AD-SDI Data Content Standard: Reference Manual

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AD
-
SDI DATA CONTENT STA
NDARD


REFERENCE MANUAL


Version 1.0








February
, 2009








Prepared by

Abu Dhabi Systems and Information Centre (ADSIC)

Spatial Data Centre (SDC)

Abu Dhabi, UAE


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-
SDI DATA CONTENT
STANDARD,
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REVISION HISTORY

Revision #

Reason

Effective Date

1

Origi
nal Draft

December 2008

2

Revision One

February 2009





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Table of Contents

1

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
....

6

1.1

Why are Standards important?

................................
................................
.....................

6

1.2

Mission and Goals for the AD
-
SDI Standards

................................
.............................

6

1.3

Relationship of AD
-
SDI Standards to Other Standards

................................
.............

7

1.4

Description of AD
-
SDI Standards

................................
................................
.................

8

1.5

Applicability and Intended Uses of AD
-
SDI Standards

................................
..............

9

1.
6

Reference Model Development Process

................................
................................
.......

10

1.7

Maintenance of the AD
-
SDI Standards Reference Model

................................
.........

11

2

Organization of Standards
Work Within AD
-
SDI

................................
...

11

3

Types of AD
-
SDI Standards

................................
................................
.......

11

3.1

Data

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

12

3.2

Processes

................................
................................
................................
.........................

14

3.3

Organizations

................................
................................
................................
.................

15

3.4

Technology

................................
................................
................................
.....................

15

4

AD
-
SD
I Standards Development Process

................................
..................

16

4.1

Draft Stage

................................
................................
................................
.....................

16

4.2

Review Stage

................................
................................
................................
..................

17

4.3

Final Stage

................................
................................
................................
......................

18

5

AD
-
SDI Standards Formats

................................
................................
........

18

6

AD
-
SDI Standards Maintenance and Distribution (TBD)

......................

19

7

Related Standards Bodies

................................
................................
...........

20

7.1

Introduction to International Standards

................................
................................
....

20

7.2

List of AD
-
SDI Applicable Standards

................................
................................
.........

32

Appendix A
-

Standards Working Group Evaluation Criteria

....................

37

Appendix B: Abstracts De
scription of Standards

................................
..........

39




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List of Tables
Table 1: List of Data and Technology Standards

................................
................................

33




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List of Figures
Figure 1: Balance between Simple and Complex
solutions

................................
................

10

Figure 2: Information Engineering Pyramid

................................
................................
.......

12

Figure 3: Current structure of the themes (INSPIRE 2007)

................................
................

25

Figure 4: Current Situation
-

Data Stovepipes

................................
................................
....

27

Figure 5: Target situation
-

Harmonized data views, eliminating data stovepipes

.............

28



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1

Introduction

This document describes a reference model for Abu Dhabi Spatial Data Infrastructure
(AD
-
S
DI) Data Standards. It is intended to provide guidance and direction to AD
-
SDI Standards
developers, reviewers, and users. This document was developed by the AD
-
SDI Standards
Working Group (SWG).

1.1

Why are Standards important?

Geographic (or geospatial) info
rmation


that is, information associated with a location on the
Earth’s surface


has traditionally been associated with cartography and surveying. Today,
more and more people are gaining access to geographic information and using it in business
processes

and systems to assist decision
-
making within and among many organizations.

The widespread use of geographic information is creating a need for standards. Consistent
and accessible information, and associated systems and services contribute to making life
simpler and increase the reliability and effectiveness of the goods and services we use.

1.2

Mission and Goals for the AD
-
SDI Standards

The Abu Dhabi Systems and Information Center (ADSIC) is a government entity created in
October 2005 by Executive Council res
olution No. 33, issued by HH Sheikh Mohammed bin
Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE
Armed Forces and Chairman of the Abu Dhabi Executive Council. The role of ADSIC is to
develop, drive and support various initi
atives within the Government to transform
government services in the Emirate. A key objective of this transformation is to establish a
modern, efficient and citizen
-
centric e
-
Government platform to match the best in the world.

