Public Policy: Control of Internet

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17 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

1

Public Policy: Control of Internet


Brief history of Internet


Hardware, Software, Standards.
Domain names


Who
should

control the net/web?


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_governance

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

2

Control of Internet


Internet/Web is very important to modern life.


Who controls it?

»
Specifies protocols

»
Decides who can use/connect to it

»
Specifies what activities are lawful/unlawful

»
Gives out domain names

»
Taxes it

»
Etc.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

3

Governance


Suggested definition by World Summit on the
Information Society (2005)


``
Internet governance is the development and application by
Governments, the private sector and civil society, in their
respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision
-
making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution
and use of the Internet.’’



Ongoing interest at high
-
level: The Internet
Govenance Forum (IGF) sponsored by UN.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

4

What is it?


Global network of computers.

»
The

internetwork
-

a network of networks



Use shared protocols to communicate.

»

Currently, TCP/IP, the Internet Protocol
Suite,



Specific services sit on top of TCP/IP.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

5

Prehistory


Telecomms networks

»


»
Transatlantic telephone cable 1859

»
Telephone, 1876

»
1909, Erlang invents Queuing Theory

»
1940
-
60’s control of mainframes via terminals
connected by wires.


1950’s and 60’s:

»
US military types worry about robust comm’s

»
Engineers+others dream of possibilities

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

6

Prehistory


Packet Switching: 1960’s

»
Transmission of data in
packets

of suitable, fixed size.

»
Paul Baran: reliable communications across unreliable
network (
robustness
)

»
Donald Davies (UK): efficient use of channels (
channel
capacity
)

»
Leonard Kleinrock: queuing theory of packet switchng

»
Optimizes
latency
: time for data to travel across network

»
First computer network implementation 1968

»
First ARPANET message sent October 1969.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

7

Brief history: 1970s


ARPANet

»

first long
-
distance network

»

connected universities, military research labs.

»
US military owned and controlled it.


Protocols and standards start to develop

»
1974ish: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn develop TCP/IP.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

8

1980s: Many networks


Many more networks appeared

»
VNet: Internal IBM network


University offshoot: Bitnet, earn

»
JANet: UK universities

»
UUNet: cheap

network


formed using
telephone dialup lines

»
Etc


Mostly email, not real
-
time client
-
server

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

9

1980s: Internet


Connected together all of these networks into
a global

Internet


»
Virtual network, which combined ARPANet, VNet,
JANet, etc


ARPANet user could easily email JANet, etc

»
Mostly based on protocols and conventions from
US military

»
That is, everyone else changed to what the US
military was doing

»
Everyone starts to use TCP/IP.


Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF):
promotes standards

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

10

Example: names


ARPANet
:
f.guerin@abdn.ac.uk



JANet
:
matthew.collinson@
uk.ac.abdn


collinson
@
UUNET
: network path, e.g.,

»
fred.bloggs!aberdeen!dundee!edinburgh

»
Send email first to Edinburgh, then to
Dundee, then to Aberdeen, then to
fred.bloggs


Everyone switched to
ARPANet

style

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

11

1980s: control


Who controlled the Internet in 1980s?


No one controlled net as a whole

»
IBM controlled VNET

»
UK govt controlled JANet

»
UUNet nodes controlled themselves


People switched to ARPANet standards
because wanted to, their choice


ARPANet replaced by NSFNet

»
Still US govt.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

12

1980s: Integration


L
a
te

1980s integration efforts succeed

»
1990s internet truly looks like an integrated
network to its users, not
patchwork
of
hundreds of separate networks
.



Internet Service Providers (ISP) formed.

»
Access to internet possible not through
university, research lab, military etc.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

13

1990s: Web


WWW invented in early 1990s

»
Network of hypertext documents accessed via
internet.

»
(http) Web
-
browsers (Mosaic, 1993)

»
World Wide Web Consortium, W3C,
(international) quickly established to set standards


T
echnical: protocols, languages


Internationalization: should be accessible to all
languages and cultures

»
Higher priority because Web invented in Europe,
instead of US?

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

14

1990s: Commerce


Banned from
ARPANet
, then
NSFNet

»
Some commercial ISPs and commerce on
other networks
.




