Public Sector Use Cases for the Next-Generation Network

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Cisco
Systems, Inc.
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Cisco Systems, Inc. Response to

White Paper


Next Generation Network

March

14, 2013




Cisco
Systems, Inc.
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Proprietary

.





Cisco Systems, Inc. Response to

Request for White Paper


Next Generation Network






March

14, 2013


Cisco Systems, Inc.






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Legal Disclaimer

Thank you for the opportunity to
provide this White Paper
for your consideration. Please note that this
White Paper
may include proprietary, confidential, and/or trade secret information, which, if included, will be
clearly marked as
such
.






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Trademarks

Every effort has been made to identify trademark information in the
accompanying text.
However, this information may unintentionally have been omitted in referencing particular
products. Product names that are not so noted may also be trademarks of their respective
manufacturers.

Cisco is a registered trademark of Cisco Sy
stems, Inc.

The Cisco logo is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems, Inc.

Cisco Systems is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems, Inc.






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Table of Contents

The Next Generation Network for Public Sector

................................
................................
.............
1

Executive Summary

................................
................................
................................
.........................
1

Future IT Trends

................................
................................
................................
.........................

2

Current Network Capabilities for Government Services

................................
............................

3

Contract Scope

................................
................................
................................
............................

5

Procurement Delay

................................
................................
................................
...................
6

Scope Recommendations

................................
................................
................................
.........
7

Terms and Conditions

................................
................................
................................
.................

7

Public Sector Use Cases

................................
................................
................................
.............

7

Future IT Trends

................................
................................
................................
..............................
8

Network Capabilities for Government Services

................................
................................
............
12

The Way Forward

................................
................................
................................
.....................

14

Architecture Rationale

................................
................................
................................
..............

16

Impact of Commoditization

................................
................................
................................
......

17

Networking Components

................................
................................
................................
..........

19

Network Infrastructure

................................
................................
................................
...........
23

Cloud/Data Center

................................
................................
................................
.................
23

Collaboration Services

................................
................................
................................
...........
24

Physical Security

................................
................................
................................
....................
25

Network Management

................................
................................
................................
............
26

Procurement and Technology Scope

................................
................................
.............................
28

Typical Components of State
-
Wide IT Procurements

................................
..............................

29

Objective

................................
................................
................................
................................
29

Purpose

................................
................................
................................
................................
...
30

Scope of Work

................................
................................
................................
.......................
30

Definitions of Terminology

................................
................................
................................
...
30

Scope Recommendations

................................
................................
................................
..........

31

Products and Services Scope
................................
................................
................................
..
32

Addition of New, Value
-
Added Technological Advances during Contract Term

................
34

Eligible Users

................................
................................
................................
.........................
34

Manufacturer’s Fulfillment Partners

................................
................................
......................
34

Terms and Conditions

................................
................................
................................
....................
35

Common Contractual Issues and Concerns

................................
................................
..............

35

OEM as Prime/Contractor Holder with Resellers as Subs

................................
.....................
35

Limitation of Liability

................................
................................
................................
............
35

Most Favored Nation Language or Similar

Language

................................
...........................
35

Pricing Based on Minimum Discounts versus Fixed Price

................................
....................
36

Capital Lease Financing

................................
................................
................................
.........
36

Refurbished Equipment

................................
................................
................................
.........
36





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Payment Terms

................................
................................
................................
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36

Delivery, Inspection, Acceptance, and Rejection

................................
................................
..
36

OEM’s Standard
Warranty

................................
................................
................................
....
37

Standard Maintenance Offerings

................................
................................
...........................
37

Standard Software Licen
se
................................
................................
................................
.....
37

Consequential, Incidental, Indirect, Special, or Punitive Exclusion

................................
......
37

Liquidated Damages

................................
................................
................................
..............
38

Rights and Remedies of State for Default

................................
................................
..............
38

General Indemnity

................................
................................
................................
.................
38

Patent, Copyright, and Trade Secret Indemnity

................................
................................
.....
39

Rights in Work Product(s)

................................
................................
................................
.....
40

Right to Copy or Modify

................................
................................
................................
........
40

Stop Work Order

................................
................................
................................
....................
40

Returns

................................
................................
................................
................................
...
40

e
-
Procurement or Online Catalog

................................
................................
..........................
41

Confidentiality Provisions

................................
................................
................................
.....
41

Contract Term

................................
................................
................................
........................
41

Public Sector Use Cases for the Next
-
Generation Network

................................
..........................
42

General Government Operations

................................
................................
..............................

42

Virtual Citizen Services

................................
................................
................................
............

43

Health and Human Services

................................
................................
................................
......

44

Education

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

44

Public Safety

................................
................................
................................
.............................

45

Justice

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

46

Summary

................................
................................
................................
................................
........
46

Glossary of Current and Future Technology

................................
................................
.................
48

Acronyms

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........
1


List of Figures

Figure 1. The Network Is the Foundation

................................
................................
.......................

4

Figure 2. Trends in Networking and Supporting Infrastructure

................................
.....................

8

Figure 3. Cyber Security Is Needed across the Network

................................
................................

9

Figure 4. Applications, Devices, and Suppo
rt

................................
................................
..............

12

Figure 5. Application Layers on the Same Network Infrastructure

................................
..............

15

Figure 6. User Services Are Supported by the Network Services and Foundation

......................

17

Figure 7. Underbuilt Network Cannot Support Extra User Services

................................
............

18

Figure 8.
Virtualization Enables Network Consolidation

................................
.............................

19

Figure 9. The Four Layers of Shared Network

................................
................................
.............

24

Figure 10. Digital Signage

................................
................................
................................
............

56

Figure 11. OSI Model

................................
................................
................................
...................

61

Figure 1
2. WAN and Application Optimization Lifecycle

................................
...........................

63





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Figure 13. Architecture Overview

................................
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................................

66

List of Tables

Table 1. Vendor Solutions

................................
................................
................................
..............

6

Table 2. Five Technology Areas

................................
................................
................................
...

13

Table 3. Network Capabilities Examples
................................
................................
......................

20

Table 4. Essential Networking Components Support Government Services

...............................

22

Table 5. Cloud Computing versus Traditional IT

................................
................................
.........