The Abu Dhabi Spatial Da
ta Infrastructure (AD
-
SDI) initiative was mobilized by the
Executive Council under ADSIC Charter GO
-
R
-
026 Geographic Information Infrastructure.
AD
-
SDI is defined as the technology, policies, standards, and human resources necessary to
acquire, process, s
tore, distribute, and improve utilization of geospatial data.
It aims to
achieve synergies, avoid duplication, and support increased coordination and data sharing
across the government GIS user community.

The
Standards & Interoperabiliy Framework

is one of

several frameworks designed to
support the AD
-
SDI implementation plan. An important function of the Spati
al Data Center
(SD
C) is to participate in the development and adoption of common framework data
standards, in partnership with custodian agencies and
in consultation with stakeholder
agencies. The Technical Committee of the AD
-
SDI formulates Working Groups for
coordinating geospatial data themes, including the establishment and implementation of data
standards for quality, content, and transfer.

Workin
g Groups are comprised of representatives from government agencies and AD
-
SDI
recognized stakeholder groups who share a common interest in specific types of geospatial
data or topical areas. These may be formed around geospatial data themes or persistent


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t
opical areas such as metadata and data standards. Each subcommittee focuses on issues that
pertain to coordination and standards associated with a fundamental geospatial data theme
with regard to data collection, access, exchange, and applications using th
ose data.

The AD
-
SDI Standards Working Group (SWG)
provides guidance to the other working
groups on standards, policies, and procedures; review standards proposals and standards
documents for compliance to these policies and procedures; and makes recommen
dation for
final AD
-
SDI endorsement.

The AD
-
SDI Standards Reference Model represents an effort by the SWG to document
standards
policies and procedures and to provide guidelines by which the AD
-
SDI will
conduct standards development. This model describes t
he relationship of AD
-
SDI to other
standards bodies, identifies the expectations of AD
-
SDI standards, defines the various types
of geospatial data standards, and outlines the AD
-
SDI standards development process.

1.3

Relationship of AD
-
SDI Standards to Other S
tandards

There are many spatial data standards that may support the AD
-
SDI. These include:

Entity Standards


Entity standards for geospatial data may be developed to support specific
applications or mandates within one government entity. Any government en
tity or
organization may support or recognize an entity standard. Typically the sphere of influence in
the development, maintenance, and use of an entity standard is contained within a single
entity. Cooperative agreements between or among entities to deve
lop specific standards are
included in Entity Standards.

AD
-
SDI Standards


AD
-
SDI Standards are developed in response to ADSIC which
mandates spatial data sharing and adherence to common standards by government entities.
They are intended to be Emirate
-
wi
de in scope and to go beyond individual agencies and the
government enterprise. They support Abu Dhabi Emirate's collective decision making and
applications and are developed jointly by government entities and other interested
participants. AD
-
SDI Standard
s are mandatory for government entities as well as their
partners (consultants and contractors) as per the strategy adopted by Abu Dhabi Government.

Industry Standards


Industries Standards are developed in the private sector by
cooperating firms. Their p
roduction may be coordinated by a single firm, a group of firms, a
not
-
for
-
profit organization or a standards organization. These standards are voluntary unless
conformance is mandated through contract or agreement.

International Standards


The Internatio
nal Organization for Standardization (ISO) is the
primary international standards organization for information technology. Organizations gain
access to ISO through their national standards body, which in UAE is the
Emirates Authority
for Standardization &
Metrology

(ESMA), a Federal UAE Authority established by UAE
Federal Law (28), 2001.

AD
-
SDI standards may be impacted in their development or adoption by other standards or
may impact or contribute to other standards.



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1.4

Description of AD
-
SDI Standards

As th
e spatial data standards for the Emirate in support of the AD
-
SDI, there are several
expectations for AD
-
SDI Standards.

Within AD
-
SDI Scope


AD
-
SDI Standards will be within the purview and scope of the
objectives of AD
-
SDI. AD
-
SDI Standards must relate to

geospatial data, cover appropriate
topical areas, and standardize either data or processes to advance data sharing and minimize
duplication of effort.

