Presentation2.pptx

kissimmeemisologistΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Human Genetic Enhancement

Brandon Courtney

What is Genetic Enhancement?


Genetic
enhancement
refers to the
transfer of
genetic material
intended to
modify human
traits or
conditions

Genetic Enhancement Options


Gene Therapy

(Therapeutic)



Medical


Disease


Cancer


Treatments







Gene Enhancement

(Non
-
therapeutic)



Physical Traits


Personality Traits


Cognition


Performance


Genetic Enhancement Options

Gene Prevention


Immune System Alteration


Gene Remediation


Species
-

lower than normal conditions


Therapeutic or Non
-
therapeutic???


Cell Types

Somatic Cells



Cells
other than

egg or sperm cells



Non
-
inheritable



Example:



a person had a disease caused by a defective gene, a
healthy gene could be added to the affected cells to
treat the disorder. The modified gene would not be
inherited.


Cell Types

Germline Cells



Eggs, sperm, or
very early embryos



Inheritable



Example:


modified genes would
appear not only in any
treated person, but in all
succeeding generations.

Recombinant DNA


1.
Plasmid is removed from
an ecoli cell


2.
Plasmid is opened by a
special enzyme


3.
DNA coding for human
insulin is inserted into the
open plasmid


4.
Recombination


plasmid
closed by another special
enzyme


Vector Systems


Genes cannot be
directly inserted
into a cell, a carrier
is required.


Viral Vectors


Viruses


Non
-
viral Vectors


Plasmids from
bacteria


RNA


Gene Manipulation Options

In Vivo



Interior



Genes are changed
in cells still inside the
body

Gene Manipulation Options

Ex Vivo



Exterior



Cells are removed
from the body and
modified outside and
then transplanted
back into the body.

The Process Overview

Genetic Engineering

Making People Better or Making Better
People?

Restoring Muscle in Muscular
Dystrophy

Quality of Life:

Cognitive & Physical


Gene Doping in Athletics

What is Fair Play?

What are the Limitations?

Bioethics


What is the answer?

Ethical / Extreme Continuum

Human Genetic Enhancement


Emerging Technology

-

Nuclear Transfer Technology

-

Stem Cell


-

Genetic Therapy/Enhancement


Bioethics



-

Define Normal



-

Regulation



-

Fair Play


Future possibilities

-

Cybernetics

-

Nanotechnologies

-

Radical Life Extension