Intro to Biotech

kettleitchyΒιοτεχνολογία

5 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 8 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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What is biotechnology?

Biotechnology

Bios=life

Teuchos=tool

Logos=study or essence


Literally, Biotechnology is the study
of tools from living things

Definition ofBiotechnology

The application of technologies, using living
organisms or its products, to:


manufacture industrial products


to improve plants or animals

to develop microorganisms for specific
uses

To identify targets for pharmaceutical
development

To transform biological systems into useful
processes and products

To develop organisms for specific uses


Modern definition of
biotechnology

Biotechnology is the applied
use of molecular biology and
recombinant DNA technology
to influence specific biological
processes largely related to
meeting human needs

Early biotechnology

Involved manipulation of entire organisms

Better tasting crops

Crops resistant to heat, rain, dry climate

Crops resistant to disease

Domestication of animals

Dogs for hunting, protection

Cows for milk, meat

Processes of microorganisms used for
over 6000 years to produce bread, cheese
and beer/wine

Biotechnology today

Today organisms are manipulated at the
molecular level, cells and molecules

The molecules most often used are
nucleic acids (DNA) and proteins

Bioengineering involves the
manipulation of genes

Example: The gene for human growth
hormone had been extracted and
inserted into bacteria that will in turn
manufacture the hormone

Some technologies used in Biotechnology:

Fermentation

Cells and Tissue Culture

Recombinant DNA technology

Protein engineering technology

Monoclonal antibody technology

DNA fingerprinting and diagnostic
techniques

Biodegradation

Fermentation

Uses by
-
products from glucose
breakdown in bacteria and yeast for:

Baking bread

Making wine and beer

Making yogurt and cheese

Making vinager

More recently some antibiotics,
hormones and enzymes

Cell and tissue culture

Growing cells in culture have allowed
for many applications such as:

Recombinant DNA technology in
bacteria

Creating genetically engineered
plants

Using human cell cultures for drug
testing, study of disease, replacing
large areas of human tissue
destroyed by disease

Recombinant DNA
technology

Single genes with known function are moved
from one organism to another.

Current uses:

Produce high yielding disease and pest
resistant crops

Produce crops with better nutrient value

Produce new and safer vaccines

Produce pharmaceuticals

Produce biodegradable plastics

Produce strains of bacteria that digest oil

Protein Engineering

Genetic modification to improve
existing proteins, usually enzymes and
create proteins not found in nature

Biocatalysts of production processes
used in chemical, textile, paper, food,
feed, metal and mineral and energy
industries came from protein
engineering

Monoclonal Antibodies

Anitbodies are proteins that come from
and immune system cell

They are specific and can be used to
detect substances in miniscule amounts

Used to treat diseases, detect presence
of drugs, bacteria, viruses, abnormal
cells, food contaminants and pollutions.

DNA Fingerprinting

Extracted DNA cut with enzymes into
fragments of different lengths that can be
separated and analyzed on an agarose gel.

Band pattern on gel specific for individuals

Used for:

Gene mapping

Solving crimes

Detecting recessive genes in healthy
people

Paternity testing

Biodegradation

Microorganisms break down organic
material and return it to the soil for
recycling (composting)

Environmental biotechnology produces
microorganisms that can clean up
problems such as oil spills, toxic waste
sites and to better purify sewage