ENHANCING QUALITY BRAND OF TOURISM PRODUCTS USING NEW IT

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201
2

Cambridge Business & Economics Conference


ISBN : 9780974211428

June 27
-
28, 2012

Cambridge, UK


1

ENHANCING QUALITY BR
AND OF TOURISM PRODU
CTS USING NEW
IT
APPLICATION TOOLS



Ruth
Rios
-
Morales
1
,

Lucia Aie
llo and

Claudia Cacia


ABSTRACT


A prominent featu
re in the

recent trends of the tourism

industry
is emerging in the global
landscape
.
The new online application

tools of Web 2.0
such as Site Web, social media and social
networks are shifting the fundamentals
in the
way

tourists are gaining information
about
desti
nations
and

services.
This development
significantly
influences the strategic deci
sion process of
tourism firm
s and of international tourism organizations.
T
ourist actors must
respond to this
change
by
using
marketing strategies t
ailor
ed

t
o the needs and w
ants of
this new trend
.
The
purpose of this paper is to
analyze

new
determinant

factors

influencing

quality b
rand
of
a
tourism

destination

and product
.
T
h
rough the identification of those determinant factors

emerges a
contr
ibution to theory development. A
holistic
quality brand
model which incorporates
technological tools in the
implementation of
brand quality in
a tourism product

or service

is
developed
.
Our
conclusions suggest
that firms in the tourism industry ought to
understand th
e
dimensions and the p
otential

of Web 2.0
applications
on marketing practice and business

in
general.


Keywords:

Tourism,

Web 2.0
, social media, social networks, quality brand










1

Corresponding author
: Ruth Rios
-
Morales (PhD), Les Roches
-
Gruyere, University of Applied Sciences
Switzerland, Rue de
l’Ondine 20, CH 1630 Bulle, Switzerland. Tel. 00 41 26 919 7878, Fax 00 41 26 919 7879
e
-
mail:
ruth.riosmorales@glion.edu
.



201
2

Cambridge Business & Economics Conference


ISBN : 9780974211428

June 27
-
28, 2012

Cambridge, UK


2

INTRODUCTION


The process of globalization and the advent of innovation and communication
technologies
are changing the business environment of the tourism industry.

The g
lobal interconnectedness
has opened a world of opportunities, but
has
also
brought many challenges to the

industry
’s
actors
.
The
re are two

most important

opportunities

for tourism

operators
:

the rapid increase of
the demand in the international market

(
Papatheodorou, 1999;

Divisekera,

2003;

Song
et al.,

2000 & 2003
; Lim
et al.,

2002
;

Seetaram, 2010
)

and the
“reduced distance"
with
potential
customers
.

Although distances between service providers and their customers have been
shorten due to the
new technological advances
;
c
onsumers

nowadays have become more
so
phisticated and demanding (Kotler, 2002;
Gabaix & Laibson,
2006; Mills

& Law
, 2004;
Cova
& Pace

2006;
Compe
te, 2006; Cooper, 2008; Pantano, 2010
).

C
onsumers have access to more
choice; implementing

more meticulous research concerning destinations and by seeking more
guarantees

from suppliers
(
Bolton

& Drew,
1991; Murray, 1991; Haub

&
Trifts
,
2000; Te
as

&
Agarwal
, 2000;
Detlor
et al,

2003;
Chang

&
Burke
,

2007;

Chen & Xie,
2008;
Wang, 2008
;
Arussy, 2009)


Competition in the tourism industry has become more complex, influencing the strategic
decision making process of tourism operators.

The
incorporation

of IT tools

represent

opportunities

for distribution to overcome traditional network limitations, but also a challenge

for operators

(
Marcuseen, 2001;
Biella
& Biella,

2004
;

Chen & Xie,
2008;
Wang, 2008
).

Enduring competitiveness

in this business environment for tourism operators goes beyond
the
implementation

of

effective communication with customers.
The effects of branding on
consumer choice have become increasingly more important to study as technology has
provided consumers w
ith a constant stream of information. Information comes from an
unlimited number of sources while narrowing the competitive advantage gap between
corporations of varying sizes and their brands (Duncan, 2002; Kitchen, 2005
;

Arussy, 2009
).
In a market where
the internet has become an important platform, tourism product
s

or service
s
must be presented in their

full gamut
(Scott &Laws, 2006)
.
Branding plays a vital role in
the
implementation of an integrated policy in the processes of
tourism
p
roducts and servic
es
.