23

Table 6. Major Technology Categories

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32






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The
Next
Generation Network

for
Public Sector


Executive Summary

Technologists
,
business
managers, and policymakers

in the
P
ublic
S
ector

expect

Information
Technology (IT) to improve service
delivery

with the same or fewer resources and to contain
costs. IT procur
ement poses unique challenges, because of the rapid pace of technological
advances

and the lengthy timeframe for competitive processes to take place
.

Often,

contracts are
out of date before the procure
ment process is complete.
For example, existing contrac
t vehicles
for networking, communications, and data center technology did not foresee innovations such

as
:



Cloud computing



The
Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)

to work
trend



Video and
web conferencing

for collaboration and
t
raining



Network
-
connected sensors for public safety and facilities management
.

As a result, many
P
ublic

S
ector organizations
have
had to develop supplemental
Request
s

for
Proposal (
RFPs
)

or
R
equests for
I
nformation (RFIs)

and

reissue or withdraw RFPs,
complicating
the procurement process and som
etimes delaying project starts.

This
W
hite
P
aper is intended to

share information that may

make it easier for public
-
sector
procurement offic
ers to meet organizational needs and
provide guidance on
how to develop new
RFPs to be more flexible. Th
is

W
hite
P
aper describes:



Future
IT
t
rends

that we expect
connected
governments

to adopt over the next decade to
increase efficiency, improve citi
zen services, and reduce costs.





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Current n
etwork c
apabilities

for government services

needed to support use
r

services

today and into the future
, including the network infrastructure, cloud a
nd data center
solutions, collaboration services, physical security, and connectivity to service providers.



Scoping

the contract to make it flexible. Building flexibility into the procurement process
allows
Public Sector

Chief Information Officers (
CIOs
)

a
nd procurement officers to

take
advantage of technolog
ical

advances. It also helps procurement officers take advantage of
changes in pricing and licensing models, manufacturing innovations, and catalog changes
resulting from acquisitions or spinoffs

which
occur frequently in a world of consolidation
and innovation
.



Terms and conditions

that either increase or decrease the flexibility of the contract.
While every
Public Sector

entity has its own terms and conditions, some make it harder
for vendors and syste
m integrators to respond with

the best solution and pricing.



We have provided some hi
ghlights of terms and conditions

that

cause

problems

for
most technology companies from a “risk” perspective. Contract requirements that are
considered non
-
standard in the

IT industry tend to create significant additional
financial burden on companies to comply with, which will ultimately impact the
pricing of their offerings under the contract.



We provide alternative legal language to enable
Public Sector

procurement offic
ers to
protect the public interest, get the products and services their agencies want, meet
their legal requirements, and enable the vendor community to do business without
undue risk.



Public Sector
Use Cases
help you have a conversation with your
stakehol
ders;

we have
included use cases for government services, public safety, justice, health and human
services, and other departments.

Future

IT Trends

The public and private sectors are at the threshold of a massive transition in how and where work
is performed. Just a few years ago, work was a place. You sat at a desk and used a
Personal
Computer (
PC
)

to access information and applications hosted on
servers

somewhere in the
building. To meet with someone, you took a trip. To learn

about departmental news, you went to
a meeting or read a newsletter.

Today, work is no longer a place, but an activity. An increasingl
y mobile workforce expects
remote access

to use voice, video, and data services from anywhere, any time, on any device,
including personal

smartphones and

tablets. Many existing contracting vehicles
did not anticipate
the contemporary government workplace:



Cloud services are supplanting departmental servers

to enable IT services sharing



A more mobile workforce has given rise to
Bring Your Own Device

(BYOD)

policies
and virtual desktops



Video has
become a mainstay for collaboration, train
ing, justice, and public safety





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Cyber security

is more complex
;

the result of
:



more sophisticated attackers



the move to cloud services



mobile computing



remote access



Other
Key Threats



Software

Defined Networking

(SDN) is helping governments provide better perf
ormance
with existing bandwidth




Big D
ata
” analytics are enabling smarter government and more
personalized citizen
service



Networks connect people
,

places
,

and

devices

to

creat
e
an “Internet of Everything
.”

Read more about
f
uture
IT trends.

Current
Network
Capabilities

for Government Services

The old government paradigm where employees sit in offices to perform their work in order to
access essential services and perform job functions is obsolete.
While there will probably always
be capital cities and major
city government office complexes, c
urrent technology innovations
provide government agencies operational efficiencies and increased productivity and enable
employees to work anywhere, anytime
,

on multiple devices as needed to do their jobs. Most
employers
and employees now see the benefits of anywhere, anytime access to information using
any device. These shifts in how and where we work
,

coupled with innovations in IT
,

are driving
changes in our basic ability to collaborate with one another and get the info
rma
tion we need to
meet our needs.

More and more flexibility, more remote access, more non
-
standard, non
-
IT issued devices and
equipment accessing the network means that today’s
communications
networks must have
capabilities that yesterday’s basic data net
works never envisioned. The burden to deliver these
new capabilities falls largely on procurement officers. As procurement officials meet the needs
and challenges presented by a demanding public, a mobile workforce, and agency managers
,

their new contracts

and procurement vehicles must incorporate a
broad array of new technology.
New contracts must be broad enough and flexible

enough

to

adapt to future changes and
innovations in technology.

Chief Information Officers and technology professionals understand
the pace and changes in
technology, and they want contracts that enable them to provide solutions to business problems
facing government agencies and current and innovative technology to meet government
workforce requirements. Procurement officials can hel
p the technology professionals be
successful and enable government to gain operational efficiencies while reducing operational
costs.





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It all starts with understanding that networks are the foundation upon which all other IT
solutions function.

Guaranteeing

that everything works to its highest level of functionality and
meets the security requirements of today’s workforce requires approaching IT procurement from
an architectural perspective (
Figure 1
).


Figure 1. The Network
I
s the Foundation

By working wit
h IT professionals to develop a complete architecture, IT procurement will
leverage the network to transform
day
-
to
-
day operations.

Utilizing an architectural/solutions based approach to contracting
,

as opposed to procurements
for single point products
,

wi
ll create this IT platform for transformation and provide a foundation
to enable future IT services and capabilities.

The
following

includes
the Next G
eneration
Network (NGN):



NGN Requirements for the Public Sector



Low total cost of ownership:
Acquisition
costs are only a fraction of the total cost of
ownership. To lower operational costs, an NGN also needs easy
-
to
-
use management
and troubleshooting tools and the ability to scale without a network redesign or
equipment replacement.



