The Digestive System

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22 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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The Digestive System

By: Angel, Brendan, Tyler, Gabby

How is the Digestive System
connected to everything?

Body needs energy. Digestive system produces
energy.


Digestive system needs blood. Heart pumps blood.


Heart needs energy to pump blood. Digestive
system needs blood to make energy.

How does the structure of the
Digestive system relate to its
function?

Path of food:

1.
Mouth

2.
Esophagus

3.
Stomach

4.
Small Intestine

5.
Large Intestine



Small Intestine Parts

1.
Duodenum

2.
Jejunum

3.
Ileum

Large Intestine Parts

1.
Cecum

2.
Colon

3.
Rectum

Structure of Organs That
Help

Mouth
-

Bootleg pool

Esophagus
-

Vertical tube

Stomach
-

big bag

Small Intestine
-

Villi

increase surface area

Large Intestine
-

Removes liquid

How does the Digestive System
help maintain Homeostasis?


pH Balance


Helpful Bacteria


Gets Nutrients/Minerals


Removes Waste that may or may not become toxic to the
body

The Process to Process Food


Begins in the mouth.


Pushed through the esophagus.


Sits in Stomach.


Breaks down more in small intestine.


Ends in the large intestine.

Peptic Ulcers

Peptic Ulcer


Peptic ulcers are a break in the inner lining of the
esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.


Stomach
-

Gastric Ulcer


Duodenum
-

duodenal ulcer


Esophagus
-

esophageal ulcer



Occurance



lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum


corroded by the acidic digestive juices


Juices are secreted by the cells of the stomach


Differs from an erosion



extends deeper into the lining of the esophagus,
stomach, or duodenum and excites more of an
inflammatory reaction from the tissues




Causes


Excess acid was believed to be the major cause of ulcer
disease


Neutralizing and inhibiting the secretion of stomach acid


Infection of the stomach by a
bacterum

called Helicobacter
pyloricus


Chronic use of anti inflammatory medications, including aspirin


Cigarette smoking

H. pylori


Very common affecting more than a billion
people worldwide


Half of population over 60 infected


10
-
15% of infections lead to ulcer disease


Symptoms


Minimal digestion


Abdominal discomfort after meals or no
discomfort


Upper abdominal burning


Hunger pain



Why Symptoms


Relieved by food or antacids that neutralize
stomach acids


Persistent pain


No pain


Come and go



Diagnosis


A barium upper gastrointestinal
Xray


Upper gastrointestinal
endoscopy


Barium chalky substance


Upper Gastrointestinal
Endoscopy


More accurate than X
-
rays


Involves sedation of patient


Insertion of flexible tube


Removing small tissue samples


Biopsies



Treatment


Reduce risk factors


Antacids


H2 blockers


Proton
-
pump inhibitors


Sucralfate

and
Misoprostol


Diet


H. Pylori treatment

Complications


Some heal without medications


Bleeding, perforation & obstruction of the
stomach


Black tarry stools


Weakness


Orthostatic syncope


Vomiting blood


Chrons
’ Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Causes


Unknown


Autoimmune disorder


Ongoing inflammation of GI tract


May involve small and large intestine,rectum, or
mouth


Causes intestinal wall to become thick

Risk factors


Your genes


Environmental factors


Body over reacts to normal bacteria in intestines


15
-
35


Symptoms


Crampy







Fever


Fatigue


Loss of appetite


Pain with passing stool


Weight loss


D
iarrhea


Constipation


Eye inflammation


Joint Pain and swelling


Mouth ulcers


Rectal Bleeding


Skin lumps or sores


Swollen gums

Signs and Tests


Physical Examination


Barium enema or Upper GI series


Colonoscopy or
sigmoidoscopy


Endoscopy


MRI of abdomen


CT scan of abdomen


Enteroscopy

Altering results


Albumin


C
-
reactive protein


Erythrocyte sedimentation rate


Fecal fat


Hemoglobin


Liver function tests


White blood cell count

Treatment


Diet and Nutrition


Drinking lots of water


Eating small amounts of food throughout the day


Avoiding high fiber foods


Avoiding fatty foods


Limiting dairy products

Medications


Fiber Supplements


Acetaminophen


Aminosalicylates


Corticosteroids


Azathioprine



Antibiotics


Biologic therapy

Surgery


Bleeding


Failure to grow


Fistulas


Infections


Narrowing of the intestine

Gallstones

Gallstones are hard, pebble
-
like deposits that form inside the
gallbladder. Gallstones may be as small as a grain of sand or
as large as a golf ball.

Causes


Varies


2 Main types


Stones made of cholesterol


Stones made of
bilirubin


More common in women, people over the age
of 40, and may run in the family

Possibilities of Developing
Gallstones


Bone marrow or solid organ transplant


Diabetes


Failure of the gallbladder to empty bile properly


Liver Cirrhosis


Hemolytic anemia & sickle cell anemia


Rapid weight loss


Receiving nutrition through a vain


Symptoms


Pain in the right upper or middle upper abdomen


Fever


Yellowing of skin and whites of the eyes


Clay
-
colored stools


Nausea and vomiting

Treatment: Surgery


Laparoscopic
cholecystectomy


Cholecystectomy


Medication


Chendeoxycholic

acids


Ursodeooxycholic

acid


Rapidly dissolves cholesterol stones


Lithotripsy


Electrohydraulic

shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) of
the gallbladder has also been used for certain
patients who cannot have surgery. Because
gallstones often come back in many patients, this
treatment is not used very often anymore.

Celiac’s

Disease

Celiac disease is a condition that damages the lining of the small intestine and
prevents it from absorbing parts of food that are important for staying healthy. The
damage is due to a reaction to eating gluten, which is found in wheat, barley, rye,
and possibly oats.

Causes


Unknown


Lining
of the intestines contains areas called
villi


Gluten


Infancy to childhood


Women affected more than men


More Likely to Have


Autoimmune disorders


Addison’s disease


Down syndrome


Intestinal Cancer


Intestinal Lymphoma


Lactose Intolerance


Thyroid disease


Type 1 diabetes

GI Symptoms


Abdominal pain, bloating, gas, or indigestions


Constipation


Decreased appetite


Diarrhea


Lactose intolerance


Nausea and vomiting


Unexplained weight loss

Possible
Syptoms


Bruising easily


Depression or anxiety


Fatigue


Growth delay in children


Hair loss


Itchy Skin


Missed
menstraul

periods

Possible Symptoms (cont)


Mouth Ulcers


Muscle Cramps and Joint Pain


Nosebleeds


Seizures


Tingling or numbness in hands and feet


Unexplained short height

Childrens

Effect


Defects in the tooth enamel and changes in tooth
color


Delayed puberty


Diarrhea & constipation


Nausea


Irritable and fussy behavior


Poor weight gain


Slowed growth and shorter than normal height for
age


Signs and Tests


Albumin (may be low)


Alkaline
phosphatase


Clotting Factor Abnormalities


Cholesterol (may be low)


Complete blood count


Liver enzymes


Prothrombin

time

Treatment


Cant be cured


Symptoms will go away


Stay
caucious


Gluten
-
free diet


Registered dietitian

Prognosis


6 months in children


2
-
3 years in adults


Long term damage to lining of intestines


May not improve : height or teeth


Complications


Autoimmune disorders


Bone disease


Certain types of intestinal cancer


Low blood count


Low blood sugar


Infertility or repeated miscarriage


Liver disease


Digestive System


stomach transplant