


Describe yourself


List your beliefs


Identify external influences


Consider “why”


Prepare a statement of values

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Personal Ethics


Benefits of ethical living


Obeying laws


Less stress and anger


Increased happiness

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Personal Ethics in the

Worldview


Do your ethics match those of your
workplace?


Whistleblowers


Turn
businesses in to regulatory agencies for
committing illegal
acts


Also can expose
unethical (but still legal) acts by
their employers by exposing unethical behavior
through various media
outlets


Are your ethics away from work a concern
for your employer?

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Technology and Ethics


Technology is all around
us


Technology moves

quickly


Rules governing
technology move more
slowly


Use of technology is left
up to personal ethics

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Using Computers to Support
Ethical Conduct


Charitable organizations use the Internet
for fund raising


Companies must provide mechanisms to
report unethical behavior anonymously


Intranets and e
-
mail are used to inform
employees of ethics policies


Your personal ethics must guide your
decisions concerning technology

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Social Justice: Can Technology

Be Used to Benefit Everyone?


Can we use technology to achieve social
justice?


Can we apply technology in poor areas?


Solar energy


Genetic engineering


Internet access

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Social Justice: Can Technology

Be Used to Benefit Everyone?


Point: Technology provides economic
opportunity for all


Could be used to eliminate poverty


Could improve quality of life in poor countries


Could be an ethical force

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Social Justice: Can Technology

Be Used to Benefit Everyone?


Counterpoint: Technology doesn’t provide
economic opportunity for all


No one can solve the problem of poverty


Should not be addressed by technologists


Potential risks of new technologies


Threats to existing world economies

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Intellectual Property: What Is

Fair About Fair Use?


Copyright laws protect intellectual property


Fair use allows for exceptions to copyright
laws


Fair use criteria


What is the purpose of the work?


What is the nature of the work?


How much copyrighted material is being
used?


What is the effect on the original material?

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Intellectual Property: What Is

Fair About Fair Use?


Point: Liberal fair use standards are
beneficial


Encourage wide dissemination of information


Allow the most democratic, free society


Existing laws not up to date with technology

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Intellectual Property: What Is

Fair About Fair Use?


Counterpoint: Strict fair use standards are
beneficial


Existing laws should not be changed because
technology has changed


Copyright holders should control their own work

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Privacy: Is Personal Privacy

a Casualty of the Modern Age?


Privacy is a basic human right


Many of our transactions are recorded


Debit cards


E
-
mail


Loyalty cards


Electronic toll passes

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Privacy: Is Personal Privacy

a Casualty of the Modern Age?


Point: Protect personal privacy


No reason for monitoring


Government misuse of data


Government control of population


National ID cards reminiscent of Nazis


Expense of privacy controls

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Privacy: Is Personal Privacy

a Casualty of the Modern Age?


Counterpoint: Reduced privacy is a fact
of modern life


Should have nothing to hide


Helps enhance detection of terrorists


Protects citizens from being abused


National ID card worth the cost

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Commerce: Should Online Gambling
Be Banned or Regulated?


Multibillion
-
dollar industry


Already illegal in United States


Facilitates addictive gambling

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Commerce: Should Online Gambling
Be Banned or Regulated?


Point: Ban online gambling


Easy access for minors and compulsive
gamblers


Could support criminal activities


No regulation: Who keeps the house honest?


Allows gamblers to hide their addiction

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Commerce: Should Online Gambling
Be Banned or Regulated?


Counterpoint: Legalize online gambling


Protect consumers


Allow for scrutiny of all transactions


Standardize the industry


Generate tax revenues


Regulated in other countries


Easier to regulate than to prohibit

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Communication: When Does

Big Business Limit Free Speech?


Google concedes to demands
from Beijing to self
-
censor its
search engine


Helps suppress dissent in
return for access to the
Chinese market


Cost of doing business in
Chinese market


Huge market potential in China

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Communication: When Does

Big Business Limit Free Speech?


Point: Google acted unethically


Sacrificed free speech for business


Violated human rights


No incentive for China to change


Other rights hang in the balance


How far is too far?

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Communication: When Does

Big Business Limit Free Speech?


Counterpoint: Google’s actions were
justified


Companies should be free to pursue
profits


Withdrawing from China would further
restrict free speech


Staying in China advances the slow
progress toward democracy

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Computer Abuse: Does

Restricting Online Information
Protect Children?


Internet allows


Sexual predators to contact potential victims


Distribution of pornography


Cyberbullying


Phishing


Dissemination of hate speech

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Computer Abuse: Does

Restricting Online Information
Protect Children?


Children are especially vulnerable


Use technology more than adults


More trusting than some adults


Might not recognize malicious intent

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Computer Abuse: Does

Restricting Online Information
Protect Children?


Point: Monitoring software protects
children


Laws have proved ineffective


Make sure libraries and schools are safe
havens


Uphold moral standards of the public


Logical extension of the library screening
process

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Computer Abuse: Does

Restricting Online Information
Protect Children?


Counterpoint: Monitoring software restricts
access to information


Blocks informational content


Amounts to censorship


Is not 100% reliable


Widens the “digital divide”


Education a better alternative

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

Copyright ©
2011
Pearson Education, Inc.


Publishing as Prentice Hall

Technology in Focus

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