Future Focused


Future focused means that AD
-
SDI standards are intended to remove
impedances to sharing

information rather than changing existing successful data sharing
arrangements. AD
-
SDI Standards should be developed to promote new and enhanced
interaction with existing entity coordinating mechanisms that have interest in the generation,
collection, use
, and transfer of spatial data. AD
-
SDI standards need to focus on solving future
problems. AD
-
SDI Standards are not intended to re
-
formalize existing solutions.

Structured


AD
-
SDI standards need to be developed and presented in a structured manner
that wi
ll lead to understandability and usability by consumers. This reference model provides
minimal guidelines for development and documentation of standards. There are many
structured methodologies that can be employed by standards developers that will lead to

complete and understandable standards. This reference model does not specify a development
methodology.

Technology Independent


AD
-
SDI Standards will not constrain technology development.
They will not be developed or implemented in a way that limits the

use of new and emerging
technologies. They also will not be written or implemented in a way that limits any vendor or
technology to maximize the use of the standard.

Integrated


AD
-
SDI Standards will be integrated with one another and with related
standa
rds. This means there will not be overlapping definitions, authorities, or procedures.
Standards development will be coordinated to eliminate duplicate efforts and to maximize the
efforts of the volunteers contributing to and implementing standards. AD
-
SDI

Standards will
lead to an integrated framework for the AD
-
SDI.

Evolving


AD
-
SDI Standards will evolve as technology and institutional mandates change.
The standards will be written to allow for evolution and will accommodate backward
compatibility for in
formation gathered under previously known standards. There will be
known update and maintenance procedures that are timely and responsive to changes. The
procedures will be documented as a part of AD
-
SDI Standards.

Supportable


AD
-
SDI Standards must be su
pportable by the geospatial vendor community.
They will be developed in a manner that is supportable by known or emerging technology.

Publicly Available


AD
-
SDI Standards will have a broadly based public notice of their
availability. AD
-
SDI Standards will

not be developed from copyrighted or proprietary
standards that would limit the ability of the final standard to be publicly available. They will


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not contain any copyrights or other limitations on their use or reproduction. AD
-
SDI
Standards will be availa
ble electronically whenever possible.

Complete and Consistent


AD
-
SDI Standards will be complete in terms of the standards
components and methodology described in this reference model. AD
-
SDI Standards will have
a consistent form and format.


1.5

Applicabilit
y and Intended Uses of AD
-
SDI Standards

AD
-
SDI Standards are intended to increase interoperability among automated geospatial
information systems.
Enhanced coordination will build information partnerships among
government institutions and the
public and pr
ivate sectors, avoiding wasteful duplication of
effort and ensuring effective and economical management of information resources in
meeting essential user requirements.

AD
-
SDI Standards apply to and are mandatory for all governmental agencies.
Use by non
-
g
overnmental and private sector organizations is not mandatory, but is encouraged in order to
promote the widest possible use and sharing of data.





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1.6

Reference Model Development Process

The Standards Working Group (SWG) defined the need and general content r
equirements
for
the Reference Model. All AD
-
SDI Working Groups have representation on the SWG.

The goal of the AD
-
SDI SWG is to provide guidelines for the development and
documentation of AD
-
SDI Standards with a minimal structure for standards developers.
This
structure is intended to support AD
-
SDI Working Groups in their efforts to develop, adopt,
and encourage the use of geospatial standards.

One of the main challenges regarding the design of AD
-
SDI Data Standards development is
to find the right balance

between a simple, easy to implement/use solution and a complex,
rigorous solution depending on the needs and feasibility constraints. See Figure1 below:




Some of the guiding principles based on which the Data Standards development is carried out
are:



D
ata should be collected once and maintained at the level where this can be done
most effectively



It must be possible to combine seamlessly geospatial data from different sources
across the Emirate and share it between many users and applications



It must be

possible for data collected at one level to be shared among different levels,
e.g. detailed data for detailed investigations, general data for strategic purposes

Based upon these principles, the application schemas should neither be too simple, nor too
co
mplex.