Quality brand

is

also

an

important element

in international

positioning
of a product or service
and
has
been widely recognized as a source of competitive advantage in
the
tourism
industry
(
Laws, 2000).

I
dentifying new determinant factors influencing
quality brand
in
the tourism
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ISBN : 9780974211428

June 27
-
28, 2012

Cambridge, UK


3

industry is key to the design of strategic destination and product.
The remainder of this paper
is organized as follows:
the next se
ction
presents
related literature of the role of brand in the
positioning policy.
The subsequen
t section evaluates
prac
tical tools based on theories and

scientific literature

related to quality brand and its reinforcing role in international positioning.

Then, is Web 2.0 presented as an important element to enhance quality brand. In the
subsequent
section
,

new determinant factors and a
holistic
quality brand
model which
incorporates
technological tools in the
implementation of
brand quality in
a tourism product

or service

is presented.
The last
section
present
s

the

conclusions of this study.




BRAND POSITIONING PO
LICY


There is an affluent and diverse scholarly research conducted in the topic of brand.
Researchers from the marketing, communications and psychology streams have explored
this
topic
(Banerjee,

2008; Hung, 2008;

Koubaa, 2008
).
A br
an
d can be define
d

as a psychological
construct
ion

of images and relationships
which are

responsible for product/service
identification and product/service differentiation
;

which influences customer’s purchase
decision
s

(Esch, 2004). Branding has an importan
t role

in the
development of a product or
service in the
service

sector. A brand

enables
consumers

to visualize and understand the
intangible aspects of
the service including the principles

of the people who

provide the
services. B
randing is an effectiv
e
technique

in international marketi
ng
in the service sector
(Buhalis

&

Costa, 2006).

However, a brand gets into a different

dimension when adding the
international pers
pective (Bell, 2000). Customers in other country
markets may have different
preferences a
nd tastes

than

in the hom
e markets;

therefore
,

the same messages may

come
across differently
.

Nonetheless
, customers are
developing a taste for globalized products and
their preferences are becoming more standardized

(Kotler
et al.,

2002
;

Kapferer, 2004
).


Regarding tourism, brand is difficult to develop and manage as many consumer touch points
are not within the controls of the destination marketing organization

(Pike, 2007). However,
p
lacing a
branding policy is crucial

in the implementation of an

intern
ational tourism product

or
service.

T
o optimize this process it is indisp
ensable to implement a
planned strategy aiming
to match

three components:
id
entity
,

image and personality
.
The construction
and use of the
strategy implies

deep
knowledge of those
specific concepts.

Both identity and image are
based on values,
while
personalit
y is

associated with the brand

(
Gunn, 1972; Goodrich, 1978;
Bernsterin, 1984
; Abratt &

Shee, 1989; Gartner, 1993;

Fill, 1999;
Siano, 2001
;
Wei, 2002;
201
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June 27
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28, 2012

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4

Schults, 2003;
Aiello et a
l., 2009).

Identity reflects the

view of the marketer or owner;

believes

and

intends that the service should represent to consumers
.

While i
mage

represents

what customers, users, and the like believe or perceive
about the service

or what it represent
s

to t
hem at a given point in time (Schu
lts, 2003; Wei, 2002; Abratt &

Shee, 1989). I
mage exist
exclusively in individuals who are perceived through a series of clues (visual) perception that
leads them to judge subjectively what the organization as well as a de
stination or a hotel chain
is (Bernsterin, 1984). Image has been verified to be a pivotal factor in travellers' d
ecision
process and destination/
hotel chain selection (Gunn, 1972; Gartner, 1993; Goodrich, 1978;
Woodside & Lysonski, 1989; Um & Crompton, 199
0). The image that trav
ellers hold about a
destination
would be significantly influenced by several information sources. As a result, an
a
ccurate assessment of image is

key to designing an elective marketing and positioning
strategy (Reilly, 1990).

This po
sition allows affirming that there is often a
big difference
between what the
organiza
tion/tourism product believes or

feels about the service and
consumer experiences
.
On the other hand, p
ersonalit
y

has

in its nature

a strong immaterial
component

that has

to be made explicit through the visual elements, in order to
communicate

to the outside and to become perceivable (Siano, 2001).
P
ersonality can be considered
as
the
result of the interpretation of the
qualities

of the organization/ tourism product, achieved
through a process of self
-
evaluation (
Fill, 1999).