Global availability:
Availability has a growing impact on the business of
government because the network supports critical applications for public safety and
citizen services. The growing popularity of cloud services in government requires
highly available connections to cloud

service providers.



Consistent quality of experience:
Successfully integrating collaboration capabilities
such as instant messaging and videoconferencing into business processes requires a
good quality of experience. Without it, adoption suffers.



Transport

virtualization:
Rather than building and maintaining multiple networks
for voice, video, energy management, and so on, governments are consolidating to a




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single physical network that supports multiple virtual networks. This lowers costs
while also providi
ng economies of scale for management, redundancy, and so on.



Cyber security:
Attacks are becoming more frequent and more sophisticated. The
NGN needs information assurance capabilities that allow high
-
priority applications to
continue functioning even duri
ng attacks. Requirements include authentication, role
-
based access control, and prevention of attacks intended to bring down servers.



Secure mobility:
An increasingly mobile workforce needs access to government
services from anywhere, from any device



inc
luding personal tablets and
smartphones.



Support for video and other rich
-
media applications:
The NGN needs the
performance and management tools to deliver a consistent video experience without
interfering with the performance of other applications running

over the same network.
These are known as medianet capabilities.



Energy awareness:
To lower energy consumption, the NGN needs to report energy
utilization of devices connected to the network, and automatically power them down
when appropriate. An example
is powering down wireless access points and Internet
Protocol (IP) phones when offices are closed.

Read about
Network Capabilities for
Government Services.

Contract
Scope

In the IT world, there are at least two d
istinct types of procurements:
products and
/
or
commoditie
s; and services and solutions.
G
overnment
s continue to need to make commodity and
prod
uct procurements.

However, in order to make sure that your contract remains flexible
enough to enable your customers to acquire the equipment they need, the scope

needs to
broaden
the narrow
focus
on
products
to include

solutions and architectures.
To make sure that your
b
uying vehicles

remain relevant as technology,
organizational

needs, and licensing models
change,
the scope
should
frame

the

ask


in a way to address specific business requiremen
ts or
solve specific problems.
I
nstead of specifying a “box” that meets specif
ications such as speed or
number of ports, consider writing requests for solutions that meet a business need

such as:



V
ideo or
W
eb conferencing solution
s to provide distance learning



Voice over IP to reduce telephone line costs and leverage
the data networ
k infrastructure



D
ata center consolidation and
virtualization

solutions to reduce costs



Interoperable

communications solutions that enable public safety employees to talk
directly using any type of radio or pho
ne and to also share video and blueprints.

Each of the
se

solutions requires a complete architecture, which includes some combination of the
components shown in
Table 1
.

Vendor
solutions for public
-
sector business needs require a
combination of
infrastructure, services, devices, and applications.





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Table 1
.

Vendor Solutions

Solution
Component

Examples

Infrastructure

Routers, switches, compute, s
ervers,
storage, wired and wireless

Local Area
Network

(
LAN
)

Services

S
ecurity

policy
, role
-
based access control,
XaaS

Devices

IP phones,
immersive video

endpoints, sensors and actuators, IP video
surveillance cameras, government
-
owned thin clients and zero clients, personal
devices li
ke tablets and smartphones

Applications

Unified communications, contact center, video surveillance management,
interoperability for first responders

With the advent of solution based and architectural RFPs
,

some innovative procurement officials
are also incorporating
third
-
party products or services as part of their overall solution

in their
product catalog contracts
.

In this way, a solution might be enabled through a single contract
which results in a turn
-
key solution rather than having to develop multiple contracts.

Procurement Delay

The current proposal process typically does not keep pace with the s
peed of technology
innovation.
In most cases, from the time
of

RFP release to the time the contract has bee
n

awarded, the approved products

in the
contract will have most likely
gone through an upgrade,
been replaced with newer models, converged with new technologies or even discontinued. For
example, many current government contracts did not anticipate the rev
olution in convergence of
voice, video, and data into a single IP network.
Current contracts last for
5

years or more
.

Most
procurement officials who were not technologists did not

foresee

the convergence of voice,
video, and

data into a single IP network.

Many current contracts have limitations that prevent companies from providing comprehensive
products and services offerings, which in turn prevent agencies from being able to order
complete solutions through the contract. Their inability to procure comple
te solutions under a
contract causes them to issue multiple RFIs and/or RFPs in order to get the complete equipment
they need from vendors, which defeats the purpose of the original contract. Alternatively,
customers may have to issue multiple purchase ord
ers under multiple contracts in order to get the
complete solution. This is where opportunities for efficiency gains can be captured. State
contracts were initially designed to save government and education members’ time and money
by having a complete part
s list that would streamline the procurement process

and provide
business managers with complete solutions or capabilities.

Today the network is the foundation for day
-
to
-
day operations of every level of government and
should be looked at as
a

utility. Gov
ernments need to upgrade their network at a much faster
pace than through the traditional RFP process to realize the gains of technology advances. These
contracting problems are not new and solutions have been found at the federal level with the
General Se
rvices Administration (
GSA
)

contract.





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As
IT procurement shift
s

from individual “point” products toward
s

solutions and capabilities that
meet business requirements
, a

complete networking solution is
known as an
architecture
.
Networking a
rchitectures typical
ly include:



Switches and routers



Network services that operate in the background to

provide a good user experience

such
as fast
application

response and smooth video



Endpoints con
nected to the network, such as
IP pho
nes,
immersive video

units, and thin
clients used to access “virtual desktops,” IP video surveillance cameras, or sensors



Compute and storage capabilities



Applications such as voice, instant messaging, or video surveillance monitoring
.

Switches are not com
modities, like printers or cables. The least expensive switches do little more
than transport data. In contrast, switches with the right set of advanced features can do much
more, quickly paying back the incremental investment. For example, features that s
implify
management, automate port configuration, and accelerate troubleshooting can lower
operational

overhead.
Similarly, the

ability to carry voice and video traffic can eliminate the costs of
building and maintaining separate network
s.

Scope Recommendations

This section provides example RFP language that can be used in an RFP to help the Procurement
Officer to ask for:



The best pricing



The broadest feature set



Equipment that meets
Public Sector

agency use requirements

today and into the future
.

