Strategy paper on water environmental management by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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1


Strategy paper on

water environmental management

by the Japan International Cooperation Agency
(JICA)

Global Environment Department,
JICA

The
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has
continued to
provid
e

support
for

the

improvement of

water
envir
onmental management,

with
emphasi
s

on the following four points, in response to requests from
various
developing
countries.

This paper
focuses on

water environmental management
in view

of improv
ing

water
pollution
,

caused by different

activities.



Support
for
the development of

water environment
al

policies and
the setting up of

a
legal
system



Support for e
nhancing organizations and
institution
s

to ensure
the
effectiveness

of
countermeasures



Support for d
eveloping environ
mental science and technology for
the

environmental
management

of water



Financial Support for

the

implementation of
these
countermeasure
s


JICA

s

international cooperation
in the field of
water environmental management

is described as follows, based on
the

Thematic Guidelines on Environment
al Management (air and water),

1

which

JICA prepared

as its work guidance material
in July 2009
.

1

General outlook

of
water
E
nvironmental
M
anagement

1
-
1

Definition of
E
nvironmental
M
anagement
under

JICA
’s cooperation

Under

JICA’s cooperation, “
E
nvironmenta
l
M
anagement” is defined as
efforts to create a sustainable society, through
proper management o
f interactions between economic
/
social systems by humans

and
environment
,

as well as keeping
a

balance between protection and

the

use of environmental resource
s.

For
the purpose of
environmental management,
JICA
manages
issues of
air/water/soil as well as solid waste which could
cause contamination of
these 3 phases
.
2



1
-
2

Present situation of
water
E
nvironmental
M
anagement

Environmental issues used to be considered problems in developed countries. Today, however,
these environmental issues
have also

become
apparent in developing countries.
Cop
ing
with

these issues
has

become more imperat
ive

in order

to
achieve
a
sustainable

level of

development
not only in individual countries, but also
throughout the

world.

Sewage and industrial wastewater
,

without any proper treatment
,

may
deteriorate the water quality of
rivers, lak
es,
groundwater
as well as

enclosed coastal
areas
.

Water pollution

issues have caused
extinction of

aquatic organisms
,
abrupt
changes of ecosystems, contamination of fish and shellfish due to toxic substances,

and
damage to fisher
ies

caused by red



1

The full text of

Thematic Guidelines on Environmental Management (air and water)
” is posted on
JICA
’s website
.
URL:
http://www.jica.go.jp/activities/issues/env
_manage/pdf/kankyo_01.pdf

(Japanese version only)

2

As for
water resources
, “Effective approach to
development agenda
:
Water resources

(August 2004)
” and “
Thematic Guidelines on water
resources

(December 2004)
” have been prepared, and cover comprehensive m
anagement of
water resources
, supply of
drinking water
,
flood control

and conservation of
water environment
. As far as air and water

are

concerned, “Effective approach to
development agenda

(air pollution)

(December 2005)
” and “Effective approach to
develo
pment agenda

(water contamination)

(October 2005)
” have already
been created. Furthermore, “

Thematic Guidelines on waste management

(June 2009)
” has been prepared with regard to
waste
management
.

2


tides
. I
n addition,
ingestion of contaminated drinking water and food

is detrimental to

human health
.


In order to cope with these problems, e
ach developing
country

has taken a number of measures

(
drawing up

relevant legal
systems
etc.)

under the administrative or
ganization including the
Ministry of
E
nvironment and the
M
inistry of
P
ublic
W
orks
.
However, the
ir

capacity
tends to
be

in
sufficient due to limited experience, knowledge, human and financial
resources.
T
herefore, proper countermeasure
s

have

not been taken.
Moreover,
developing countries in Asia have now
experienced rapid urbanization
and

an

increas
e in their

population
s
;

these facts contribute to the

deteriorat
ion of

urban
water
contaminated by

sewage.

Although improvement of urban
environmental
infrastructu
res

by
the central or local governments

has been

deemed

an urgent
issue
, in order

to improve
urban environmental infrastructure
s
,
overall
improvement has not shown much progress.