By implementing

a high
-
quality
communication policy and brand stra
tegy

it

is possible to
observe

the

connection

between the
tourism product

perception and it
s personality. Therefore, we refer
to a communication that
can translate the elements
of personality

in those visible and perceptible outside
elements that
constitute
i
dentity
. Then,
tourism

firms
must allow recipients to understand their identity

by
trans
mitting visual elements to be perceived by customers; identity can only be created and
tran
smitted by the firms themselves
and
should be
use
d

to

differentiate themselves from
others
.

O
ptimizing the relationship between identity and personality
,
certainly
results

in

the

reduc
tion of

the gap between personality and image.
However;

a
n

excellent brand strategy

policy
implies

the absolute integration of personality, image and identity; a lack of any of
these three elements would hinder the establishment of a br
and
(
see Figure 1
).

Positioning a
tourism product or service effectively in the market
requires
the development of an effective
branding strategy.

Insert Figure 1 about here





201
2

Cambridge Business & Economics Conference


ISBN : 9780974211428

June 27
-
28, 2012

Cambridge, UK


5

USING
QUALITY BRAND TO REI
NFORCE
INTERNATIONAL

POSITION


Branding
in the
services sector

is a
challenging task due to the lack of physicality until the
servi
ce has been performed (Beckwith

1997).
A firm that operates in
the

tourism

sector

ought
to be supported by policies tailored to

ensure

that
quality is perceived externally

as excellent.

These p
olicies

should aim toward
c
onsumers’

satisfaction; which can be obtained trough the
implementation of price value and
absolute quality
. The latest
is the actual perform of the
service

in the marketplace

and in relation to other competitive services
.
Nevertheless,

quality
is
measure by the customer

and
it is out of the control of the marketers
(Schulz, 2003).

For
this

reason
,

perceived quality
becomes a vital element in the international po
sitioning of a
tourism product; c
ustomer
expectations

and satisfaction are
determinant element
s

in the
success of a firm.


Doyle (1998) emphasises the importance of
going
beyond customer expectations through

the
provision
of

an augmented level of added values, which are
“difficult for competitors to
imitate”

and upholding customer loyalty.
Thus, quality
brand
would make the consumer
perceive that a product or service has superior values and benefits than other products or
services in

the market (Lambkin
et al.
,

1994).

Cus
tomers receive tourism

products in t
hei
r
complexity and integration, these include:
means of transport, accommodation, cultural
activities, catering and any other activity carried out
related to the tourist destination.

T
ourist
s
expect satisfaction in the

entire tourist experience not merely with the individual com
ponents
of the tourism product.
In accordance with the concept of mult
i
-
product destination branding
(Scott & Laws, 2006),
q
uality brand should encompass the full gamut of
tourism products and
se
rvices.



Policies of quality brand
are an important element in

the positioning policy of
tourism

product
s or services
.
Figure

2

identifies

all the necessary

component
s for the

implementation
of
brand quality and
essential

policies in

the
development of a
trademark in the tourism
industry.

Increasing

quality
in each “field destinations” would create
customer satisfaction

and customer
loyalty. However, each activity on the services chain should be monitored and
control.
Monitoring is an important element for

achieving
quality brand
objective
s which
includes:
customer satisfaction,

loyalty,

increasing numbers of tourists,

increase of
internationalization,

increased profitability,
and increased

infrastructure,

development of
individual products,

increased
performance,

and
increased training
.

Attaining these objectives
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6

will enable tourism
suppliers

to
provide a quality brand service or product at a
highly

competitive price.
Q
uality brand

is the

source of competitive advantage

which is

widely
recognized in
th
e
tourism

industry

(Laws, 2000).


Insert Figure
2

about here



THE ROLE OF WEB TO I
N
QUALITY BRAND


The Internet represents an embedded high
-
quality

system capable of influencing prices
,
consumer preferences
,

behavior

and brands

(Singer, 2002)
. Technology
plays a significant
role in

the

tourism

industry
, both as a facilitator of growth, and as an enabling factor to
increase and ensure positive
experiences for the
tourist (
Stipanuk, 2001).

If we focus on
technologies for ICT, this relationship becomes even m
ore pronounced; in fact the diffusion
of ICT in tourism has affected both comm
unication and distribution (Mart
i
ni, 2000).
The
Internet and computer network have been added to the business model as a support,
communication and sale
s tools of tourism
product
s (Franch, 1999)
.

A complex product such
as tourism can be represented on a website where its multi
-
media and hyper
-
textual potential
can be fully exploited. Tourists who have visited a website to obtain information or to make
reservations online can also
be
put on an e
-
mail list, and subsequently, be sent additional
offers or information by means of more traditional media. This process enables the creating of
a lasting rela
tionship with the customer (Go, 1992)
.

