Section 11.1 Summary – pages 281

kissimmeemisologistΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

158 εμφανίσεις

Biology I


Chapter 11

DNA: The Molecule of
Heredity

Chapter 11 Section 1: DNA and Genes


Understanding the structure
and role of DNA helps us
make advances in the
following research areas:


____________________


____________________


____________________


____________________


____________________


____________________

genetic disorders

viral diseases

cancer

aging

genetic engineering

criminal investigations

Shetland ponies

11.1 Section Objectives


page 281


Analyze the
structure of DNA

Section Objectives:



Determine how
the structure of
DNA enables it
to reproduce
itself accurately.

Section 1 Vocabulary


Nucleotide


Double helix


DNA replication

Section 11.1 Summary


pages 281
-

287


A large __________________ containing genetic
information that codes for the production of
_______________


Proteins make up many _______________ components
of our bodies


Special proteins, called __________, are involved in
actions such as…


__________


__________


__________

What is DNA?

polymer

proteins

enzymes

eating

running

thinking

structural

All actions
involve
ATP
!!


What does DNA stand for?




What eukaryotic organelle contains
DNA?

Deoxyribonucleic acid

The nucleus

Section 11.1 Summary


pages 281
-

287


Before 1950


scientists thought that ______
contained the genetic information


Alfred _________ and Martha ________
conducted an experiment with ____________
to determine if proteins or DNA contained
the genetic content

DNA as the genetic material

proteins

Hershey

Chase

viruses


Viruses are made up of a
________ coat and a
molecule of _______ or
________

DNA

Protein coat

protein

DNA

RNA


Viruses may
_______ a cell and
take over its
metabolism, causing
it to create more
____________



But what part of a
virus controls this
behavior?

Lytic cycle

enter

viruses


Hershey and Chase radioactively ____________ the
________________ and ________ within a virus to see which
part entered a bacteria cell…




Result?


Only the _____ entered the bacteria cell and produced new
viruses


Conclusion?


_____ must contain genetic material

marked

DNA

protein

DNA

DNA

Section 11.1 Summary


pages 281
-

287


DNA is a polymer made of repeating subunits
called _______________

Phosphate
group

Sugar
(deoxyribose)

Nitrogenous
base

The structure of DNA

nucleotides

Section 11.1 Summary


pages 281
-

287


Nucleotides are made up of 3 parts…


____________________


Simple
__________
called ______________


___________________

Phosphate
group

Sugar
(deoxyribose)

Nitrogenous
base

phosphate group

sugar

deoxyribose

Nitrogenous base

Section 11.1 Summary


pages 281
-

287


Four possible nitrogenous bases:



______________


______________


______________


______________

Adenine (A)

Guanine (G)

Thymine (T)

Cytosine (C)

Adenine (A)

Guanine (G)

Cytosine (C)

Thymine (T)

Section 11.1 Summary


pages 281
-

287


In _______, two scientists named
James ________ and Francis
_______ hypothesized that
DNA…



is made of ____ strands or long
chains


and is ______ into a coil like a spring


This structure is called a


________ __________ (twisted zipper)


Watson

Crick

2

twisted

double

helix

1953


This shape was supported by the
work of Rosalind ___________


Used X
-
ray crystallography to
make _____________ of
DNA


Took as long as _____ hours
of exposure to make a single
image


She died of _________ , likely
related to her X
-
ray exposure

Franklin

photos

100

cancer

Section 11.1 Summary


pages 281
-

287


Nucleotides
_________ together
to make long strands
of DNA




Circle some
nucleotides shown
in the diagram

join

Section 11.1 Summary


pages 281
-

287


Each strand has a
________________ made of …


_______________________


_______________________



What letter in the diagram
represents a phosphate group?
_______



What letter represents
deoxyribose sugar? _____

backbone

phosphate groups

deoxyribose sugars

P

D

Section 11.1 Summary


pages 281
-

287


The “teeth” of the zipper are
made up of ______________


______________


Certain bases
always

pair
together


___ and ____


___ and ____


Bases that pair together are
called ________________

nitrogenous

bases

C

G

A

T

complementary


These bases are held together by weak
_____________ bonds that are put
together or broken by ______________

hydrogen

enzymes


The DNA of all living
organisms is made up of
the ______ 4 base pairs



Different organisms just
have different
___________ or orders of
the base pairs

Chromosome

same

sequences


For example, a nucleotide sequence of
ATTCGT carries ______________
information from a sequence of
ATCGGG



The closer the DNA sequences are, the
more ____________ organisms will be

different

similar


Out of a gorilla, chimpanzee, and a tiger,
which two organisms do you think have
similar DNA sequences? Why?

Gorilla and chimpanzee…more similar organisms.

Section 11.1 Summary


pages 281
-

287

DNA Replication


In order for DNA to be
passed on to new cells, it
must be copied during
______________


Three steps to this
process!

interphase


Step 1:

The DNA _________ or unwinds


A


T

G


C

C


G

T


A

A


T


uncoils

5’

3’

5’

3’


Note that the two sides of DNA run in
__________ directions, from 5’ to 3’ and
3’ to 5’.


This helps ensure that the new DNA will
copy __________.


opposite

correctly


Step 2:

The zipper _________...notice that each
strand is __________________ to the other


A
-

-

T

G
-



-

C

C
-

-

G

T
-

-

A

A
-

-

T


opens up

complementary


Step 3:

Free nucleotides come in and make
new base pairs


A
-

-

T

G
-



-

C

C
-

-

G

T
-

-

A

A
-

-

T


Result?

There are ____ new
molecules of DNA that
are ___________ copies


4 strands = 2 molecules

T

C

G

A

T

A

G

C

T

A

exact

2

Old
strand

Old
strand

New
strand

New
strand


Since the bases must follow the base
-
pairing rules, when your body cells
________________, each new cell
inherits a ________ of the DNA

replicate

copy


Utah Genetics Animation
--
Tour of the
Basics

Review: Section 1 Vocabulary


Nucleotide





Double helix





DNA replication




Basic component of DNA molecule with a sugar
and phosphate group attached to either Adenine,
Guanine, Cytosine or Thymine.


Shape of DNA where 2 strands are twisted
into a coil and held together by the
nitrogenous bases.

Process in which an exact
copy of DNA is made.

Review: Objective 1


Analyze the structure of DNA


a coiled Double helix, with a

“Backbone” of phosphate and sugar, and


“Teeth” made of nitrogenous bases,
which can be A, C, G, or T.



Each DNA molecule is …

Review: Objective 2


Determine how the structure of DNA enables
it to reproduce itself accurately.





The two strands are complementary

because the bases must follow the

base
-
pairing rules. Each new strand is

a reverse copy of the originals.