The original RFP and awarded contract should contain anticipatory provisions that allow for the
future addition of new, supplementary
,

or converged network
-
centric IT products, services,
software an
d/or so
lutions as a value
-
add.

Read more about
c
ontract

scope.

Terms and Conditions

Being aware of suppliers’ perspectives on terms and conditions when you craft the RFP can help
suppliers offer you advantageous pricing. E
xamples include authorizing
Original Equipment
Manufacturers (
OEMs
)

to work with certified resellers as subcontractors; basing contracts on
minimum discounts rather than fixed pricing; and
agreeing to standard OEM warranty terms.

Read more about terms and conditions.

Public Sector
Use Cases

Public sector use cases provide a description of common discussions between procurement
officers
,

politicians, government leaders,
managers,
and CIOs. We have provided
some examples




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of
use cases to help procurement officers connect these discussions with Network Capabilities
that would provide the complete solution for the Use Case.

In the end, we hope that we help
buyers understand where the technology is headed; what the capabilities o
f their networks must
be to meet current and future government business needs; and how to ask the market to provide
these capabilities

over the durati
on of the next contract period.

Read more about Public Sector Use Case
s

Future
IT Trends

It is a very exciting time to be in the IT field and in particular in
g
overnment IT. The ongoing
promise of IT innovation has been to increase capabilities and/or productivity while decreasing
cost for compan
ies and governments alike. Over the last decade
,

we have seen this happen at a
greater rate than ever before as technologies such as PCs,
W
eb/
I
nternet and
wireless LAN

networks have been integrated into the business of government. This innovation insertion

will
continue to occur and our governments will provide more capabilities to more citizens at a lower
cost. Some of the trends
that

will impact the future operation of government are described below
and shown in
Figure
2
.


Figure
2
. Trends in Networking and
Supporting
Infrastructure

Many of these trends
are

already
integrat
ing into state and local governments.





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Cyber

security:

Cyber

security is a comprehensive approach to information assurance that
encompasses policy, supply chain, I
T architectures
,

and security solutions

(
Figure
3
)
.


Figure
3
. Cyber

S
ecurity
I
s Needed
a
cross the Network

Cyber

security reduces the risks presented by the pervasiveness and interdependence brough
t
forth by the global network.

This is accentuated by the
use of cloud and the move to mobile computing. Privacy, identity
,

and
data integrity are all critical elements of a government IT system and should be addressed by
good cyber hygiene. However, as we have seen in the recent years, attacks are more directed
to
specific targets and attackers are more capable than ever bef
ore.
This puts pressure on all
entities
,

both public and private sector
,

to secure assets (data and infrastructure) in such a manner
to quickly adapt to any cyber threat. Cyber

security will
continue to be a key priority for all
levels in government until a comprehensive, adaptable, and effective defense is systematically
delivered to protect our government and citizen assets.

Desktop Virtualization:

Desktop virtualization/
Virtual Desktop Infr
astructure (
VDI
)

is the
movement of workloads from PCs to data center serv
ers, creating virtual clients.
In this
environment, applications and complete operating environments are hosted on servers and




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storage in the data center. This allows users to access

their desktop from any location, without
being tied to a single client device, since the resources are hosted. For government IT, this means
a more centralized, secure, and efficient client environment that is easier to maintain. Some
solutions can go bey
ond traditional desktop virtualization, providing an integrated and optimized
multimedia, voice, and video solution that considers the complete workspace: computing,
communications, and collaboration.

Mobility

and BYO
D:

With the pervasive deployment of high
-
speed broadband technologies
like Wi
-
Fi, cellular networks
,

and the parallel advancements in mobile compute
r

devices
(smartphones, tablets, and ultra
-
books)
,

it is no surprise that we are seeing the movement to a
mo
bile workforce. This movement started in the consumer voice market, where mobile phone
usage topped landline usage in 2002 and has continued to grow to more that 5x landline usage by
2010. As the mobile devices became more intelligent and capable through c
ompute power and
common user interfaces, more typical desktop workloads have been moved to the mobile device.
Email

and

web browsing were the first use cases
;

however
,

more and more vertical specific
applications are being ported to these mobile devices da
ily. Today it is typical to see taxis using
smart devices for point of sale transactions, realtors using tablets to sell properties, and airline
pilots leverag
ing

these devices to replace hundreds of pages of flight documents.

Cloud:

Simply put, cloud is t
he umbrella term for enabling and delivering a service offering
which has been created to be shared among others to lower costs and allow resource flexibility.
In the coming years
,

states will become
cloud consumers, providers, and
brokers for
themselves
a
nd
smaller government entities and will have a portfolio of options to choose from.

The National Institutes of Standards and Technologies (NIST) have done a great job creating a
classification system for the various types of clouds to help consumers, vendo
rs
,

and providers to
have a common taxonomy.
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800
-
145/SP800
-
145.pdf

Video
-
Enabled
S
ervices:

The use of video
conferencing and video streaming has become very
common in government agencies.
However
,

these technologies are still primarily used in the
traditional office sense of providing virtual meetings, distance learning
,

and the streaming of
leadership communica
tions. We believe that video technology will have an ever expanding role
in increasing productivity and bringing new capability/services to government agencies.
Leveraging video tools to enable remote interpretation services to courts in Florida provides a

cost
-
effective way of delivering critical citizen services. Video cameras along the highways
which are networks and connected to analytical engines can provide valuable safety and timely
maintenance services. Similarly
,

video capabilities are changing the

way medical consultations
occur in remote locations. Video capabilities will continue to be tied to government missions as
the best way to allow government servic
es to virtually serve citizens.

Big Data:

The amount of data in the world is being collected
and stored at unprecedented rates.
According to a study by
International Data Corporation
(
IDC
)
, the world’s information is
doubling every
2

years. In 2011
,

the world created
a
staggering 1.8 zetabytes
,

and it is projected
that by 2020 the world will gener
ate 50 times th
at

amount of information.
This is a small statistic
that
shows

that data, especially machine
-
generated unstructured and semi
-
structured data sets are
growing at an enormous rate.





