Genetically Modified Organisms

kissimmeemisologistΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

191 εμφανίσεις

GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

By: Nancy
Hu
, Hannah
Sklar
, and
Alex
Dluzneski

12.6
-
RECOMBINANT CELLS AND
ORGANISMS CAN MASS
-
PRODUCE
GENE PRODUCTS


Recombinant cells and organisms constructed by DNA
technology is used to make many useful products,
mostly proteins.


To produce large amounts of proteins, genetic
engineers transfer genes for desired protein into
bacterium, yeast, or other easy to grow cells.


Bacteria are top choice to manufacture proteins
because there are plasmids and phages available for
gene
-
cloning vectors and they can be mass produced
easily


Sometimes eukaryotic cells are used in such products
such as bread and beer, where yeast cells take up
foreign DNA to incorporate into their genomes.

12.6 CONTINUED


Cells of choice for gene
-
making can come
from mammals and be used to produce such
hormones as EPO (a treatment for anemia to
increase red blood cells in body)


Using recombinant DNA technology, genetic
engineers can add genes for desired human
proteins to mammal genomes, which are
excreted in such things as milk


These animals may be cloned, resulting in a herd
of “
pharm
” animals.

12.7
-
DNA TECHNOLOGY HAS
CHANGED THE PHARMACEUTICAL
INDUSTRY AND MEDICINE


Genetic engineering has developed bacteria that
synthesizes and secretes human insulin.


People with dwarfism need to take Human Growth
Hormone(HGH). Molecular biologist joined a human DNA
fragment to a chemically synthesized piece of DNA to
produce HGH in E. coli.


Tissue
plasminogen

activator(TPA) helps dissolve blood
clots and reduces risk of subsequent heart attacks if
administered soon after a heart attack.


DNA technology can detect genes for human disease
before birth and can find infections.

12.7 CONTINUED


Vaccines:
harmless variation of a pathogen that is used to
stimulate the immune system to defend against the
pathogen. Genetically engineered cells can be used to
produce large amounts of a protein molecule found on the
pathogen’s outer surface

´
Another way DNA technology is used vaccines is to make a
harmless artificial mutant of the pathogen by altering one
or more of its genes. This harmless mutant used as a
vaccine multiplies in body and triggers large immune
response.

´
Another vaccine is to employ a virus related to one that
causes smallpox. Genetic engineers use this to replace
some of the gene encoding proteins that induce smallpox
immunity with genes induce immunity to other disease.
The virus can be engineered to carry genes needed to
vaccinate against many disease at the same time.

12.8
-
GENETICALLY MODIFIED
ORGANISMS ARE TRANSFORMING
AGRICULTURE


Today DNA technology can be used to produce new
genetic varieties of plants and animals


Genetic engineers have produced many genetically
modified organisms, ones that have acquired one or
more genes artificially


If the gene is from another species, the recombinant
organism is called a transgenic organism.


To make genetically modified plants, researchers
often manipulate the DNA of a somatic cell and then
grow an entire plant from its culture.


The most common vector used to introduce new
genes into plant cells is a plasmid form the soil
bacterium called the Ti plasmid

12.8 CONTINUED


The Ti plasmid is used as the vector for
introducing foreign genes into a plant cell.


To make a transgenic animal: remove egg cells
and fertilize them in vitro. Then eject a previously
cloned gene into the nuclei of the fertilized egg.
The engineers then surgically implant embryos
into a surrogate mother.


The goals in creating transgenic animals and
plants are to make them more successful.


In the US today, roughly half the corn crop and
over 75% of the soybean and cotton are
genetically modified.


QUIZ TIME
!!!!


1. What is the best organism for manufacturing a protein
product?



2. What does tissue
plasminogen

activator (TPA) do?


4. What is the organism called if the new gene is from another species?

5. TRUE/FALSE: Ti plasmid is the
most common vector used to introduce new
genes into plant cells .


3. What is a vaccine?

A) Human

B) Algae

C) Bacteria

D) Sheep

WORK CITED


Kae
, Helmut. "The Science Creative Quarterly » THE NEW
MACDONALD

PHARM
." The Science Creative Quarterly.
Web
. 25
Jan. 2012
.

<
http://
www.scq.ubc.ca/the
-
new
-
macdonald
-
pharm
/>.