DNA Technology.pptx

kissimmeemisologistΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 9 μέρες)

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DNA Technology



How
is DNA fingerprinting used to
identify a person?


What is the use of polymerase chain
reactions (PCR)?


How is bacterial transformation used
in medicine?


How is gel electrophoresis used in
DNA technology?



Vocabulary


Polymerase Chain Reaction


Gel
Electrophoresis


Bacterial Transformation


DNA Fingerprinting


Polymerase Chain Reaction


Used to make many copies of small pieces of
DNA

What is the use of polymerase chain
reactions (PCR)?

DNA Fingerprinting


Uses gel electrophoresis to observe the
patterns that are unique to each person


How is DNA fingerprinting used to identify a
person?

Gel Electrophoresis


a technique used to separate the DNA
fragments according to their size



How is gel electrophoresis used in DNA
technology?

Bacterial Transformation


Bacteria can pick up DNA from their
environment and incorporate it into their DNA


How is bacterial transformation used in
medicine?

Biotechnology

Provides:

9

Biotechnology Breakthroughs


Insulin (1982)


First commercial biotech product


Reliable, inexpensive source of insulin


Rice


Enriched with beta
-
carotene and iron


Bananas


Containing edible hepatitis vaccine

Biotechnology Breakthroughs


Potatoes with higher solid content


Garlic that lowers cholesterol


Fruits and vegetables that
reduce risks
of cancer and heart disease


Environmental Benefits


Reduced pesticide use


Lower energy requirements


Cleaner water


Less soil erosion

Genetic Engineering and Bioethics


How has genetic engineering influenced food and
medicine
?


How
is cloning currently used in food and medicine?


How is stem cell research being used to benefit
humans?


What are the bioethics issues surrounding stem cell
research and cloning?


What is the relationship of evolution to biological
resistance?


Vocabulary


Cloning


Transgenic animals


Stem Cells


Bioethics


Biological Resistance

Cloning

How is cloning currently used in food
and medicine?



A body cell from one organism and an
egg
cell

from another are fused

The resulting cell divides like a normal embryo



Making an identical copy of an
organism

Transgenic animals


made by introducing genes from one
species into the genome of another
organism.


Transgenic animals may be created to exploit the
attributes of new genes (for example, genes for
faster growth or larger muscles).


Agricultural scientists have engineered a number
of crop plants with genes for desirable traits.

Stem Cells


Is an unspecialized cell that can reproduce
itself indefinitely and differentiate into
specialized cells

How is stem cell research being used
to benefit humans?


Biological Resistance


Genetically based resistance to pests,
disease, drought, etc.

What is the relationship of evolution to biological
resistance?

18

Herbicide Resistant
Crops


Soybeans:

Roundup Ready


Corn:


Roundup Ready, Liberty Link


Cotton:


BXN, Roundup Ready


Canola:


Liberty Link, Roundup Ready

+ CP4
EPSPS
= Roundup


gene



Ready

Bioethics


study of the controversies brought about
by advances in biology

What are the bioethics issues surrounding
stem cell research and cloning?

How has genetic engineering influenced
food and medicine?

Chromosomes and Mutations and
Biological Resistance


How do mutations affect evolution?


What are genetic diseases that are caused by
mutations?


What are the different types of mutations that can
occur in organisms?


What is the relationship of evolution to biological
resistance?

Vocabulary


Single gene mutations


Polygenic mutations


Chromosomal mutations


Mitochondrial DNA mutations


nondisjunction


insertion


substitution


deletion


chromosomal translocation


mutagenic factors (radiation, chemical)


biological resistance


point mutation


frame shift mutation

Gene Mutations



Change in genes caused by change in
structure of the DNA


DNA bases may be substituted, added, or
removed to cause gene mutation


When genes are
added or removed
, the
mutation is called a
frame shift mutation


Adding or Removing a genes is called a point
mutation


point
mutation
VS.
frameshift mutations


A point mutation is a simple change in one base
of the gene sequence.


Original The fat
c
at ate the wee rat.


Point Mutation The fat
h
at ate the wee rat.



In a frame shift mutation, one or more bases are
inserted or deleted.


Original The fat cat ate the wee rat.


Frame Shift The fat
ca
a

tet

hew
eer

at


mutations



Single gene and Polygenic




A permanent change in DNA




Single gene mutation deals with 1 gene
and polygenic mutations deal with more
than 1 gene

Chromosomal
mutations


Mutations in a cells’ chromosome

Mitochondrial DNA mutations


Mutations in the chromosome of
mitochondrial

DNA

nondisjunction


Sister chromatids do not separate properly
during meiosis


Results in gametes that do not have the
correct number of chromosomes


Inversion occurs when a piece of a chromosome
breaks off & reattaches to the same place but in
the reverse order

Inversion

(Mutations)
insertion


Results in the addition of extra DNA


Insertions can cause frameshift mutations,
and general result in a nonfunctional protein.



Original The fat cat ate the wee rat.


Insertion The fat cat
xlw

ate the wee rat.


(Mutations)
Substitution


Mutation results from genes or single
nitrogen bases being switched.


Duplications occur when a section of a
chromosome is doubled

(Mutations)

Duplication

(Mutations)
deletion


Mutations that result from sections of DNA being
deleted
.


Deletions occur when the end of a chromosome
breaks off & is lost


These can be small, such as the removal of just one
"word," or longer deletions that affect a large number
of genes on the chromosome.


Deletions can also cause frameshift mutations. In this
example, the deletion eliminated the word cat.



Original The fat cat ate the wee rat.


Deletion The fat ate the wee rat.


chromosomal translocation


Translocation occurs when a chromosome
segment breaks off & attaches to a different
chromosome


Parts of a chromosome braking off and
reattaching during crossing over in meiosis.

mutagenic
factors


chemical or physical agents that change DNA
to cause mutations.


(radiation, chemical)

1.
What are the different types of
mutations that can occur in
organisms?



2.
What

are

genetic

diseases

that

are

caused

by

mutations?



3.
How
do
mutations
affect evolution?


What is the relationship of evolution
to biological resistance?