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5 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Food Biotechnology Ethics

Clark Ford, Ph.D.

Food Science and Human Nutrition

Iowa State University

What is Food Biotechnology?


Food technology based on
biology


Ancient food biotechnology:


Fermentation by microbes


Cheese


Beer


Wine


Bread


Modern food biotechnology


Tissue culture


Genetic engineering


Different from plant and
animal breeding


http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2006/10/06101709
1752.jpg

Genetic Engineering


Genetic Engineering
involves manipulating DNA
molecules


DNA from one species is
spliced into the DNA of
another species


Called: Recombinant DNA


Genetically Engineered
organisms are called:



Genetically Modified



Transgenic

Milestones in Food
Biotechnology


1953: Structure of DNA discovered


1973: First gene cloned


in microbes


1977: Asilomar Conference in USA


Recombinant DNA safety


Regulation


Risk assessment


Containment



http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v235/milenaid/Blog%20Support/TheDoubleHelix.jpg

Who Regulates Food Biotechnology?


FDA


Food and Drug Administration


Determines safety for human
consumption


USDA


U.S. Department of Agriculture


Determines safety of GMO
agriculture


EPA


Environmental Protection Agency


Determines environmental
safety


NIH


National Institutes of Health


Sets guidelines for
Recombinant DNA
experiments

http://healthcare.zdnet.com/images/fda
-
logo.jpg

Milestones in Food
Biotechnology



1990: Recombinant
Chymosin Approved by FDA


First biotech product for human
consumption


Enzyme for cheese making


Originally from calf stomach


Bovine gene expressed in GRAS
microbes


G
enerally
R
ecognized
A
s
S
afe


In 80% of U.S. cheese



http://homepages.ius.edu/SRICKARD/cheese2.jpg

Other Products from Genetically
Engineered Microbes


Food enzymes


Bread


HFCS Sweeteners


Amino acids


Peptides


Nutrasweet


Flavors


Organic acids


Polysaccharides


Vitamins




Milestones in Food
Biotechnology


1994: FDA approves


“Flavr Savr” Tomato


Prolonged shelf life


Improved quality


Voluntarily labeled


http://www.lhup.edu/smarvel/Seminar/FALL_2003/Malawskey/tomaten.jpg

Other Genetically

Engineered Plants


Agronomic traits


BT Corn


Roundup Ready Soy


Disease Resistance


Food quality


Nutrition


Metabolic products


Vaccines



http://whyfiles.org/241GM_2/images/soybean_field.jpg

Bt Corn


Natural insecticide from
Bacillus thuringiensis



Non
-
toxic to humans


Target insect:


Corn borer, root worm


Boll worm


reduces insecticide use


reduces mycotoxins in corn


47% U.S. Corn crop Bt (2007)


59% U.S. Cotton crop (2007)


http://pfisterhybrid.com/images/sections/5.jpg

Bt Concerns


Bt pollen harms non
-
target species?


Bt crops select for
resistant insects


Bt pollen can drift to
organic fields


Food system failed to
keep BT Starlink corn
out of human food
products

Monarch butterfly:
endangered?

http://members.tripod.com/c_rader0/greg040.gif


Herbicide Resistance


Roundup Ready soy,
corn, canola, cotton


Allows post
-
emergence
herbicide spraying


Increases yield


Facilitates no
-
till farming


91% U.S. Soy (2007)


70% U.S. Cotton (2007)


52% U.S. Corn (2007)


http://cropwatch.unl.edu/photos/cwphoto/soy_harvest2002_2b.jpg

Herbicide Resistance Concerns


Encourages herbicide use


Groundwater contamination


Kills beneficial soil microbes


Cross
-
pollinates weeds


Fosters dependence on
Agrochemcial companies



Disease Resistance


Canola


Cantaloupes


Cucumbers


Corn


Rice


Papaya


Potatoes


Soybeans


Squash


Tomatoes


Wheat


Genetically engineered papaya
resistant papaya ringspot virus


http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2008/04/080423131624.jpg

Health and Nutrition


Golden Rice


Vitamin A and Iron enhanced


Seeds given to the poor for free


Improved Amino Acid
Balance


Soy (needs Methionine)


Maize (needs Lysine)


Banana Vaccines



http://wwwdata.forestry.oregonstate.edu/orb/images/Marketing/TIME.jpg

Metabolic Products


Idea: use crops to
produce inexpensive


Pharmaceuticals


AIDS vaccine in corn


Metabolic products


Problems:


Containment


Cross pollination


Accidental mixing into
food supply


http://foodhazard.com/genetically
-
modified
-
foods/

Genetically Engineered Animals

-

not approved for food
-


Transgenic Fish


Salmon


Grows 4
-
6 times faster


Environmental concerns


May escape, outcompete
natural species


Transgenic Mammals


Cows, Sheep, Goats


Pharmaceutical production
in milk






http://www.gatewayva.com/biz/virginiabusiness/magazine/yr1997/aug97/cover.html

Milestones in Food
Biotechnology


1999: GM corn and
soybean products are
present in 80% of
processed foods in USA


Corn:


starch, high fructose
corn syrup, oil


Soy:


oil, Lecithin, protein




http://nadav.harel.org.il/cola/image/CokeClassic.jpg

Milestones in Food Biotechnology


1999: European Union
requires GM labels


blocks import of GM

corn, beans


Ban lifted 2004


but no change in anti
-
GM
sentiment in Europe


Affects African export crops


Paternalism


Milestones in Food
Biotechnology


1999: Gerber and
Heinz baby foods
GM
-
free


2000: Mc Donalds
and Frito
-
Lay
products GM
-
free

http://www.corrupt.org/articles/big_mac/bigmac.jpg

Milestones in Food
Biotechnology


2000: USDA Organic
Foods Standards


Must be GM
-
free


http://www.taquitos.net/im/sn/NaturalPlanet
-
YellowCorn.jpg

Milestones in Food Biotechnology


2002 Zambia refuses
GM maize as food aid


To help 2.5 million in
food shortage


Calls GM food
“poison”