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Big Data is defined as, when data sets become so large that tr
aditional technologies, techniques
,

and tools do not apply for extracting insights in a reasonable timeframe and cost
-
effective
manner. This lends itself to a new generation of technologies and corresponding considerations.
These data sets are crucial for
making decisions, providing insights
,

and driving productivity
-
based growth in the economy. In recent years
,

federal, state
,

and local governments have seen
their data sets grow exponentially in the volume, variety, and velocity attributes. They are
lookin
g for ways to manage, analyze
,

and extract value from these Big Data sets to support
government and citizens. There are several benefits of big data analytics for the government. In
Public Sector

government, Big Data insights can provide higher quality cit
izen services
;

cost
savings from operation efficiency
;

increased government accountability
;

fraud and cost error
reduction
;

open data source for citizens
;

and finally
,

public trust in governments. Furthermore,
Government Healthcare and Education can see large benefits from Big Data Analytics.

Internet of Everything (IoE):

N
etwork
s

will see explosive growth a
s everyone understands the
benefits of the interactions between people, machines, and sensors.
The network as a whole is
greater than the sum of its parts.
Many technologies that are currently not networked will become
networked such as
transportation,
bui
lding controls including physical security,
Heating
Ventilation and Air Conditioning (
HVAC
)
,
and
lighting
, and
eventually there will be an
I
nternet
of
E
verything
.

For example
,

a bridge could be embedded with sensors to eliminate the need for inspection
,

while at the same time offering constant real
-
time data on its safety.
IT technology like this

and
network analytics

can eliminate or redu
ce the costs
in other parts of government operations.
Each
technology will be added as its
Return
o
n Investment (
R
o
I
)

becomes clear.
Specifically, as IT
equipment
capability
improves
,

the management of the
network
by personnel
(which is the
biggest part of

any budget) is reduced and centra
lized.



The Internet of Everything is the intelligent connection of people, process, data, and things.
Today more than 99 percent of t
hings in the physical world are unconnected. In the future,
networked connections will be more relevant and valuable than ever before, creating
unprecedented opportunities for countrie
s, businesses, and individuals.

The Internet of Everything requires a di
stributed networking, computing
,

and storage
platform to connect people, process, data
,

and things in ways that were not possible before.
The explosion of new connections joining the Internet of Everything is driven by the
development of IP
-
enabled devices
, the increase in global broadband
availability
, and the
adoption of IPv6.

The network plays a critical role in the Internet of Everything

it must listen, learn, and
respond to support billions of c
ontext
-
aware devices. The ability to build,
to
manage, and
to
secure end
-
to
-
end IP
-
based platforms for people, process, data
,

and things will fuel the
growth

of the Internet of Everything.






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Network Capabilities for Government Services

Even if there were no future IT trends,
current network capabilities
would continue to advance
into a Next Generation Network (NGN).
Government Services
include
Government Operations,
Virtual Citizen Services, Health and Human Services, Education,
Transportation,
Public Safety,
and Justice.
Government Services will be radically altered from the paradigm where employees
sit in offices to

perform their work to a mobile network
that
access
es

essential services
to

perform job functions

in the field 24/7
.

The NGN is going to be more integrated, mobile, cloud based, and centrally managed. These
trends will enable more capability to be added to

the network

(
Figure
4
)
.


Figure
4
.
Applications, Devices, and Support

Everyone wants their organization to be more mobile and focus
ed

on
productivity
through
software

and mobile devices
;

however,
to make these devices work well
,

you need to make sure
the network can support them.

Converged communication networks are one of the top resources that organizations must invest
in to allow the organization to meet their mission requirements. A resilient, high
-
performance
network ensures that the organization can successfully pursue its goals; inversely, a poorly
designed network hinders an organization. The members of the organization are much more
productive if the network can reliably and efficiently address
their requirements for
collaboration,
web conferencing,
chat, video
conferencing, email, and data sharing.

Organizations that rely on their communication network to support and enable their daily
operations must address the following requirements in the net
work’s design and deployment
.





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A standardized design that addresses business use cases to eliminate guesswork and reduce idle
time for newly purchased equipment
:



Enterprise
-
class reliability



Flexible architecture to help ensure easy migration and expansion
as the organization
grows in various ways: sizes of individual sites, total number of sites, and the number of
people who comprise the organization, as well as the number and type of endpoints that
comprise the network



Uniformity of user experience, regard
less of the network access method: wired and
wireless LAN

network connectivity at headquarters, a remote site, or remote
-
access
Virtual Private Network (
VPN
)



Security and high availability for corporate information resources, servers, and Internet
-
facing a
pplications



Continual improvement in WAN performance while reducing the cost of network
administration



A solution that can be deployed and operated by IT workers who have a moderate level
of technical education.

Currently, there are many technology areas t
hat are being converged into
an

all IP network and
are
relevant to
government

(
Table 2
).

Table 2.
Five
Technology Areas

Network Infrastructure

Collaboration Services

Access Routing

Unified Communications

Managed LAN Switching

Immersive video

Wireless LAN for the
O
rganization

Web Conferencing


Network Security

Desktop Video

Virtualization

Service Provider

Cloud/Data Center

Physical Security

Content Security

Digital Signage

Storage Area Networking

Building Controls

Software as a Service

Video Surveillance

Infrastructure as a Service


Energy Controls

Unified Computing


Application Switching


Virtual Desktop


T
hese areas ha
ve

seen huge growth over the
past several

years and
,

as noted earlier,

some of
these technologies such as
BYOD, cloud,
immersive video
, and virtual desktop
did
not exist
when
many
current

government
contract
s

w
ere

issued.





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The network cannot be thought of as parts added on to a core in a piece
-
meal fashion, but as a
network growing in many directions at once. This can be confusing unless you understand the
network

as a whole and keep it organized based on standard virtual architecture.

The core data center has been virtualized and is being expanded into a cloud where network
resources are distributed over a wide area. The LAN, WAN, and mobile networks are rapidly
b
eing able to offer the same speed as the core. This new capability is an opportunity for new
devices and services to be added. Now, the role of government IT officers is evolving into a
governance, compliance

such as
Children

s Internet Protection Act

(CIPA)
, and managerial role
of these devices and the people using them. The computing, networking, and storage network are
merged into one virtual block that can simply be added as a single unit to expand the

network.
Big Data is already a part of government IT, but now it can be unlocked from agency
siloes

and
used in the field b
y phones, tablets, and laptops.