In particular
,

the
introduction and
development of
appropriate
sewage

(sanita
ry) treatment facilities
has been
delayed

in spite of being

necessary

in order

to improve the hygiene
environment

in

the poor
er quarters
.


1
-
3

Characteristics of issues on
W
ater
E
nvironmental
M
anagement

Water is critical to sustain life and
every
one
should
have

access to water as

a

public
service
.
W
ater has
five

aspects.
The first concerns

the nature of “
long
-
term
.”
O
nce water has been conta
minated, it takes time to
be
cleansed
. The second is the nature of “
irreversibility
.”
This

means that once water has been polluted, it is
impossible to recover

it

completely. Water also has a
borderless impact. If one spot is polluted, the pollution is
lik
ely to spread widely through

the

water (
defined as

diffusion
” and “
extensiveness
.”)

Moreover, another characteristic of water is the close linkage between various social and economic sectors that could play
several roles
such as

sources of pollution, vict
ims of pollution and main actions against pollution. (“
cross
-
sector
.”)


Although water should be maintained and u
tilize
d as public property, it has been consumed as a commodity because of an
increasing population, mass production and mass consumption, expa
nding economic activities, etc. As a result,
environmental

irreversibility

has become more apparent with the increase in environmental pollution and health problems.


Environmental issues related to public
welfare

are examples representing “market failure.


The governmental role would
have
greater

responsibility,
since

it

is required to intervene in the market
in order to

resolv
e

those environmental issues. In
many developed countries, the governments have intervened in the m
arket
and
have t
ake
n

regulatory
and economic meas
ures
against

the

releas
e of

polluta
nts
, while
in developing countries
relevant government agencie
s for environment are
often
vulnerable and
thus
lac
k

ability to properly implement those measures.

Furthermore, the limited capacity of the s
ociety as a

Photo

R
iver

contaminated

by

sewage

and litter (
the
Philippines)



3


whole makes it difficult to respond to the problems, such as insufficient corporate management of pollutants and of citizens’

monitoring.

Therefore, it is important to approach environmental issues
by

focusing on


knowledge of science and techn
ology
”,
,

and
a
perspective of “
precautionary principle
,”

as much as possible,
taking into account
the
characteristics

of water
.


1
-
4

International trend in
environmental issues

There
have been more international efforts made
since
1972, when
the United Nations Conference on Human
Environment (known as the Stockholm Conference) adopted the “Declaration of the United Nations Conferenc
e on Human
Environment (Stockholm Declaration).”

Furthermore, the international community showed more progress in its efforts in
1992, when
t
he United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (known as the Rio Summit/Earth Summit)
adopted “Agenda
21.”

T
he Rio Summit

made clear
27 princip
le
s
, including

the
landmark
principles

of international law
;
equity between generations
,
common but differentiated responsibilities and
emphasis on
precautionary principle
s
.

In 2002,
the “
World Summit on Sustainable

Development” (known as the Johannesburg Summit) took place, and made it clear again
to keep implementing the agreements at the Earth Summit

by signing the Earth Pledge.


In June 2012, 20 years after the Rio Summit, the
United Nations Conference on Sustain
able Development

(Rio+20)
was held,
and
the outcome document “The Future We Want” was adopted.
This document makes it clear to

pursue a green economy in
the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication
, as well as establish a set of Sustainab
le Development Goals
(SDGs) as indicators for it.

While it has become more important to
address

environmental issues in the international
community,
developed countries have been
expected

to make a great contribution to developing countries
to fulfill

thei
r
obligation.


1
-
5

Trend in our support related to
environmental management

Japan’s ODA Charter approved by the Cabinet in 1992

place
d

environmental conservation as
an issue that
both
developed
countries and
developing countries should address together, wh
ile raising “
Environmental conservation and development
should be pursued in tandem
” as one of its

four principles and “efforts
on

global issues,” such as environmental issues and
population issues, as one of
its

five challenges.

Moreover, in 1997, the “
In
itiatives for Sustainable Development toward the
21st Century (ISD
)” w
ere

announced at t
he United Nations
General Assembly Special
Session

on Environment and
Development, and the initiative
s

detail
ed

the concept and action plans of Japan
’s

environmental co
operation.

