Objective: to intro selective breeding and genetic engineering

kissimmeemisologistΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Objective: to intro selective
breeding and genetic engineering

13.1 and 13.2

Objective: to intro selective
breeding

Selective breeding
-

humans choose
what organism breeds with another
organism.


We pick desired
characteristics



Dogs, Cattle, cats, horses, crop
plants.


Objective: to intro selective breeding

Hybridization
-

crossing dissimilar
organisms to try to bring the best of
both organisms out in the offspring

Inbreeding
-

to keep desired traits of an
organism, only 2 similar organisms
would breed together.

To intro selective breeding

Risks of inbreeding:

breeding similar organisms can result
in two recessive alleles coming
together.

Ex: golden retrievers are very likely to
be blind or have joint deformities


Intro selective breeding

Genetic Variety is needed to have
different traits.

Breeders can increase
variety by causing
mutations



by
using radiation or chemicals.



Most of the mutations they see are
negative, but some can be positive.


To intro selective breeding

Producing new
bacteria


Bacteria
that can digest oil.

Producing new plants


Polyploidy



Double set of DNA (banana and
citrus fruits).


Introduce manipulating DNA
13.2

Manip
. DNA= change DNA.


can make changes to make the
organism better

To introduce manipulating DNA

Ways Genetic Engineering is done


Extract DNA


Cut DNA



identify
sequence of
bases


make
unlimited copies
.


To introduce manipulating DNA

Extraction
-

we did this.

Cutting
DNA
-

restriction enzymes.

Indentifying bases
-

separating DNA
using gel electrophoresis.

Making
unlimited copies
-

using PCR
(polymerase chain reaction)