Genetic Engineering - TeacherWeb

kissimmeemisologistΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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DNA Technology

1.
Learned how to extract DNA from an
eukaryotic cell.

2.
Applied restriction enzymes to create
DNA fragments of various lengths.

3.
Used Gel Electrophoresis to separate
DNA fragments to help solve societal
problems.

4.

Learned about Gene Cloning
(Transformation) & Gene Therapy

What we have done…


Extract the DNA from
the cell


Use a combination of
salts & detergents to
degrade away lipids
and proteins


Addition of alcohol to
precipitate DNA.



First steps in DNA technology…

Restriction Enzymes


These special
proteins cut DNA at
very specific sites to
create different size
DNA fragments.

Gel Electrophoresis


An electrical field in
the gel chamber
causes the DNA
fragments to move in
the
agarose

gel.


The gel separates the
DNA fragments
according to size

Reading a gel

Father A Mother A Child Father B Mother B


In 1977 British
scientist Alec Jeffreys
developed the DNA
fingerprinting
technique.


In 1984, DNA
fingerprinting was first
used to solve a
paternity and murder
case.


Cell Transformation


Also known as gene
splicing or gene cloning.


Bacterial transformations
began in 1977 with a
company called
Genentech.


Herbert Boyer utilized
bacteria called
Escherichia coli

(
E.coli
)
to mass produce human
insulin.

TRANSGENIC ORGANISM

Cell Transformation


Most DNA plasmids contain
genetic markers

such as an
antibiotic resistance and/or
bioluminescent genes.


AMP
r


ampicillin resistance
gene


pGreen



plasmid containing
green fluorescent gene


These genetic markers express
proteins to help scientists
locate the one cell in a million
that has been transformed.

SELECTIVE BREEDING


Producing
new
combination of
desired traits
between two different
parents.


Results in new plant
varieties, new animal
breeds


A subdivision of a
species.

Labradoodle

SELECTIVE BREEDING


HYBRIDIZATION
-

uses very different
plants to produce
hybrids with
desired traits



INBREEDING
-

uses very similar
animals to keep
the desired traits

Gene Therapy


Gene therapy is an experimental
technique that uses genes to treat or
prevent disease
.


In the future, this technique may allow
doctors to treat a disorder by inserting a
gene into a patient’s cells instead of using
drugs or surgery.

Cloning


3 types


Recombinant DNA cloning


making
copies of the same gene.


Reproductive cloning


making copies of
the same organism (bacteria, plants and
certain animals). SCNT.


Therapeutic cloning


making copies of
embryos to study development and treat
diseases.