In 2002, the “
Environmental Conservation Initiative for Sustainable Development (EcoISD)
” was disclosed
as a
revised version of ISD at the Johannesburg Summit.
EcoISD la
id

out
three

principles;
1) human security, (2) self
-
help
efforts and solida
rity and (3) coexistence of
the
environment and development.
Based on
the
se

principles, i
t shows its basic
policy consisting of improvement of
capacity

to deal with the environment and utilization of Japan’s experience and scientific
technology, as well as

its
action plan

focusing on (1)

measures against global warming
, (2)

measures against
environmental
pollution
, (3)

efforts on “water” issues and

(4)

conservation of
the
natural environment
.

In 2003, Japan’s
ODA
Charter was
reviewed, and

environmental
pro
blems


remained
vital
ODA

challenges.

The “
Strategies for an Environmental Nation in the 21st Century
” approved by the Cabinet in June 2007 showed
strategies which should be addressed toward the 21
st

century within one or two years in our country, such as
international
leadership to overcome climate change issues and international contribution making full use of
Japan’s
experience and
4


knowledge
in reducing

pollution.

In April 2008, the Government of Japan announced the “Public Private Partnership to Boost E
conomic Growth
,

the

new
initiative to enhance collaboration with Japanese companies in ODA programs, etc.
Furthermore,
the
discuss
ion at the
“Headquarters for Japan’s Economic Revitalization
” (
which

was
the
policy council
established by the government
) sh
owed
importance of
supporting overseas

activities of

the

Japanese
private
-
sector corporation
. Moreover,

it has been expected to
provide support for resolving issues in the field of environmental management in developing countries

through

Japanese

technolog
y
.

This is the background
on
which
the government has discussed

implementing PPP (Public
-
Private
-
Partnership)
programs
, aiming

at higher effectiveness and efficiency, while

introducing
the power of the private sector in water
environmental management
(
proj
ect
s

to improve
sewage

systems

etc.)

under the appropriate
demarcation

between public and
private sectors.

In June 2012, the Government of Japan
express
ed

“Green Future” initiative
s

from

a standpoint of “human security” at the
United Nations Conference on
Sustainable Development

(Rio+20).

The initiative revealed

its
contribution
measures focusing
on

three pillars
, which

expand
on
an environmental future city
in

the world, transfer to a green economy worldwide and
the
build
ing of

a robust society.


2


JICA
’s
cooperati
ve

approach

to water environmental management

2
-
1

Purpose of cooperation in water environmental management

T
he purpose of water environmental management
i
n the context of cooperation for developing countries in water
environmental managem
ent
is

efforts to create a sustainable society, through proper management of interactions between
economic
/
social systems by humans

and

the

environment, as well as keeping the balance between protection and use of
environmental resources
.


More specifica
lly,

appropriate
b
alance competing goals for development and the environment

has
to be
found

by establishment of
coherent
process
which is
to understand, analyze, predict and take measures against the
imbalance between protection and use of

the

water envir
onment
.

I
t is crucially important to build capacities to keep
implementing th
is coherent

process in developing countries


2
-
2

Framework of
water environmental management

In order to achieve the purpose mentioned above, a number of measures should be taken,

such as developing legal systems
including policies to keep
a

balance
between

protection and

the

use of environmental resources, environmental standards and
discharge regulation
s
;

formulating
, i
mplementing
, monitoring and analyzing

measures;
and improving

and strengthening
policies and measures based on the results. These measures should be led by administrative institutions including
the

central
government and

local governments
. However, environmental issues
(
water
pollution

etc.)

are closely related to a
ll
human

social activities. Thus, it is necessary to collaborate with other
stakeholders of society, such as
private
-
sector corporation
s
,
citizens’ participation and scientific knowledge
acquired from

universities or research institutes,

in order
to proper
ly maintain,
manage and implement a mechanism
.