At the same time, the advent and
development
of automated reservation systems, such as CRS (Computer Reservation System),
and later, GDS (Global Distribution System) have rendered the supply of tourism services
global
(
Sheldon, 1997; Furini
, 2001; Benjamin

&
Wigand
,
1995)
; t
hus
,

completely changing
t
he structure of distribution channel
(
Werthner

& Klein,

2007
).

Considering the above
,
technologies provide an incentive to generate relationship
s

between businesses, allowing the
creation of expanded network which can pool information about the market; thi
s also enables
supply and demand needs to overlap
(
Fesenmaier, 1999;
Boardman
,

2005).

Consequently, it
cannot be ignored that effective
strategy for using the Internet are key element in achieving
comp
etitive advantage (
Detlor
et al.,

2003)
.

S
teady growth that characterizes the digital
segment of travel, one of the
most significant on the Web, is in constant

growth
. Tourists
effectuate the purchase prior to the
experience itself, so the information search is a critical
factor in the purchasing
process
(
Steinfield
et al.,

2001; Hoffman
, 1996).

In the light of these
considerations, it is evident that the potential success of e
-
commerce for tourism products is
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7

linked to the ability to
manage information exchange processes and to particular forms o
f

interactive communication (Camisani Calzolari, 2008)
.

However, the Internet is not just a new
communication tool on which to transfer contents previously conveyed by other media, but
demands new, appropriate communication and customer relation strategies,

because of its
contextua
l product distribution function (see Figure 3)
.



Insert Figure
3

about here


In today’s business environment the Internet i
s
a
point of synergy between

communication
and distribution;

planning and developing strategies need to consider the role of
the Internet.
A
s we observe in Figure 3,
teleshopping and promotional TV/radio messages have a purely
communicative role, while, sales assistance and automatic distributors have a purely
dist
ribution function; the Internet performs both tasks.
Through the different tools,
predominance in the objectives is pursued; e.
g. the main objective of tele
shopping is
to
provi
de the customer with terms

and information of the product,

sale
s

becomes

a secondary
objective.

Clearly,
the
sale process will be perfected later through
telephone contact with

the
potential
customer
. Conversely
,

an employee is mainly focused on product selling but
everything he does or says affects
the purchase decision
, as d
oes the idea that the actual or
potential
customer

has about the "seller"
-

as representative of company
-

but als
o about the
product, brand etc.

The development and refinement of new technologies and elements to
support and protect the potential and curre
nt supply
market

make the internet perfectly able to
represent an instrument of communication and distribution.
The main difference between the
Internet and other "tool"
is

that
communication and distribution
are integrated

(
see
Figure

3)
.

Other valuable f
eatures the Internet offers to consumers are
:

easy access and a platform for
dialogue at

any given time
. The Internet

is an important tool in
the demand and supply
dynamics
(Atkinson

& Coffrey
,
2002;
Pantano
, 2010
), while Web 2.0 has become an
important component of modern marketing.


The
Inter
net is also a tool for comparing competitors in real time: this is the case of “theme”
search engine
s such as www.prontohotel.it,

www.booking.com
. The advantage of new
technologies is to achieve an integration of key marketing levers in the face of greater
flexibility and lower costs which translate into increased efficiency and effectiveness for
the
company. Undoubtedly, the opportunity for integration is not the only advantage given by the
Inter
net which also contributes to reaching higher levels of integration. The map in Figure
4
,
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illustrates ways and m
eans that enable the integration

between d
istribution and
communication processes.
Fi
gure
4 also shows

the

scale of integration
defined

from the first
rectangle representing the area of “no integration

where traditional media are placed to

the
ar
ea of “total integration” referring to

portals for
e
-
commerce. In that

light
, we can suggest
that
t
he Intern
et as a point of synergy, enabling firms

to move into a field of higher
effectiveness and efficiency
, the
new
technolog
ies create a
process of integration with the
benefit of more efficient and effec
tive policies that tend to raise the perceived value of
tourism product offering and accordingly, to create new sources of competitive advantage.