Figure
1
: Balance between Simple and Comp
lex solutions



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Standards development and maintenance processes of various international standards bodies
such as ISO, OGC, FGDC, W3C, Standards Australia(SA), Standards New Zealand (SNZ),
and INSPIRE were reviewed and discussed in the development of this Referenc
e Model.

1.7

Maintenance of the AD
-
SDI Standards Reference Model

The AD
-
SDI SWG is responsible for the maintenance of the AD
-
SDI Standards Reference
Model. The SWG expects to have regular updates to this document. In the first year or two
revisions are expect
ed to occur once per year. Comments can be directed to the SWG through
SDC.


2

Organization of Standards Work Within AD
-
SDI

The Abu Dhabi Spatial Data Infrastructure (AD
-
SDI) Implementation Plan provides for the
establishment of Working Groups to support AD
-
SDI community management
requirements
and to facilitate
data stewardship for the various Fundamental Geospatial Data Sets (FGDS).
The Working Groups are comprised of business user representatives from the stakeholder
entities and act in a consultative
way

to guide the AD
-
SDI program in a manner that best
addresses the needs of the community.

Working Groups are initiated by the Abu Dhabi Systems and Information Center (ADSIC)
and the Abu Dhabi Spatial Data Infrastructure (AD
-
SDI) Technical Committee (TC)
on a
mutually agreed basis to allow multiple government entity teams to address special topics of
common activities and interest. The AD
-
SDI Working Groups establish and implement
strategic guidance and specific actions that support improved collection, s
haring,
dissemination and use of geospatial data, contributing to the development of the AD
-
SDI.
Working Groups are formed to address specific short
-
term issues (e.g., to assess an urgent
issue) or long
-
term issues (e.g., to oversee framework data issues).

Special Interest G
roups
are formed to focus on domain specific or functional topics and issues.

Working Groups with a FGDS stewardship charter define guidance for the development of
data sharing policies, data content standards, data maintenance, and pub
lishing.


3

Types of AD
-
SDI Standards

The taxonomy of standards for the AD
-
SDI is derived from the principles of information
engineering. An information engineering approach was selected because it provides minimal
guidance on structure, yet allows for stan
dards to achieve coordination and interoperability
status. This approach does not dictate step
-
by
-
step processes.

One way that information engineering provides a structured approach to standards
development is by providing a method to describe different st
andards types. It also provides a
means to describe the relationships among various standards of the same type. For example,


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two data standards can be related to one another, eliminating duplicate definitions an domains
of values. In this manner it is well

adapted to the diversity of the AD
-
SDI.


The four basic categories of the information engineering standards are: data, processes,
organizations, and technology. One AD
-
SDI Standard may contain several categories of
standards.
The four
components each for
m a side of the information engineering four
-
sided
pyramid. A single AD
-
SDI Standard within the pyramid may address aspects of all four
components. A standard may also be entirely within one component, in which case it would
be illustrated as one side of t
he pyramid.


3.1

Data

Data are the most widely recognized and documented component of standards and
information
technology. Data modeling describes how the bits of information are defined and
structured so they can be applied in a meaningful way. Most AD
-
SDI S
tandards will be of
this type.

Data standards describe objects, features or items that are collected, automated, or affected by
activities or functions of entities. Data are organized and managed by institutions. Data
standards are semantic definitions tha
t are structured in a model.

Figure
2
: Information Engineering Pyramid



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Types of Data Standards

Data Classification


Data classification

standards provide groups or categories of data
that
serve an application.
Data classification

data standards are the attributes common to elements
of a group. E
xamples are
landuse

and
soil

classifications. See process standards for standards
on how to apply a data classification standard.

Data Content


Data content

standards provide semantic definitions of a set of objects.
Data
content

standards may be organize
d and presented in a data model such as an entity
relationship model.

Data Symbology
or

Presentation


Data symbology

or
presentation

standards define
graphic symbols. They standardize the language for describing those symbols. See processes
standards for
methods for applying symbols and the rules for displaying them. An example is
the symbolization of different datasets depending on feature type, map scale, and the map
purpose.