2
-
3

Overall picture of
a
cooperative

approach

As shown above, water environmental management requires response
from

all

human

social and economic activities
.
C
ontinual efforts by all
major
stakeholders

of

society, including the government,
private
-
sector corp
oration
s
, citizens and
5


research institutes (hereinafter referred to as the “four parties”)

are also required
. Therefore,
utilization

of

the capacity of
each
stakeholder

and

the

implement
ation of

appropriate measures for aquatic media

is
necessary

to
solve
specific

issues
,
especially

issue
s concerning

water pollution
.

Therefore,
two
cooperati
ve

approach
es

have been considered

as follows.

Cooperati
ve

Approach
1
:
Enhancing the
capacity

of
the government,
private
-
sector corporation
s
, citizens and
universities o
r research institutes

to deal with
environmental management

Cooperati
ve

Approach
2
:
Water quality
-
related environmental management

adapted
to
specific

water areas


2
-
4
Cooperati
ve

Approach
1
:
Enhancing the
capacity

of the government,
private
-
sector corpora
tion
s
, citizens and
universities or research institutes to deal with environmental management


JICA a
ims to
develop

the
capacity

of society as a whole to
cope with
water environmental management

by

enhancing

the
capacity

of
each of the “four parties” in the recipient
country, the government,
private
-
sector corporation
s
,
citizens and universities or

research institute
s
, and
encourage

these

“four parties”

to
cooperate effectively.
Therefore,
Cooperati
ve

Approach
1

includes six aspects
:

1.
formulating appropriate
water environment

policies

and
develop
ing

legal systems
,
2.
Strengthening administrative
or
ganization
s

and
institution
s

to ensure the effectiveness of
water environmental management
,
3.
Enhancing
environmental science and technology to
manage

water
environment
,


4.
Enhancing the capacity of
private
-
sector corporatio
n
s

to
deal with

environmental management

5.
Enhancing the capacity of citizens to
manage

water environment

6.
Enhancing the capacity of universities or research institutes to
manage

water
environment
.
In the context of
JICA
’s
approach, cooperation would be

improving

the

capacity

of
private
-
sector corporation
s
, citizens and universities or research
institutes

through

the

develop
ment of

various

capacities
in

the administration.



2
-
5

Cooperati
ve

Approach
2
:
Water quality
-
related environmental management
adapt
ed to
specific

water areas

Water areas

which are taken care of
by

water environmental management are roughly divided into four

parts
;
1.
Rivers


2.
Lakes

3.
Groundwater

and
4.
Coast
al

seas (especially enclosed coastal
areas
). Each water area has different

kinds of

water
pollution

as well as

purpose
s

f
or

its use
, it is
therefore
necessary to define standards

in order

to
conserve

the

quality

of the
water
, and take measures
according to

the

different characteristics

of each water area
.

In order to review

t
he c
ause
s

of
water
pollution

and
counter
measures,
watershed areas which seem to contain the causes
and results of that contamination
,

should be identified. Moreover,
the vi
ewpoint of a
iming at

a

healthy
water cycle
,

in terms
of both water volume and water quality
,

is critical
ly important
when

considering

both

the

specific problems
in

individual
6


water areas and overall water
environmental management

in watershed area
s
.




In this regard
,

JICA

take
s

an effective approach to environmental management, based on the characteristics and purpose
of
using water in

each

water area (

1.
R
ivers,
2.

L
akes,
3.

G
roundwater and
4.
C
oastal seas
[
especially enclosed coastal
areas
]
).




3

JICA
’s
cooperati
ve

policy

3
-
1

Basic policy



Why

do
es

JICA
cooperate?


For
human security

and
sustainable development



Cooperation related to water environmental management aims to mitigate environmental
pollution
, protect people from
harm and

“fear” along with environmental destruction, and build a

safe

society

for living
. These

efforts

lead to protecting
people’s li
ves
and dignity, and contribute to “human security” of

both

present
and
future generation
s
. Moreover,
ensuring
the
best balance b
et
ween the environment
,

economy and
society is a critical element of sustainable development for not only
developing countries, but also the whole world.

Japan, one of the
world’s
major

economic

powers,
has been supported by import
s and

exports
of
raw mate
rials
and
products

from

all over the world

including developing economies,

as well as

production and consumption based on foreign
direct investment.

In this regard
,
Japan is

a

vital
player

in environmental issues in developing economies, and
bears heavy
re
sponsibility

for it
.