1992: US Congress passes Scientific
and Advanced Technology Act.

»
Commerce then allowed.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

15

1990s: Growth with Commerce

From:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:WIntHosts1981
-
July2011.jpg
, Author: Ken Masters, Creative Commons License

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

16

Commercial Importance


Largely because of Web, Internet
became of much greater commercial
interest

»
Dot.com boom

»
Domain names selling for $s


$7.5M for business.com (more for porn.com)

»
Beginnings of spam

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

17

1990s: Who in control?


Most control still resided with individual
component networks.


International organisations increasingly
set standards.

»
W3C, IETF, ICANN (later slide), ISO
(
http://
www.
iso
.org/
)

»
Lawyers increasingly involved


Lawsuits on domain names; e.g.,
mcdonalds.com

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

18

2000s: Internet essential


Many organizations
rely

on Internet

»
Insist that people use it.

»
E
-
govt, E
-
commerce, E
-
Science, etc.

»
Supply chains rely on it.

»
Banking, finance, payment systems.


Internet needs to work!

»
Must be fast, reliable, trusted, etc.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

19

2000s: Attackers


Huge growth in spam email

»
Dominates most inboxes

»
Makes email less reliable/useful


Anti
-
spam systems kill real emails

»
Also phishing (con emails)


Huge growth in viruses

»
Many computers taken over by attackers.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

20

2000s


Companies take security seriously

»
1990s: Microsoft treats computer security
as marketing tool, to encourage upgrades


Questionnable whether it seriously tries to
make software more secure.

»
2000s: Microsoft takes security very
seriously.

»
Relative obscurity of Mac OS protects it.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

21

Governance problems


Hard to stop bad guys when there is so
little control over the net.

»
Change protocols


slow?

»
Spamming illegal


no international control?

»
Blacklist bad guys so can

t use


how?



Does global Internet community have a
duty to help poor countries?

»
E.g., help pay for E Africa fibre.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

22

What is Internet/Web


Hardware: routers, fibre
-
optic links, …


Software: browsers, servers, …


Standards: HTTP, HTML, …


Domain names



People and organizations


Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

23

Hardware


Routers, fibre
-
optic links, etc still owned
by individual organizations, networks.

»
Individuals
: you own your wireless router
and (say) the network in your house.

»
Organizations
: Aberdeen Uni. owns
campus Ethernet wiring.

»
ISP/telecom
: BT owns copper wires from
your house, switches.

»
Govt
: JANet (and SuperJANet) owns link
between Aberdeen Uni. and Dundee Uni.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

24

Hardware


Very diverse ownership


Internet backbone: high
-
speed data routes
-

has multiple owners


National infrastructure: LINX (more or less)
provides central hardware for UK


Almost no central hardware for Internet as a
whole

»
root nameservers (resolve domain names into IP
adresses)

»
Provided by LINX
-
like national sites

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

25

LINX


London Internet Exchange

»
http://www.linx.net/

»
Cooperative of UK ISPs


Interconnect point for UK ISPs,
International connections


Support services: name/time server

»
Service to Internet as a whole


Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

26

Control of Hardware


Who can plug hardware into Internet?

»
Anyone who can convince an organization which
is currently on the net to link to you.


Person/company: convince ISP to connect you.


ISP: convince LINX to connect you.

»
Of course governments can
regulate

what
happens in their countries.


Recent proposal in UK to require explicit opt
-
in
by consumers for porn access.

»
Enforcement?

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

27

Hardware Anarchy


Surprising it works as well as it does.

»
Tribute to tech
-
support personnel keeping
their bit of the Internet going.

»
Even more so to inventors of packet
-
switching, and other robust protocols.


Lack of control helps criminals (e.g.
spammers)?

»
Always find someone to connect them to
the net.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

28

Software Environment


We need software to use the Internet and web.

»
Web browsers: Safari, Internet Explorer, Firefox,

»
Web server: Apache (C), Apache Tomcat (Java),

»
Apache Software Foundation, open community

»
Apache License, open source

»
OS support in Windows, Mac OS X, iOS, Linux,
Android, … .



Controlled by developers

»
Commercial: IE, Outlook, Safari, Entourage, …

»
Open
-
source: Unix, Tomcat, Firefox, … .