Insert Figure
4

about here


The role of the Internet as point of

synergy is illustrated in the F
igure 5
,
where four areas have
been identified. The first is the "interaction/sharing" area. In this area
,

we find tools that
enable the interaction and sharing only of operational policies. For instance, trade fairs enable
different
tools
to share space and costs
to advertise your products, but their primary aim is not
to implement actual integration. The second area, which of "no synergy", is characterized by
the lack of interaction and sharing of two levers


an example is advertising in newspapers.
The third are
a of "integration" refers to any tool which, while allowing for integration
between communication and distribution, does not guarantee operational interaction and
sharing. This is a complex situation, because integration does not obviate operational
intera
ction and sharing.

The last area i
s defined as "full synergy",
the internet serves as point
of synergy betwe
en the two operational policies:
operational sharing and o
perational policies
integration. In this area, t
he Internet is the "perfect"
amalgamation

between
distribution and
communication.
The tools (e
-
mail, chat, wiki) represent a mode used by different firms in the
tourism chain
.


Insert Figure 5

about here


NEW
DETERMINANT
FACTORS
OF

QUALITY BRAND IN THE

TOURISM
INDUSTRY


The
growing importance of Web 2.0 applications in
the
tourism industry is changing the
determinant factors influencing quality brand of a tourism destination and product.

Although a
number of
studies have acknowledged the positive
ways in which technological a
pplications
201
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9

are contributing

to the rapid change of customer behaviour

(García
-
Crespo
et al.,

2008)
, there
is
only few studies
that
have appraised

the
technological
factors influencing

quality brand

of a
tourism product or service

(
Constantinides

&

Fountain
, 200
8
)
.

According to
the concept of
mult
i
-
product destination branding
(Scott &

Laws, 2006),
quality brand should encompass the
full gamut of

tourism produ
cts and services. Q
uality brand
policy is

an important element for
the
international positioning of a

touristic product

or service
.
Q
uality brand has been widely
recognized as a source of competitive a
dvantage in tourism (
Laws, 2000).



In this highly competitive
business envi
ronment

where consumers’ expectations are
raising

continually,
brand quality ought to incorporate
the
use

of
different
e
-
business

mechanisms
.

This may require that e
-
retailers

need to go beyond the

bottom
-
line profit

thinking

in order to
differentiate themselves from competitors an
d to gain competitive advantage based on

e
-
satisfaction, e
-
loyalty
and trust.
Building trusting relationships
with customers is key to
long
-
term
effective communication.
Evidence
s indicate

t
hat customer
s’

reviews posted in different
forums or onli
ne communities such
as
Web
-
blogs and podcasts are much more powerful as
marketing tools than expert product reviews (
Gillin,
2007
); the

influence of blogs and
podcasts is increasing because of the rapid expansion of the audiences and contributors
(
Constantinides

& Fountain

2008).



Implementing a
b
rand

quality

strategy
in this highly technological environment
is
a
complex
process
. It involves the management of a number of elements that develop awareness and
customer loyalty
(Nykiel, 2006).

Quality brand
of an international tourism

product

would
encompass
a supportive str
ategy
that

optimize
s the quality of the tourism product or service.
The development of brand quality would also require the optimization in the
re
lationship
between identity, personality and image. As we observe in Figure 6,
developing brand quality
is a
process that starts with the integration of identity, personality and image.
Image is key to
what we would like to communicate. Identity represents the brand / product category (e.g.
number of stars for a hotel), while
,

personality is the nature of the pro
duct
/service

itself.

The
implementation of quality product/service where

m
onitoring
would make possible to attain
is
achieving
quality brand
objective
s need to be implemented.

Developing brand quality would
also support the international positioning of a t
ourism product or service (see Figure 6).
T
he
i
nternet is undoubtedly a fitting arena for tourism businesses to develop value
-
added ser
vices
for customers
(
McKinsey,
2007)
.

Social media,
‘social shopping’
and other
online platforms
where con
sumers contact other consumers to
exchange information

(i.e. Buzzillions,
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Crowdstorm,

Ebay
, Neighborhoods, Kaboodle,

Sh
opMedia, Stylehive, TheNext, Trusted
Opinion, Viewpoints, Wishpot,

Friendster
, Tripadvisor
)

is a new determinant factor to be
considered
in brand quality
.


The use of appropriate e
-
business tools would increase an added value of a tourism product or
service by providing customers with superior customer value delivery (García
-
Crespo
et al.,

2008). ICT applications for instance have been ack
nowledged to have influential effect on the
consumption of tourism products
(
Karger & Quan,
2005)
.
Marketing research indicates that
social network sites (
SNSs) are growing in popularity worldwide (comScore, 20
07).
Information

across SNSs
has

been confirme
d
to be a useful tool use by tourists to reduce risk
and
uncertainty
(
Urban,
2003)
.