What kind of cooperation do
es

JICA
provide?



Long
-
term perspective and
capacity development

(
Enhancing the
capacity

to
deal with

different

situation
s
)
3






3

An ongoing process of enhancing the problem
-
solving abilities of developing countries by taking into account all

the
factors at the individual, organizational, social levels. (JICA (2006): “Towards Capacity Development of

Developing
Countries



http://www.jica.go.jp/jica
-
ri/publication/archives/jica/cd/200603_aid.html

p2


7


A number of issues
concerning

water environmental management cannot be solved overnight
.
L
ong
-
term
and continual
efforts

are required
.

When c
onsidering cooperation
with

developing countries,
it is critical

to

not only make short
-
term and
urgent
action
s
, but also to
clarif
y

a path
for

long
-
term developmen
t for

the

future
based on precautionary
measures
.

It

is

then

important to implement support for enhancing capacity development
,

including support for basic facilities

and to

build a
system
in such a way
that

developing countries

can

address environmental issues in

a

sustainable way
.



Promoting support in collaboration with
local governments

and
private
-
sector corporation
s

JICA has
implemented


JICA Partnership Programs


with regard to human resource development for government officials
in the field of water environmental management, f
ocusing on developing
sewage

systems

and

based on suggestions from local
governments

in Japan
.

In addition to JICA Partnership Programs,

JICA

also implement
s

various

other

programs,
utilizing
knowledge
from

local governments in other
cooperati
ve

schemes, s
uch as

Technical Cooperation Projects


and

Japanese
ODA Loan


projects.


In 2010, JICA launched the “Preparatory Survey (PPP infrastructure project),”
a

framework to formulate project plans based
on suggestions from the
Japanese

private
-
sector corporatio
n
s

in
PPP

(Public Private Partnership)

infrastructure projects.

In this
survey,

JICA has adopted
the
proposal

of

sewage

development projects and
treatment of wastewater from industrial complexes
.
It conducted
a

survey

for project implementation

by


Japanes
e ODA Loans


and

Private Sector Investment Finance

.

On
January 30
th
, 2013, JICA

signed

a


L
oan
A
greement


for

“Utility Management for Industrial Parks and Water Supply
Project
s

in Long An Province,
Vietnam
, as a first infrastructure project after
restar
ting

the


Private Sector Investment
Finance

.

JICA is going to

set up

an environment
to enable

Japanese
private
-
sector corporation
s

to

expand
their

business

smoothly

in

Vietnam
,
by
providing wastewater treatment
services at

industrial complexes in the prov
ince with

the
participation of


Kobelco Eco
-
Solutions Co., Ltd
"
.
,

and others.



3
-
2

Prioritized areas in cooperation

W
ater
environmental management
covers extremely wide
area
s

in terms of space and time. Thus,

there are several ways to
cooperate;

however
,

deal
ing

with all the issues

regarding water
environmental management is

difficult
.

JICA’s cooperation is
based on
capacity development
in response to th

situation

and

the

needs of developing countries.
After

identifying
prioritized
pollution issues and
target areas

i
t focuses on the four types of
support for
administrative organization

as follows
.


(1)
Support for formulating water environment policies and developing legal systems

(2)
Support for
Enhancing organizations and
institution
s to ensure effectiveness

of countermeasures

(3)
Support for d
eveloping e
nvironmental science and technology for water environmental management

(4)
F
inancial support
for implementation of countermeasures

8



(1)
Support for f
ormulating water environment policies and developing legal systems

In developing countries, many of the gov
ernment
al

agencies in charge of the environment

have just started their operations
and
suffer
ed

from their
own
inadequate

policy
-
making capacit
ies
, because of a number of constraints
,

such as

the

lack of
human resources

and
experience
,
disorganized role
-
sh
aring with
relevant government agenc
ies

and poorly structured law
systems. Therefore,
JICA
provide
s

cooperation

which

focuses

on enhancing their policy
-
making capacity and developing their
legal systems.