Data Transfer


Data transfer

standards are independent of technology and appl
ications
and
facilitate moving data among systems, without prior specification of the intended end use of
the data. The Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) is an example of a data transfer
standard. Transfer standards that are specific to a technology, s
uch as the FTP (File Transfer
Protocol) on the Internet, are outside the scope of AD
-
SDI.

Data Usability
-

Data Usability

standards describe how to express the applicability or
essence
of a data set or data element and include data quality, assessment, accu
racy, and reporting or
documentation standards. The ISO 19115:2003 Metadata Standard is an example of a Data
Usability standard.




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3.2

Processes

Processes or functions describe tasks and how information and technology are used to
accomplish organizational goals
. Process standards may also be called service standards.
They describe how to do something, procedures to follow, methodologies to apply,
procedures to present information, or business process rules to follow to implement other
standards. A smaller portio
n of AD
-
SDI Standards will be process standards.

The intent of AD
-
SDI Process standards are:



to establish a th
reshold for minimally acceptable data,



to determine the best data for an application, or



to promote inte
roperability and broad based use of data.


Types of Process Standards

General Data Transfer Procedures


General data transfer procedure standards are the
activities required to convert data to a general data format, such as SDTS, for general access.

Specific Data Transfer Procedures


Specific d
ata transfer
procedure standards are the
activities or requirements to fulfill a specific data request for a known activity in a known
data structure.

Existing Data Access Procedures


Existing data access procedure standards are the
procedures required to

gain access to an existing data set in a known data format, such as the
methods and procedures required to access an existing data posting on the World Wide Web
or a bulletin board.

Classification Methodology


Classification methodology standards are the

procedures to
follow to implement a data classification standard. It describes how data are analyzed to
produce a classification. The processes that are followed to achieve data precision are
examples of classification methodologies.

Data Collection


Dat
a collection procedure standards are the methods and processes for
the
collection of new or conversion of existing data.

Storage Procedures


Storage procedure standards address the mechanisms and
schedules
for archiving or backing up data. If appropriate,

the storage procedures also address the
storage media.

Presentation Standards


Presentation standards are the methods for displaying or
formatting information from a data set or data standard.



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Data Analyzing Procedures


Analytical procedures include the

methods for computing,
comparing, contrasting, assembling, or evaluating a data set for an application or specified
product.

Data Integration


Data integration procedures are the methods for combining various
data
sets into a unified, geographically harm
onious data set. Data generalization standards are a
data integration process standard.

Quality Control and Quality Assurance


Quality control and quality assurance
processes
are respectively the methods followed to achieve a specified quality and the met
hods to check
the quality of an existing data set. Precision for measurements or other activities are included
in these standards.

3.3

Organizations

The organizational component of information engineering consists of the rules for
assigning
responsibilities an
d authorities for the people who perform tasks and use technology.
These
include things like who does which tasks, what data do they need, and what are the
attendant
skill requirements.

Organizational or institutional standards are the specifications for
communication among
communities. These are the human and institutional interactions necessary to carry out data,
activity, and technology standards. Ways to organize, communicate, identify responsible
parties, and coordinate roles are examples of organizat
ional standards. The AD
-
SDI will not
be developing organizational standards.

3.4

Technology

Technology includes things like software, hardware, and system protocols. In system
design
the technology may be specifically described in terms of known application so
lutions such as
computer aided mass appraisal, topologic processing, or coordinate geometry computations.

Technology standards relate to the tools, environment, and interfaces among systems, and
are
often called information technology specifications. They
are the tools to produce, manipulate,
manage, organize, disseminate, or otherwise implement activity or data standards. The AD
-
SDI will not be developing technology standards.




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4

AD
-
SDI Standards Development Process

AD
-
SDI Standards development occurs in 7 s
teps from initial draft standard through
AD
-
SDI
adoption. Standard maintenance is not included in the standards development process.
These
steps have been adopted for use by the AD
-
SDI from those used in ANSI and ISO processes.