Inevitable,
building quality brand in the tourism sector would
necessitate deep understanding of e
-
business tools.



Insert Figure 6

about here



CONCLUSION
S


T
he

international tourism literature has identified the importance of technological tools in the
implementation

of
brand quality in
a tourism product

or service
, but little is been said about
the new determinant factors and their integration in the structure
of quality brand. This study
attempts to identify these new determinates related to the technological activities in the
tourism sector.
By
using

prac
tical tools based on theories and

scientific literature
, we have
analysed different elements influencing “
q
uality b
rand”

in the tourism sector
.

From this
analysis

emerges a
holistic
quality brand
model which incorporates
e
-
business tools

to
advan
ce understanding of

a

complex process in today’s business environment
.
The
paper has
also important implications for a firm’s international positioning strategy and
attempts to

contribute

to theory development.


The growing popularity among consumers of the use of Web 2.0 applications raises
responsiveness for further close examinations of this topic.
Further studies may appraise

empi
rically our

model
.

It is

essential for marketers t
o look at IT tools

as

strategic

tool
s
.

Firms
in the tourism industry ought to
understand th
e dimensions and the potential

of Web 2.0 on
marketing practice and business

in general.
Understanding the sources of customer value and
201
2

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June 27
-
28, 2012

Cambridge, UK


11

consumer motivation in using these applications are the fir
st steps to enhance user experience,
meeting customer information needs and helping customers become s
atisfied
will be the keys
to future success.
Further studies may also
analyze

the use of mobile applications

to set

dynamic and durable
firm
-
customer

relationship
.
Finally,
we trust
that this paper

provides a
contribution that leads to a better understanding of consumer behaviour and customer
consumption experience in an online social shopping context.





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FIGURES



Figure 1:

The Brand as integration of image, personality and identity

















Source:
Aiello
& Cacia (2009
).





















Personality
.

What tourist
product
/Brand

is

Image

How

tourist
product

is perceive


Identity

How

the
tourist
product

is
visib
le
outside/identifiers

BRAND

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Figure 2:
Step for a Quality Brand

Source:
Aiello & Cacia (2009).












Fields Destination

Process

Object
ive


Control


Hospitality


Accessibility


Cultural
infrastructures

Economic
infrastructures



Transport

Breakdown of the
individual activities of
the facilities to be
monitored. (reception,
night passing, and others)


1.
customer satisfaction

2.
loyalty

3.
Internationalization

4.
Increased flows in
terms

of additions and

Attendance


1.
Questionnaires customer:

2.
Increase in the number of
facilities;

3.
Increase in national and
international flows;

4.
Return Customers;

5.
Increase in performance

Breakdown of individual
activities to access the
destination track (the
tourist information
offic
es, markings, and
others)


1.
customer satisfaction

2.
loyalty

3.
Internationalization

4.
Increased flows
of
visitors


1.
Increase in the number of
infrastructure and service


2.
Increase in performance

Breakdown of the
individual activities of
the cultural
infrastructure
to be monitored
(Museums, theatres, and
others)



1.
customer satisfaction

2.
loyalty

3.
Internationalization

4.
Increase in visitors

5.
Presence of national
and international visitors


Breakdown of the
individual activities of
the economic
infrast
ructure to be
monitored (banking
offices, and others)


6.
customer satisfaction

7.
loyalty

8.
Internationalization

9.

local actors satisfaction


1.
Increase in number of
infrastructure

2.
Increase in service users

3.
Increase in performance

Increase in performance

Breakdown of the
individual activities of
transport companies to
track. (transportation,
signage, information,
ticketing, and others)


1.
customer satisfaction

2.
loyalty

3.
Internationalization

4.
Increased flows of
passengers

1.
Questionnaires customer

2.
Increase
in number of
infrastructure

3.
Increase in national and
international flows


Return Customers

4.
Increase in performance

1.
Increase in number of
activities

2.
Increased number of the
structures and cultural
infrastructure

3.
Increased the flow of
visitors

4.
Return Cus
tomers

5.
Increase in performance

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19


Figure 3:
Communication and distribution: the internet role



Source:
Singer
et al
.
,

(
2010).




Figure 4:

Map of
vehicles
-
means of distribution and communication



Source:
Singer
et al.,

(
2010).











201
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Figure 5:
Internet as Point of synergy




Source:
Singer
et al.,

(
2010).




Figure 6
:
Adding Value to
Quality Brand


___________________

Source: our elaboration