farming - Miss Gail's Blog

kissimmeemisologistΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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FARMING


Science Project:
Ja,Jin,Noonn


genetically modified organism



A GMO is a genetically modified organism (also called "genetically
engineered") a plant, animal, or microorganism that is created by
means that overcome natural boundaries. Genetic engineering
involves crossing species that could not breed in nature.



For example, genes from a fish have been placed in strawberries
and tomatoes


Most GMOs today are of two types:
"insect resistant"
and
"herbicide
tolerant."
Those that are insect resistant are regulated as a new
insecticide. When you eat GMO insect resistant corn, for example,
it may be like eating pesticides. With herbicide tolerant crops,
farmers no longer have to limit herbicide use to avoid killing plants.
Farmers can use larger amounts of herbicides sprayed directly on
plants. The practice may lead to more chemicals in your food.




Many people believe that GMOs will make food better tasting,
more nutritious, and longer lasting. Others hope that they will
help feed the developing world's growing
population.The

Department of Agriculture (USDA), nor the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) has done any long
-
term testing of
GMOs in food or the environment. It could take years for the
unhealthful effects of GMOs to develop. The government did not
require any pre
-
market research; and we have been eating foods
with GMOs since 1996. Without research, some experts conclude
GMO foods could have new and different risks for you, your
family, and the environment.




What is GMO ?


Product


noonn

Eutropication

Eutrophication

is a process in which bodies of water (lakes, ponds, and rivers) receive excess
nutrients that stimulate excessive growth of algae. The two most common nutrients that initiate
eutrophication

are nitrogen and phosphorous, two limiting nutrients in the growth of algae. These
two nutrients are usually introduced to the body of water through fertilizer run
-
off.


The uncontrolled growth of algae and their subsequent descent into the depths of the body of water
stimulates an active benthic community (bacteria), which depletes oxygen levels due to respiration.
The algae may also cover the surface of the water, reducing the amount of light that penetrates into
the
photic

zone, decreasing photosynthesis in aquatic
autotrophs
. The decreased level of dissolved
oxygen can result in the death of any number of larger communities.








noonn


Danger & preventing



Water pollution may not damage our health immediately but
can be harmful after long term exposure


•Industrial waste often contains many toxic compounds that
damage the health of aquatic animals and those who eat them.
Some of the toxins in industrial waste may only have a mild
effect whereas other can be fatal


•Sulfate particles from acid rain can cause harm the health of
marine life in the rivers and lakes it contaminates, and can result
in mortality(dead).




If you want to help keep our waters clean, there are many
things you can do to help


•Be careful about what you throw down your sink or toilet.
Don’t throw paints, oils or other forms of litter down the drain.


•Take great care not to overuse pesticides and
fertilisers
. This
will prevent runoffs of the material into nearby water sources.



Danger


preventing


noonn



SOIL EROSION




what's soil erosion?


Soil erosion is just a form of soil
degradation.Soil

is naturally removed by the action of water or wind: such
'background' (or 'geological') soil erosion has been occurring for some 450 million years, since the first land
plants formed the first
soil.In

general, background erosion removes soil at roughly the same rate as soil is formed.
But 'accelerated' soil erosion loss of soil at a much faster rate than it is formed is a far more recent
problem.Accelerated

soil erosion by water or wind may affect both agricultural areas and the natural environment,
and is one of the most widespread of today's environmental problems.




Jin



Process Of Soil Erosion





where

and when they occur


what happens to the area that is being eroded (
on
-
site impacts
)


how far the eroded soil is moved, and


if the soil is moved away from the place where it was eroded,
what happens as a result (
off
-
site impacts
).



Soil may be detached and moved by

water
,

wind

or

tillage
. These three
however differ greatly in terms of:



Jin



HEDGE ROW METHOD



A

hedge

or

hedgerow

is a line of closely
spaced

shrubs

and tree species, planted and trained in
such a way as to form a barrier or to mark the boundary
of an area.


Hedgerow trees are trees that grow in hedgerows but
have been allowed to reach their full height and width.
There are thought to be around 1.8 million hedgerow
trees in
Britain.Hedgerow

trees are both an important
part of the English landscape and are valuable habitats
for wildlife
.

HEDGE TYPES

-
Quickset hedge

A quickset hedge is a type of hedge created by planting live

hazel

or
whitethorn (common hawthorn) cuttings directly into the earth.


-
Devon hedge


A Devon hedge is an

earth bank

topped with shrubs.

-
Cornish hedge

A Cornish hedge is an earth bank with stones.



Jin

D Grade


A reasonable attempt at the project. However, this
should be your own work and not just copy and
pasted from the internet.


How has farming changed? You have not attempted
to explain this but just some of the effects of the
changes.


You should also try and use some of the case studies
to explain
the changes.