ITS IMPACT TO THE PORT

kayakjokeΜηχανική

22 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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CLIMATE CHANGE:


ITS IMPACT TO THE PORT

1

What is Global Warming &

Climate Change


Global

warming

refers

to

rising

global

temperatures

and

it

causes

climates

to

change
.




The

warming

has

resulted

:







Basically,

global

warming

is

the

cause,

climate

change

is

the

effect
.

2

Increased global
average surface air
and ocean
temperatures


Increased weather
extremes i.e. severe
storms, typhoons
and torrential rains


Melting of ice in the
polar region


What is happening now


The

4
th

assessment

report

by

the

Intergovernmental

Panel

On

Climate

Change

(IPCC)

published

in

2007

has

warned

that

the

warming

of

the

earth’s

climate

system

is

unequivocal
.



These
events have become more frequent and intense in
many parts of the world, and Asia is particularly vulnerable to
these hazards.



The past few years, have witnessed an increase in damage
due to the extreme weather events in Southeast Asia itself.



Could it get any worse? Unfortunately, it can…




3

4

5

OBSERVED CLIMATE CHANGE


Climate

change

will

affect

ports

and

port
-
based

economies,

depending

on

their

geographic

location

and

the

adaptive

capacities

of

the

ports

and

the

communities

in

which

they

are

located
.



The

complexity

and

potential

risks

require

both

the

scientific

community

and

the

port

authorities

to

take

an

active

role

to

better

understand

when

and

how

to

implement

proactive

adaptation

strategies
.









7

No longer just for scientist…

8



To

remain

efficient

and

resilient,

seaports

must

anticipate

the

impacts

of

climate

change

and

proactively

prepare

for

sea

level

rise,

increased

flooding,

and

more

frequent

extreme

storm

events



(
Hallegate

2008
;

PIANC

2008
;

UNCTAD

2008
;

EPA

2008
)
.



Climate

change

will

result

in

number

of

general

impacts

on

navigation

and

harbor

operation

as

well

as

on

related

infrastructure
.





9

OBSERVED CLIMATE CHANGE

1.
Raise

of

sea

level
-



According

to

PIANC,

sea

level

rise

would

have

no

direct

impact

on

navigation

but

it

would

effect

port

infrastructure

and

port

structure
.



Global

sea

level

has

already

risen

by

10

cm

to

20

cm

in

the

past

century,

and

the

pace

of

sea

level

rise

appears

to

be

accelerating
.




The

IPCC

predicts

that

sea

levels

could

rise

25
cm

to

58

cm

by

2100
,

but

in

recent

years

sea

levels

have

been

rising

faster

than

the

upper

end

of

the

range

predicted
.













10

Potential Impacts of Climate Change





The

impact

of

sea

level

rise

are

as

follows
:
-



The

rise

in

sea

level

may

allow

greater

penetration

of

wave

energy

to

the

coastline

and

into

port,

causing

increased

coastal

erosion

in

areas

with

a

soft

coastline
.



The

elevation

at

which

the

wave

force

attack

a

structure

will

increase

the

exposure

of

decks

of

wharfs

and

piers,

increase

the

corrosion

rate

and

the

degradation

of

material

designed

for

a

particular

range

of

sea

level

conditions



A

change

in

high

and

extreme

sea

levels

may

reduced

top

clearance

between

ships

and

bridges










11

Potential Impacts of Climate Change


Example of breakwater barely coping with storm waves at present water levels

[
source Aspects of Potential Climate Change Impacts on Ports & Maritime Operations around the Southern African Coast by Mr.
Marius
Rossouw

and Mr. Andre
Theron

CSIR, South Africa (Photo: A
Theron
)]

12



Another

potential

impacts

on

port

structures

include

changes

in

overtopping

and

even

stability

of

breakwaters

due

to

increased

force

from

wave

action

coupled

with

attack

at

a

higher

level

on

a

structure

due

to

sea

level

rise
.



Increased

sedimentation

in

harbors,

inlets

and

channels

will

result

in

the

need

for

more

maintenance

dredging

to

maintain

exists

access
.



13

Potential Impacts of Climate Change

1 METER RISE = LOSS OF NEW ORLEANS

14


it

may

lead

to

decreased

regularity

of

ports,


increased

downtime

and

the

requirement

for

more

storage

capacity

at

container

terminal

for

use

in

times

of

closure
.


h
igher

thunderstorm

activity

is

expected

in

higher

latitudes,

this

would

put

higher

demand

on

lightning

systems

and

electronics


3
.

Change

in

wind

conditions



According

to

PIANC

an

increase

in

wind

speed

have

some

direct

effects

on

navigation
.

Maneuvering

through

curved

narrow

sailing

channels

would

be

more

difficult


15

2
.

Changes

in

storm

events

and

/or

frequency



Related

impacts

of

wind

change

include

increased

berthing

time

and

delayed

departure

time

for

ships

at

terminals

which

may

required

larger

areas

for

anchoring

of

waiting

vessels
.


Advantage

of

this

impacts

are

:


An

increase

in

the

absolute

levels

of

low

and

extreme

low

sea

levels

will

allow

greater

under

keel

clearance

for

vessels



Possibly

reduce

the

need

for

dredging

in

low

sedimentation

areas

16

A wrecked oil platform washes
ashore in Alabama in the wake
of Hurricane Katrina.

17

CONCLUSION



Most

ports

do

not

have

specific

information

about

the

types

of

impacts

that

they

can

expect

on

their

facilities

or

the

probabilities

of

different

types

of

impacts

occurring
.




The

data

that

ports

typically

use

for

planning

purposes

do

not

incorporate

climate

change

forecasts
.




To

help

these

and

other

ports

assess

their

risk,

more

and

better

data

are

needed,

as

well

as

better

planning

tools

and

methods
.



Asian

ports

need

to

better

understand

climate

change

and

how

it

may

affect

them
.












18

THANK YOU

19

References:


(
1
)

PIANC

(
2008
)
.

Waterborne

transport,

ports

and

waterways
:

A

review

of

climate

change

rivers,

impacts,

responses

and

mitigation
.

EnviCom



Task

Group

3
,

PIANC
.



Intergovernmental

Panel

on

Climate

Change

(IPCC)(
2007
),

‘Climate

Change

2007
:

Impacts,

Adaptation

and

Vulnerability’



Climate

Change

Impacts

On

International

Seaports
:

Knowledge,

Perceptions,

and

Planning

Efforts

Among

Port

Administrators
-

Corresponding

Author

:

Austin

Becker



Hallegate

2008
;

PIANC

2008
;

UNCTAD

2008
;

EPA

2008



Planning

for

Impacts

of

Climate

Change

at

U
.
S
.

Ports
;

Gallivan
,

Frank,

Bailey,

Kathleen,

O'Rourke,

Laurence

Matthew



20