Gel Electrophoresis Genetic engineering Stem ... - Mr. Gittermann

kissimmeemisologistΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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GEL ELECTROPHORESI S

GENETI C ENGI NEERI NG

STEM CELLS

CLONI NG

Genetic Engineering

Individual Genetic Differences:


The
difference between each living thing is the order of
the base pairs in DNA


A.

Each person has millions of base pairs


B.

Some sequences of DNA are repeated


DNA
Gel Electrophoresis


1.
DNA
molecule is separated from the cell

2.
It is cut into several pieces of different sizes using
restriction enzymes

3.
A restriction enzyme cuts DNA at specific
locations

4.
The DNA fragments are poured into a gel, which
is not completely solid and contains pores

5.
DNA is a negatively charged molecule so it is
attracted to a positive charge at the opposite end
of the gel

DNA Gel Electrophoresis


6.
The
DNA fragments are sorted by size




a. Large
fragments move slowly through the
pores in the gel



b. Small
fragments move quickly through the
pores in the gel

6.
The DNA fragments are stained so they can be
seen

7.
Different banding patterns show up on the gel
where the DNA stopped moving

8.
These bands of DNA can be compared between
organisms

Uses of DNA Fingerprinting:


a.
Paternity
and maternity tests

b.
Criminal
identification and
forensics

c.
Personal
identification

Genetic Engineering:


Purposefully bring about genetic changes by way of
recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA Technology:


The isolation, cutting, and splicing together of gene
regions from different species


Amplify the number of genes


Then genes and their protein products are created
for research projects

Three Basic Activities

1.
Specific enzymes used to cut DNA into fragments

2.
Fragments inserted into cloning tools such as
plasmids

3.
Fragments are then rapidly copied for research

Plasmid


Small circular piece of DNA found in bacteria that
can be rapidly copied

Goals of Genetic Engineering:


Isolating, modifying, and inserting particular genes
back into the same organism or into a different one


Modify traits influenced by those genes in beneficial
ways


Controlling or curing genetic disorders

Products of Genetic Engineering:


Stronger & better crop plants


Stronger & bigger livestock


New breeds of animals and plants


Human Genome Project:


Mapping out the function of genes found on the 3.2
billion base pairs found in our 23 chromosomes


Specific functions & disorders have for the most part
been found on the DNA chain


99.9% of the nucleotide sequence is the same for
every human

Gene Therapy:


Transferring a normal gene into the body cells of an
individual to correct a genetic defect or boost
resistance to a disease


You could also change non
-
life threatening genes as
well (appearance, character, behavior, etc.)

Stem Cells


Cells in the body that have the ability to reproduce
quickly and develop into any specialized type of cell

Embryonic Stem Cells


Stem cells found in human embryos


Controversy on whether embryos typically used for
in vitro fertilization can be used (400,000 not used
every year)


There are adult stem cells but in much smaller
numbers

Restrictions:


Restriction on funding and access to stem cells exist
currently and sometimes vary state to state.


Recently:


FDA approves clinical trials for embryonic stem cell research


President Obama pushing for less restrictions

Cloning:


Process of creating genetically identical multi
-
cellular organisms

Process:


Inserting a genetically modified egg into the uterus
of a host organism


Not overly successful (237 eggs needed to create
Dolly the sheep)


Doesn’t necessary result in an identical individual
due to DNA mutations