Narrow scope on older contracts
has
limited
vendors

to

bid on routing an
d switching

or another
specific category

only
.
As the networking industry consolidated and

v
endors

grew in
to many
adjacent markets
, inflexible contract scope meant that vendors

were

unable to add new
technologies

to
their

parts list

in the contract

and pro
vide comprehensive, turn
-
key solutions to
their customers.

N
ew contract
s

cannot simply play catch
up;

they

need to be flexible

going forward

in order to
incorporate
IT

expansion into new technology areas.

The Way Forward

Meeting the changing mission and operational needs of
g
overnment agencies requires that
features and technologies must be implemented and rapidly deployed within
what we will call
the
Ne
xt
Generation Network

for the Public Sector (NGN)
.

The transport netwo
rk
, which used to be limited to moving data and is why most existing
contracts for networking equipment were known as “data communications” contracts,

must be
flexible to provide secure and rapid provisioning of new and emerging technologies

(
Figure
5
)
.

Th
e network empowers g
overnment agencies to accomplish their mission while maintaining
compliance with government standards and regulations. Embedding intelligence in the network
is key to providing these services.





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Figure
5
. Application Layers on the
S
ame
N
etwork
I
nfrastructure

Network services such as virtualization, mobility, pervasive security,
d
ata
analytics,
and
automation

are some of the features that can provide the flexibility to meet these changing
operational requirements. Designing architectures with these capabilities in mind now will help
future
-
proof the NGN transport architecture and deliver the mission
-
critical c
apabilities that
g
overnment
a
gencies seek.

C
hanges are rapidly empowering mobility for every user:



M
obile

workforce
s

expect to use government
-
provided IT services

from anywhere, on
any device
,

at
any time
.



C
yber

S
ecurity

has become more nuanced

because
c
yb
er
-
criminals are exploiting older
systems with the newest technologies
. Governments need
pervasive and comprehensive
security architectures that are
context
-
aware
and

need to consider
not just the source and
destination of the request
,

but
the context
such

as:
who, what, where, when, and how
,
before they grant access to the service
.



Video

has become a mainstay for collaboration, training, and public safety.
Video
and
immersive video

has

be
en

used for remote meetings.



For example, t
he cost
and time spent
by

Senators travelling to and from the capitol
every week back to thei
r home district for the weekend is enormous. The savings
from even
1

year justify

putting in this kind of system
.



C
onnect
ed

D
evices

connect people and sensors

to government networks.



Citiz
ens

interact

with government
networks to retrieve information, such as fees or
forms,
and

also to input information, such as pa
yment details and applications.



Sensor

n
etworks
collect information

and

trigger actions by other dev
ices
.





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F
or example, sending a message to turn off lights and lower the temperature when the
las
t person has left the building.



Big Data

imposes new demands on networks, servers, and storage. Continually adding
more bandwidth is prohibitively expensive, so g
overnments need smarter networks that
optimize existing resources.

Architecture Rationale

The
purpose

of an
overall
architecture is to provide a technical framework to meet the business
needs of today, and be flexible to meet the needs of tomorrow without replacing that framework
and impacting the application. An architecture is made up of many interconnected systems,
w
hich together bring value to the organization.
The architecture is typically dependent on certain
specific technologies to ensure stability, resiliency, security, and operational simplicity. These
technologies are critical and should be called out in the a
rchitecture and not disregarded
in
procurement because of cost.

For example, if an agency leverages a specific protocol to provide resiliency for the overall
architecture such as Equal Cost
M
ultipath Protocol (ECMP), if an acquisition occurs of a product
t
hat does not leverage that protocol
,

then the overall architecture is at risk.

Additionally, a

variety of factors determine whether a user has a good experience with an
application. For the web browser:
w
e open a
hyper
link
, and the page is presented to us
immediately. To make this a positive experience, three specific
pieces of the network
need to
function together to provide the
w
eb content to the user:

1.

A network that provides
basic

services such as high availability, performance, scalability
,

and
resilien
cy

2.

Network services that operate in the background, improving and enabling the experience
without direct user awareness

3.

The applications or
end
-
user devices
with which a person interacts directly, known as
user services
.

N
etworks must allow organizations t
o take advantage of their investment in capabilities that are
offered in modern application software platforms

at the User Services layer

of the

Open Systems
Interconnection

(
OSI
)

model

(
Figure
6
)
.





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Figure
6
. User Services
A
re Supported by

the

Network Services and Foundation

The

network must be seamless and transparent to the end user while providing a robust platform
for innovation and service adoption
;

and to achieve this
,

the network must first be
baselined
.
Compared to
10

or even
5

years ago,

the role of the n
etwork

has evolved from a simple transport
infrastructure to that of a critical
services

or
utility

like power or water.

These Next Generation Networks

must address higher speeds and broader support for application
data, particularly regarding voice and video traffic as well as applications hosted on private and
public cloud
-
service platforms. Virtual desktop environments, a wide variety of user endpoint
s,
and tighter integration between the desktop and
data

center

all demand that the network provide
a fast, stable platform to
en
sure that applications perform to meet productivity expectations.

Impact of
Commoditization

Networks can be underbuilt, which de
livers disappointing performance
,

or they can be overbuilt
because equipment was bought to provide unnecessa
ry or underutilized capability.

As services such as enhanced mobility,
unified communications
, IP
-
based
video
teleconferencing
,

and other video applications begin to proliferate across g
overnment networks,
commoditization of the network can decrease the ability to implement new and innovative
technologies by the IT professionals that manage the network. When the network is viewed
as a
commodity providing transport services, the capabilities of the entire enterprise architecture can
be limited to the lowest common set of services that the network can provide, resulting in a slow
rate of adoption of new services and capabilities acro
ss the network, while increasing the
operational expense fo
r maintaining legacy equipment.

As a procurement officer, organizational or political pressure can force you to make purchasing
decisions that add short
-
term value but cause long
-
term problems to t
he network. For example,




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your unified communication system is underbuilt, but there is pressure from executives to add
immersive video
. The cheapest solution to upgrade cannot support
immersive video

because the
Unified Communications (
UC
)

base is siloed o
r underbuilt (
Figure
7
).


Figure
7
. Underbuilt Network Cannot Support Extra User Services

Commoditization also pre
vents

the ability to take advantage of enhanced features and services
that should be provided end
-
to
-
end within a mission
-
critical architectu
re to ensure delivery of
critical services and applications.