»
Mac OS and iOS commercial, but based on Unix.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

29

Control via Software


Can a commercial vendor control the Internet
through its software?

»
If everyone uses IE, Microsoft can

tweak


IE to
encourage people to use its products

»
IE bundled with Windows OS.


Antitrust case. United States vs. Microsoft (1998
-
2001ish). Settled with DoJ.

»
Recent change to IE. Default search engine.
Deliberately difficult to change.

»
Deliberately degrade browsing on competitor
websites.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

30

Control via Software


Seems less of a problem now, because
of blossoming of open
-
source

»
Apache, Tomcat, Firefox, Opera, etc.


Net software becoming more of a
shared resource, less of a commercial
product

»
Much harder for one individual or
organization to control!

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

31

Standards


Standards are essential to Internet

»
Document formats: HTML, XML, PDF, GIF

»
Protocols: HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, …

»
Low
-
level: TCP/IP

»
Other: Java, Unicode, …


Who controls these?

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

32

Protocols


Protocols mostly controlled by
international standards orgs


W3C consortium (web)

»
http://www.w3.org/

»
Most web protocols (eg, HTTP)


IETF (Internet)

»
http://www.ietf.org/

»
TCP/IP, other plumbing


Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

33

Document Formats


W3C controls many web ones

»
HTML, XML, RDF, OWL, ….


Other standards bodies

»
PDF (open, ISO committee, since 2008),

»
JPEG (ISO commit
t
ee, but patent situation
complicated)

»
MPEG (ISO committee)


Some controlled commercially

»
WMF graphics: Microsoft


No one controls

»
GIF: Developed by Compuserve in 1980s, now in
public domain.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

34

Commercial Formats


Is it OK for Adobe to control PDF, which
is a
de facto
standard for the web?

»
Enables Adobe to sell related software?


Adobe has now made PDF an ISO
standard

»
As of 1 Jul 2008


Trend for most widely
-
used formats

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

35

Java


Who controls Java programming language?


Oracle

»
Bought SUN, the original developer

»
Hold trademark

»
Tried to control/restrict competitors


Especially MS


Sun vs. Microsoft


MS created C# instead…


Now moving to open
-
source, standards.


Apple just announced

deprecation


of Java.

»
Have to download separately with OS X 10.7.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

36

Standards


1990s: there was a lot of concern about
commercial control of standards

»
Java, PDF, GIF



Now trend is towards open standards
controlled by international bodies.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

37

Domain Names


Who controls internet names?

»
Which company is business.com?


Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers,
ICANN,
www.icann.org

»
Decides on top
-
level domain names, such as .com

»
International body, not
-
for
-
profit, public
-
benefit,
self
-
appointed?

»
IANA, part of ICANN

``The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is
responsible for the global coordination of the DNS Root, IP
addressing, and other Internet protocol resources’’


Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

38

Domain names


Verisign (company) controls .com

»
Under contract from US government.

»
Why should US govt control?



Nominet controls .uk

»
Private not
-
for
-
profit company



Country domain names often controlled by
national telecomms

»
http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

39

Domain names


Security problems


DNS Cache Poisoning: corrupt data fed into Domain
Name System


directs traffic to wrong address.


Border Gateway Protocol: handles core routing
decisions.


Hijacking


corrupt routing tables of BGP: sends
traffic to wrong address.


Security extensions proposed.


Only 13 DNS
root name servers
(logical clusters)
.
Many in the US. Have been under DDoS attack.

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

40

Domain Name Control


Domain Name System (1983ish)


Historical artefact.

»
E.g., US has top
-
level control because we
use ARPANet names


Under review?

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

41

Who controls Internet?


Hardware: decentralized, anarchic


Software: increasingly open
-
source


Protocols: increasingly international
standards bodies


Domain names: mixture


Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

42

Who
should

control net?


No one (anarchy)?

»
Govts control within their country?

»
No one controls net as a whole?


Self
-
appointed committees (e.g., W3C)?


UN body?

Computing Science, University of Aberdeen

43

UN Internet Agency?


Should an international body be set up
to exercise global control over the
Internet?

»
Control standards, domain names?

»
Provide open
-
source software?

»
Under UN control?


2005 working group, set up by sec
-
gen Annan


Good idea or bad idea?