Water Pollution

kayakjokeΜηχανική

22 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

76 εμφανίσεις

Water Pollution

Water

Pollution


Sources and Examples


Water Quality


Health

Effects


Sources


Two Types: Point sources and nonpoint sources


Ex: Point: sewage plants; nonpoint: runoff


Examples of sources:


Chemicals (metals, solvents, oils)


Air pollution


Microbiological sources


Mining


Noise


Nutrients


Oil spills


Oxygen depleting substances (biodegradable)


Suspended matter


Thermal sources


hormones




Water Quality

1. Cultural Eutrophication: the process by which human activity
increases the amount of nutrients entering surface water.
(nitrogen and phosphorus) nutrients= algae = DEAD ZONES

(oligotrophic = low nutrients Eutrophic= high nutrients)

2. Tests to monitor water quality:


Nitrogen (Fertilizers)


Chlorine (disinfects)


Hardness (usually caused by calcium and magnesium)


Copper (fertilizers, septic tanks and industrial waste)


DO (dissolved oxygen) flowing = increase (closer to surface)


Phosphate: fertilizers


pH: needs to be close to 7

3. EPA Standards


Primary: health concerns


Secondary: aesthetics

We will be testing water on Friday. If
you have water you want to test.
Bring it and we will test it



Awesome Video


Effects


Infectious diseases


Chronic: slowly impairs the function


Acute: rapidly impairs function


Spread of disease: epidemic vs. pandemic


Epidemic: rapid increase of a disease


Pandemic: the disease spreads to other
places


Toxicology: study of harmful chemicals


Neurotoxins
-

disrupt the nervous system ( lead and
mercury)


Carcinogens: cause cancer (radon, formaldehyde)


Teratogens: interfere with embryo development


Allergens: cause an allergic reaction (not pathogens)


Endocrine disruptors: interfere with normal hormone
function (cleaning products and household goods)


Biomagnification
: the increase of a chemical in animal
tissues as it moves up the food
chanin
.

What can be done?


Water treatment


Septic Tanks
: two parts
-

septic tank and leach
field.


Sewage treatment plant
:


Primary (reduces oils, includes sand catchers, screens,
and sedimentation)


Secondary (gets rid of the biological content) includes:
filters, activated sludge, filter (oxidizing) beds, trickling
filter beds, and secondary sedimentation.


tertiary treatments(final stage before releasing into the
environment. May include: filtration,
lagooning
,
constructed wetlands, nutrient removal through
biological or chemical precipitation,
denitrification

using bacteria, phosphorous removal using bacteria,
microfilration

and disinfection using UV, chlorine or
ozone.


Treatment Methods and remediation technologies


Adsorption


Disinfection


Filtration


Flocculation


Ion Exchange


Aeration


Air stripping


Bioreactors


Constructed wetlands


Deep
-
well injections


Enhanced bioremediation


Fluid
-
vapor extraction


Granulated activated carbon


Hot water flushing


In
-
well air stripping


phytoremediation


UV oxidation



Legislation


Stockholm Convention: (2001): a group of 127
countries gathered in Sweden. 12 chemicals were
banned, phased out or reduced. (the “the dirty
dozen”)


Clean Water Act: (1972) issued water quality
standards that defined acceptable limits of various
pollutants in US waterways. (Surface water not ground
water)


Safe Drinking Water Act: (1974, 1986, 1996) sets the
national standards for safe drinking water. (MCL:
maximum contaminant levels)


Noise Pollution


Causes: Human created sound that disrupts the
environment. (transportation, factories,
appliances, audio entertainment systems)


Health Effects: hearing loss, cardiovascular
problems, decrease in ability to memorize,
nervousness, pupil dilation, decrease in visual
field, insomnia, bulimia, high blood pressure,
depression, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction.


Control: noise barriers (trees) and new
technologies.

Solid Waste


Types:


Organic: kitchen waste, vegetables, flowers (usually
decomposes in 2
wks

** Wood can take up to 10
-
15
years)


Radioactive: spent fuel rods, smoke detectors (100 of
thousands of years)


Recyclable: paper, glass, metals, and some plastics.
(paper
-

10 days, glass
-

never, metals
-

100
-
500 years,
plastics
-

some up to 1 million years)


Soiled: hospital waste (cotton cloth
-
2
-
5 months)


Toxic: paints, chemicals, pesticides (100’s of years.)


Uses in the US
:



Disposal and Reduction Flow Chart


Solid Waste


Choices to disposal:

1.
Burning, incineration or energy recovery

2.
Detoxify

3.
Exporting

4.
Land disposal(land fills)

5.
Land disposal (open dumping)

6.
Ocean dumping

7.
Recycling

8.
Reuse