A commodity service is one in which there is no “qualitative differentiation” across the market.
In networking/infrastructure terms
,

the network is built around just meeting a s
et of industry
standards
,

not around feature/capability innovation. When building
a
n

NGN
that

will transport
mission
-
critical voice and video services, an end
-
to
-
end architectural approach
is necessary
.
With commoditization, fewer value
-
add end
-
to
-
end feat
ures are available to accommodate
current and future next generation services.

Networks are no longer required to be siloed into physically independent infrastructures.

Figure
8

shows the network bef
ore and after consolidation.

Commodity switches are for
office automation

only, and application layering is not possible
.

T
he short
-
term saving you get from buying cheap switches
is

l
ost when you must build a second
network to support any new business application. For example,
if
you use commodity switches
to build a VoIP network
,

then you cannot add to that network
;

therefore,

you must build a
second complete network for Continuity Of Operations (COOP).





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Figure
8
. Virtualization
Enables Network Consolidation

A
cross the entire network, but each part of the siloed network functions as a separate network.

Virtualization and consolidation saves
funding

through reduction in equipment, maintenance,
energy,
and support.
NGN should be des
igned to transform government operational processes
for the future and provide scalability and seamless adoption of new and emerging
technologies.

The network must be modular and logical, enabling services across a common
transport
,

rather than creating costly parallel infrastructures.

Networking Components

The network is critical to the operation of organizations where workforce productivity is based
on the expectation of nonstop access to communications, applications, and data reso
urces. Using
a services tiered approach to building your network with a tested, interoperable design allows
you to reduce risks and operational issues while increasing deployment speed

(
Table
3
)
. The
network is the foundation and there are essential networ
king components that support the user.

Next Generation Networks play an essential role in supporting government daily operations. The
n
etwork is mission critical. When designing network architectures, one must consider both
current requirem
ents and expecte
d future needs.





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Table
3
. Network Capabilities Examples


These NGN architectures must address a diverse range of requirements and mission needs. As
the role of the network moves beyond simple transport to a Mission Critical Service Delivery
Platform, one
must t
ake the following into account:



Cost Effectiveness



Acquisitions
: Networking and storage requirements are steadily climbing. Therefore,
it is essential to maximize the effectiveness of acquisition dollars by putting in place
an infrastructure that is
scalable, flexible, and long
-
lived.



Operations
: Operational costs dwarf acquisition costs over time. Therefore, it is
essential to create a network architecture that simplifies management, while allowing
flexibility and scalability.



Scalability
: Traffic le
vels and storage requirements are steadily growing. The
network should be able to easily accommodate the growth of applications, traffic
loads, a
nd storage without having to re
design the network or to replace existing
equ
ipment.



Global Availability



Mission
-
critical systems require near perfect availability and convergence times
measured in milliseconds to provide resiliency for real
-
time interactive applications.





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Community or Private Cloud services through data center consolidation towards
centralized/regio
nal data repositories, increasing the reliance on the network to
provide seamless application delivery regardless of data center location.



High availability from the network through the application layer due to changing
mission operations moving towards gl
obalization and 24x7x365 operations.



The
Move
toward
Collaboration
and
Real
-
Time Communication Application
Services



The user experience is becoming a top priority for mission communication systems
.



As Unified Communications become the primary form of
commu
nication/collaboration, end
-
to
-
end quality of service and mission system
uptime become even more critical.



Transport Virtualization



Reduction of
Capital Expenditures (
CAPEX
)

and
Operation Expenditures (
OPEX
)

costs through the virtualization and consolidation of multiple physical networks onto
one common Mission Critical Communications infrastructure enables secure
segmented services such as multi
-
tenancy, physical security, energy manag
ement,
video distributi
on, etc.



Communities of Interest (C
o
Is) through partitioning network traffic to provide secure,
independent environments
.



Virtualized services that are enabled within the transport infrastructure and which
extend th
rough the cloud infrastructure.



Informati
on Assurance


Secure⁡ d⁒ 獩s瑡湴⁴漠䅴瑡cks



Endpoints and network infrastructure must be resistant to attack
s

in an environment
where attacks are becoming more numerous and more sophisticated. High
-
priority
applications should still function even while
a security event is occurring. Only
authorized users should be granted network and resource access. Critical systems and
data m
ust be protected and backed up.



Network
-
bas
ed authentication in compliance.



Role
-
based access control
s
tandards
-
based link
-
layer
encryption (802.1ae) to provide
additional secure segmentation.



Control plane security and policy to prevent denial of service attacks to the transport
infrastructure.



Secure Mobility



Anywhere, anytime access to the network, providing a seamless customer e
xperience
when accessing applications.



Increased use of portable devices (BYOD) is driving the demand for full featured and
secure mobility services.



Guest access for partners, contractors, and other guests as mission partnerships and
collaboration evolve.





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Next
-
Generation Applications and Medianets



Dynamically allocate network resources and adapt to changing network conditions to
deliver optimal video quality.



Enable multimedia services anytime, anywhere, to any device.



Energy Awareness



Compliance to reduce

energy consumption.



Visibility into energy utilization of th
e network and attached devices.



Administer the energy requirements of Power over Ethernet (PoE) devices.

Table
4

shows the network as the foundation on the left column by six services that the
go
vernment
typically
provides. The cells in the matrix are links that connect to use cases in this
document showing the network components needed for the use case.

Table
4
. Essential Networking Components Support Government Services



Government
Operations

Virtual
Citizen
Services

Health and
Human
Services



Education


Public
Safety



Justice

Network
Infrastructure

Network
-
based
training

*
N/A

Tele
-
medicine

Distance
learning

Vehicles

Video
interpretation

Cloud/Data
Center

Private Clouds

Unstaffed
Citizen
Service
Center

Health
Exchanges

Virtual
desktops

Creating a
force
multiplier

E
-
Warrants

Collaboration
Services

Unified
Communications

Multi
-
channel
contact
centers

Mobility

Flipped
classrooms

Enabling
collaboration

Video kiosks
for citizens

Physical
Security

Connected
Buildings

N/A

N/A

N/A

Remotely
monitor
video

Remote
arraignments

Network
Management

Server
Consolidation

N/A

N/A

High
-
performance
Wi
-
Fi

N/A

N/A

Trends (End
-
to
-
end
architecture)

Big Data

N/A

N/A

Virtual field
trips

Interoperable
communicati
on

N/A

* N/A = Not Applicable







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Most users

perceive the network foundation as a simple transport utility to shift data from one
point to another as fast as possible; many sum this up as “speeds and feeds
.”

