Research the “Big Picture” – Societal Issues - PAWS

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 7 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Today


“Big Picture” thinking


Beyond the technical solution


The world of the professional


Test and

Implement


Solution

Analyze and

Select

Solution

Generate

Multiple

Solutions

Define


the

Problem

Gather

Information

Engineering

Design

Process

5 Steps of the Design Process

Design Process

1. Define the problem

Identify and establish the need

Develop a problem statement

Establish criteria for success

2.
Gather pertinent information

3. Brainstorm/generate creative ideas

4.
Analyze and select a solution

5. Test and implement the solution


Throughout

the entire process:


Communicate, communicate, communicate!


After

the design process is completed:


Perform post
-
implementation review and assessment

Beyond the Technical Solution


Understand the impact of your proposed solution


Within a
global

and
societal

context


As it relates to or is impacted by
contemporary

issues beyond
engineering, e.g.


Business


Medicine


Law


Environment


Gather information (Step 2) and incorporate into your
multiple solutions

Consider Beyond the “Boundaries”

PROBLEM

Look at the “Big Picture”!

Consider the Stakeholders


Owner


Operator


Service Provider


Engineering Team


Engineering Disciplines


Constructor


Equipment Manufacturer


Neighbors


Stockholders


Bankers


Educators


Students


Many others





Anyone who is impacted
by the project in anyway
is a potential stakeholder
and should not be ruled
out before the project
ever starts!


Pontiac Aztec


Great Idea Gone Bad


Unique features targeting the young professional


Minivan platform with many features of an SUV


All wheel drive


Fold
-
out camping unit


Table and cooler for tailgating parties


Oversized sound system



Perceived ugliness killed vehicle sales.



Pontiac Aztec


Where did GM go wrong?


During the Design process, General Motors…

1)
Waited too long to test the styling on potential customers


2) Had internal communication problems.


Negative response of focus groups was not effectively
communicated to upper management.




Understanding the Impact


Engineering is global, and engineering is done in a holistic
business context. The engineer must design under
constraints that include global, cultural and business
contexts
--

and so must understand them at a deep level.
They too are new "fundamentals".


William A. Wulf, President

National Academy of Engineering

2002 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition




Understanding the Impact


Challenger Disaster





Engineers viewpoint


It’s a cold morning…do not launch because


O
-
ring seals will not hold at such low temperatures.




NASA managers did not take warnings from Morton Thiokol (MT)


engineers seriously.




Poor communications


NASA managers did not voice concerns of


MT engineers to upper management.




Understanding the Impact


Apollo 1




Fire killed crew on the launch pad




Poor escape hatch design prevented them from escaping




5 Minute Team Activity

Identify FIVE current or emerging issues that impact
engineering solutions.

Understanding the Impact



Consider global, societal and contemporary impacts


don’t
design and implement with “ideal conditions” assumption.


Political and economic climates are continuously changing


Current world events


Multi
-
national corporations playing in the global field


Maximizing efficiency, minimizing costs


Decisions being made across cultures


Global engineering


Teamwork


Communication skills (emails, reports, presentations, etc.)


Industry trends


Manufacturing


Petroleum


Environment


Research the “Big Picture”
-

Global Issues


Worldwide in scope or application


Internationalization


Political instability


Cultural and social moirés


US $ vs. foreign economy


World market economy


cost of doing business overseas


Trade and labor trends


NAFTA


1994 North American Free Trade Agreement


European Union


Emerging markets


3
rd

world countries


Global leadership




Research the “Big Picture”


Global Issues


Consumption and consumerism


Creating products that generate new markets


Population growth


Changing demographics (US and abroad)


MTV generation vs. baby boomers


Minorities


Senior citizens


Natural resources


Availability/depletion


Environment


Acid rain


Global warming


International law

Research the “Big Picture”


Societal Issues


“Quality of life” for users


Safety/risks


Legal implications


Handicap accessibility


Regulatory requirements


Economy


Moral or ethical issues


Political issues


Homeland security


Creation of new jobs


Human rights and liberties




Research the “Big Picture”


Societal Issues

Human Factor Considerations:


Number of systems and subsystems


Complexity


Organization or interaction of/between systems


Requirements and/or constraints


Attributes and functionality


Controls and operation


Ease of Use


Review


http://www.baddesigns.com/index.shtml


Research the “Big Picture”


Societal Issues

Human Factor Issues:


Things that:


Don’t work the way you’d expect


Don’t work well together or that don’t fit


Are hard to see


Are too similar


Get in your way or are too hard to handle


Are are hard to remember, e.g. steps in a process


Controls that are too close together, too far, or are too hard to
figure out


Too many controls


Missing labels


Patterns of signs or ambiguous signs

Research the “Big Picture”

Contemporary Issues


Existing and emerging technologies


Information technology


Biotechnology


Labor relations


Health care


Genetic engineering


Organ donation and transplantation


Space exploration

Think Beyond the Context of the…


Existing problem



Big picture thinking



Identify and research issues
early



Incorporate findings into the solution



Mitigate risks!


Existing project



Technology transfer



Synergy


Steven Covey type thinking


World today



Document your results for those that will follow



Technology will continue to evolve

Employers Want Graduates who Have a
“Systems”

Perspective!