Heavily influenced by
European attitudes
about GM

http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/images/38232000/jpg/_38232577_levy150.jpg

Zambian President Mwanawasa

Global GM crops (2004)

http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/file.php/2808/S250_1_001i.jpg

GM crops in Africa (2004)

http://www.eoearth.org/upload/thumb/5/5e/Fig_4_GM_status_in_Africa.JPG/350px
-
Fig_4_GM_status_in_Africa.JPG

Milestones in Food Biotechnology


2007: 300 million acres
worldwide


Planted in Genetically Modified
crops


55% in USA


Soy


Corn


Cotton


India, China


Canola


12 million farmers


90% are small farmers in
developing countries


Growing cotton in India, China




http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2008/Images/2795086
-
1190749255849/4218354
-
1191601573880/GMOs
-
E1.gif

Adoption of GMOs Worldwide

Milestones in Food Biotechnology


2008: Cloned Animals
approved by FDA


For human consumption


Goal: quality meat, milk


Best animals cloned


Not transgenic


Is that next?


Label not required


Considered same as
normal meat, milk


Not in stores yet


Not certified organic (USDA)


http://www.scq.ubc.ca/the
-
new
-
macdonald
-
pharm/

Controversy over Biotech Foods


Debate pits consumer and ecology groups


against Multinational Corporations


Many farmers, scientists, government agencies



caught in the middle

Arguments for Genetically


Engineered Food


Potential to:


Increase productivity


Increase purity


Increase safety


Improve nutrition


Improve food quality


Improve sustainability


Benefit ecosystem


Process not inherently
harmful



Similar to traditional Plant
and Animal breeding


Unless misused, outcome
expected to be beneficial


Is a powerful technology
that could help humanity


Bad ideas weeded out by
the market, regulation,
lawsuit






--
Paul Thompson

http://www.cihr
-
irsc.gc.ca/images/thompson_paul.jpg

Arguments against Genetically
Engineered Foods


Food safety risk?


unintended consequences


Safety risk for environment


could spread


Genetically Engineered label


not required in U.S.A.


Playing God


not natural


Benefits multinational
corporations


not consumers


not developing nations







GMO vs normal Salmon of
same age

http://www.primidi.com/images/aquabounty_salmon.jpg

Frankenstein Foods:

Unintended Consequences?


Potential GMO food safety
problems:


Random gene insertion


Unknown toxins?


New gene products?


Unknown allergies?


No evidence of GMO food
safety problems



http://www.gasdetection.com/news2/bioengineered_food.jpg

Food Allergies


90% of Food allergies:


Eggs


Fish


Shellfish


Milk


Peanuts


Soybeans


tree nuts


wheat


GM foods avoid genes from
these sources


Peanut proteins can cause
severe food allergies!

http://www.beginnertriathlete.com/cms/articleimages/332/home.jpg

Arguments for Labeling


Not equivalent to non
-
GM


Must use Precautionary principle


Is uncertainty in risk assessment


Labeling indicates process used


Consumer right to know and choose


Country’s right to know and choose

Arguments against labeling


Suggests non
-
existent hazard


Expensive to segregate crops
and change labels


FDA labels required if change
in:


Allergenicity


Nutrition


Food Quality


Will GM crops feed the world?


Yes:


GM crops are size neutral


Small growers can benefit


Don’t need large combine


Reduced inputs


Herbicides, pesticides


Lower costs


Increased yields


Disease resistance


Reduced weeds


Increased profits

Insect resistant maize, Kenya

http://img.radio.cz/pictures/networkeurope/080215
-
bt
-
corn
-
africa.jpg

Will GM crops feed the world?


No:


Biotech from companies targets the wealthy


Intellectual property expensive


Public research in developing countries


must develop GMOs for the poor


Poor that cannot compete driven from land


undernutrtion


Poor really need


Land


Water


Roads


Education


Credit


Green revolution agriculture unsustainable


Monoculture


Erosion


Fertilizer and pesticide runoff pollution


Neocaloric (requires fossile fuels)

International Center for Genetic
Engineering and Biotechnology, India

http://www.parasitologyindia.org/images/icgeb.jpg

GMOs for developing countries

Will GM crops feed the world?


"While feeding the hungry is a laudable goal, current
record feed stocks in the U.S. is still not finding its
way to those who need it the most.


Therefore, the real reasons for hunger is not
necessarily the lack of food but the lack of income to
purchase and the absence of an infrastructure to get
the food to those who need it the most.


If the hungry cannot be fed with current worldwide
overproduction, what guarantee is there that
additional productivity will solve the problem?"



--

American Corn Growers Association