With

regard to
policy
-
making and system
s
,
JICA

focus
es

on providing better

response
s

to new challenges,
building

a

tighter connection between individual measures, and encouraging relevant
stakeholders

to have b
etter understanding
of
these

measures. For example,
JICA
build
s

a framework which
contributes to
e
nvironmental standards and
counter
measures
,

reflect
ing on the

data obtained by environmental monitoring.

Where legal

system
s are

concerned
, m
any developing countries
have already
enacted
laws
for environmental conservation
. Thus,

JICA

provide
s

support which
helps

those laws
clearly reflect

upon

what they specifically
require,
by

improving
the
rules, regulatory standards and plans based on the

different

laws

and

encouraging

participation
o
f

relevant
governmental stakeholders.


(
2
)

Support for En
hancing organizations and
institution systems

to ensure effectiveness of countermeasures


Many developing countries have not ensured the effectiveness of their existing
policies and laws for
environmental
management. Therefore,
JICA
enhance
s

the

organizati
ons and
institution
s

in order to
ensure

effectiveness of

the

measures and
laws for environmental managemen
t
.

With

regard to institutions,

JICA

improve
s

working process
es

for
administrative
practices based on the laws (e.g.
creating a database which compile
s reports from
private
-
sector corporation
s
,

formulating a
water quality

management plan
,

and inspecting factories
).

In addition,
JICA supports
the

develop
ment of

structure and
capacity
,

including finance and human resources,

which facilitate efforts
on
pol
lution

sources,

i
n order to enhance the
administrative
capacity to execute laws and regulations

in an effective way
.
In the meantime, the ministry and
the
government
agenc
y

in charge of the environment are not the only
participants who

get involved in envi
ronmental
managerial

measures.

Local governments, which have closer contact with the ministr
ies

and

government agenc
ies
, also play an extremely important
role.

Therefore
,
JICA supports
the

set
ting

up

of a

platform

for
coordinat
ion among

the relevant minist
ries and government
agencies,
in order
to
develop
an

environmental
managerial

capacity of

the

local governments
, and
to
raise

social awareness
through

the

disclosure of environmental information.

(
3
)

Support for
d
eveloping environmental science and technology for water environmental management

It is necessary to
raise

the levels of environmental science and technology for environmental management measures
.

These
measures

become the foundation
for

envi
ronmental management and administration in d
eveloping countries
,

which are
going
through

a transitional phase
in the

develop
ment of

environmental management

and administration
. JICA

provide
s

support for
improving technology, which helps improve specific pr
ocesses of environmental management in line with the circumstances
of

each country and region, while
making sure

of

how developing countries have positioned

their

monitoring, analysis,
prediction, research, management, countermeasures, outreach programs, e
tc
,

throughout all

the

systems
dealing with

environmental management. Especially, technolog
y

to monitor and analyze
pollutant
s
is

critical to understand
any

current
state

of
pollution
,

and
to
reflect it
in

the appropriate

counter
measures.

(
4
)

F
inancial sup
port
for implementation of countermeasures

9


JICA
provide
s

financial
support

(ODA loan)
for

facilities and equipment to prevent pollution

in
sewage

facilities

and effluent
treatment facilities which need large
-
scale investment
, in order to reduce

the

dischar
ge of
pollut
ed water
.

In many
cooperati
ve

project
s
,

including

the

development of
sewage

systems
, their project life is estimated
to be

approximately

40

years, after
construction of

the

facilities
.

Therefore,
there

has been

a

significant

challenge in techni
cal cooperation to ensure

the

sustainability of
the
se

projects
,

after the facilities

start

operating
.
In particular,
these
challenges include
:

developing the
capacity
of organizations which execute
projects to
operate and
maintain treatment facilities, com
pensating costs to run the
facilities through

the

introduction and improvement of a
charging

scheme for
sewage

systems, and

continuing to

secur
e

measures to dispose of excess sludge

generated
in

sewage treatment.
Moreover,
JICA
provide
s

financial and techn
ical support
utilizing

a


Two Step Loan


based on the financial system employed
by

the recipient country, in order to increase investment
for environmental measures (constructing treatment facilities to prevent contamination, introducing
cleaner production
, etc.
)

by individual
private
-
sector corporation
, especially small and medium
-
sized
companies
.