In reality, the
network affects all traffic flows and must be aware of end
-
user requirements

and the services
offered.

Today’s networks must be built for intelligent transport and support of critical
operations and applications.

Network Infrastructure

With ever
-
changing mission requirements and deployment scenarios that are

unique to the
government, the network must be designed around service delivery, consistent end
-
user
experience, and the ability to insert new technologies and capabilities at a rapid rate. While the
initial CAPEX might be lower when considering the access

layer as a commodity, there are
typically higher long
-
term OPEX and Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) due to the network not
being able to provide the necessary capabilities over the lifetime of the deployment.

Because Network Infrastructure enables Cloud Com
puting/Data Center,
Collaboration

Services,
Physical Security, Network Management
,

and any
f
uture
t
rends in technology, it is important to
understand the equipment needed at this level of the network. Routers, switches, firewalls and
VPNs,
Intrusion Preven
tion System (
IPSs
)
,
l
oad balancers, and
wireless LAN

access points and
controllers are needed to provide the improvements
to the network from end
-
to
-
end.

Cloud/Data Center

The previous trend within enterprise organizations was to co
nstruct physical “Data Centers” in
an on
-
demand fashion as new applications and services were required

(
Table
5
)
.

Table
5
. Cloud Computing versus Traditional IT


Traditional

Cloud

Consumption

Dedicated

Shared

Eas
e

of Use

Traditional Hardware Procurement

Self Service

Scalability

New Services Added Manually

Scale On
-
Demand

Availability

Manual Repair of System Failure

Automated Recovery Due to
Integration/Interoperability

Provisioning

Months

Minutes

Cost

Incremental CAPEX Purchases

Pay Per Use

This led to the construction of multiple data centers with siloed applications (and infrastructure)
that may serve only a single purpose

or customer.

Cloud technologies and capabilities will be the building
block for dynamic shared services in
governments. It will be common for a state, large municipality, or agencies to deploy multiple
clouds (private, public, Infrastructure as a Service (
IaaS
), Software as a Service (
SaaS
) based on
the use case, cost model
,

and application dependencies.

Some states are building private clouds to provide IaaS to departments, saving money and
reducing wait times for new infrastructure from weeks to hours. Thi
s requires servers/storage/





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networking plus automation tools so that departments can self
-
provision with nominal
involvement from the government IT team.

Other governments want to use p
ublic clouds, either for IaaS, SaaS,

or
Platform

as a Service

(PaaS).
IaaS can be used to provide services such as web conferencing, email security, or web security. SaaS,
the most common form of cloud
,

is used to deliver application to governments from a public provider
;
examples include Google mail

and Microsoft 365.
Connecting to public cloud services requires a
network with the necessary performance, flexibility, reliability, and security.

Collaborati
on

Services

Collaboration is two or more people working together to achieve

a common goal. Collaboration
has always been the life blood of an organization. The methods people use to communicate over
the years have changed, but the ability to work with others inside and outside your organization
has always been essential to the su
ccess of a business. Technology allows organizations to
choose many different modes of communication from a simple instant message to a fully
immersive experience that includes high
-
definition video, spatial audio, and real
-
time data
sharing.

Collaboration

Services

incorporates LAN, WAN,
wireless LAN
, security, application
optimization, server load
-
balancing, and unified communications technologies to provide
complete solutions to an organization’s challenges

(
Figure
9
)
.


Figure
9
. The Four Layers of Share
d Network

Using
Role Based Access Control

(RBAC)
,

a single physical network can be securely divided
into areas for
g
uest
s
/
c
ontractors and any number of tenants.





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For example, the same campus could be home to
f
ederal,
s
tate, and
l
ocal government offices that
share a single network.

Collaboration focuses on unified communication, video collaboration,
and web conferencing. These three elements make up the vast majority of the collaboration use
cases for an organization. Tw
o keys to the success of the solution are allowing your employees
to be in constant contact with each other and making the most efficient use of your underlying
network foundation. A solution
-
level approach simplifies the system integration normally
associ
ated with multiple technologies, which allows you to select the individual components that
solve your organization’s problems
,

rather than worrying about the complex technical details of
an overall collaboration solution.

Why Collaboration?

Some of the ben
efits of collaboration are:



A standardized design that has been tested to
reduce capital outlays and operational costs



Optimized architecture for organizations with
remote sites



Flexibility to allow easy migration as the organization grows



Seamless support for quick deployment of wired and wireless voice,
along with room
system video



Faster decision making



Immediate access to other government experts and productivity gains



Travel expense reduction and lower carbon footprint



Improved work/lif
e balance for employees.

Physical Security

IP
-
based physical security is being deployed in some of the most demanding security
environments in the world, including many public and government facilities. This solution
delivers the rel
iability, investment protection, flexibility, and authenticity assurance that
municipal organizations require.

Physical security can help you achieve the following benefits:



Protect Your

Assets:

With physical security, you can remotely monitor a facility a
fter
hours or during closures. The solution lets you use recorded video in conjunction with an
alarm system to prevent vandalism, theft, and arson; log in to see live video when an
alarm is triggered; and record images during an alarm event and send them t
o specified
users via email.



Deter and Prevent Violations:

The presence of video cameras and monitoring
equipment can serve as a deterrent, effectively dissuading and discouraging violations
before they occur. Video equipment has been shown to circumvent t
he costs and
difficulties of theft, vandalism, and other crimes.



Attain Easier Management, Higher Availability:

Increase regulation compliance and
security with high
-
quality, tamper
-
proof, digitally watermarked video, while expanding




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your security reach wi
th the ability to scale to thousands of cameras, viewers, and
archives; access security operations anywhere, anytime using remote and mobile access;
access any camera from any monitoring or recording device for any application. With
integrated IP converged

system, you reduce downtime with video and system availability;
reduce disruption for maintenance, system updates, and upgrades
;

while protecting your
investment through interoperability with third
-
party equipment.