These steps are organized in
to three stages:

Draft Stage:


Steps 1


2

Review Stage:


Steps 3


6

Final Stage:


Step 7



Draft Stage

The Draft Stage is the standard development stage. The standard receives comments
and
input from as many constituent groups as possible. At the end of th
e Draft Stage
the Standard is ready for review.



Review Stage

The Review Stage
is for internal AD
-
SDI format and integration review. At the end of
this stage the standard is ready for AD
-
SDI approval.



Final Stage

The Final Adoption Stage is where the standa
rd becomes an officially recognized AD
-
SDI
Standard.

In each step an identified group has responsibility for the standard, which is the custodian.
The custodian is responsible for determining when the standard is ready to advance to the
next
step. Each ste
p is described below with a description of the activities and the name of the
custodian for the standard. The custodian groups are: AD
-
SDI Working Groups (WGs),
Standards Working Group (SWG), Standards Development Group (SDG), AD
-
SDI
Technical
Committee (T
C),
and AD
-
SDI
Executive Board (EB).

4.1

Draft Stage

Step 1. Produce Working Draft


The Standards Development Group proceeds with
standard development using the content standards developed by the Working Groups for
different data themes.
Custodian
: Standards
Development Group.

The Standards Development Group determines a development approach. The group
identifies existing related standards and standards development activities and assesses
their relevance to the standards project. Adoption of existing specifica
tions, whether
those be international, national, agency, or
de facto

standards should be considered
first. If an existing standard cannot be adopted, the Standards Development Group
may consider adapting an existing standard, which is using an existing sta
ndard as the


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basis for a new standard. When adoption or adaptation of existing standards are
inappropriate or insufficient, the Standards Development Group may begin
development of a new standard.

Step 2. Revise Working Draft


The Standards Development Gr
oup submits the
working
draft for review by the Working Group.
Custodian
: AD
-
SDI Working Group.

The review of the working draft is coordinated by the Standards Development
Group.
In this step the working draft standard is provided to the sponsoring AD
-
SDI
Working
Group for broader input and review. The Working Group may choose to obtain
comments from other groups that would be effected by the working draft. The
working draft is revised as needed following AD
-
SDI standards guidelines. After this
step the sta
ndard becomes a Committee Draft.

4.2

Review Stage

Step 3. Review and Evaluate


The SWG evaluates the Committee Draft of the standard
and
approves it for further processing.
Custodian
: Standards Working Group.

The SWG reviews the Committee Draft and it follows

the AD
-
SDI Standards
guidelines. The SWG with input from the AD
-
SDI Working Groups evaluates the
Committee Draft using criteria as recommended in Appendix A.

If approved, the SWG sends the Committee Draft and a recommendation to advance
the
standard to t
he AD
-
SDI Technical Committee. If not approved, the Committee
Draft is returned to the Standard Development Group (Step 1).
Recommendations
from the SWG can be appealed to the AD
-
SDI
Technical Committee
.

The Standard Development Group may conduct presentat
ions about the standard
including those involving federal and local governments.
Testing of the Proposed AD
-
SDI Standard is done as part of this review. This may be
coordinated by the Standards
Development Group. Test results should become part of the info
rmation contained in

the review submitted to the SD
C Secretariat. All
comments are directed to the SD
C
Secretariat, and upon completion of the review period, and all comments are
forwarded to the Standards Development Group.

Step 4. Respond to Comments


T
he Standards Development Group reviews all
comments
and produces a comment response document:
Custodian
: Standards Development Group.

The Standards Development Group receives all comments. These are examined for
scope and content. The Standards Development

Group determines which comments
will correct or add substance to the Proposed AD
-
SDI Standard.

The Standards Development Group resolves all comments and determines what
revisions
are to be made. They also determine whether there were enough substantial
ch
anges to the review version of the standard to require another review. The


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Standards Development Group either prepares a response document or moves the
Proposed Standard back to Step 1.

Step 5. Evaluate Responsiveness to Comments


The Proposed AD
-
SDI Stan
dard
and
Response Document are reviewed by the Standards Working Group.
Custodian
: Standards
Working Group.

The SWG examines the revised Proposed AD
-
SDI Standards and the Response
Document using criteria as recommended in Appendix.

The SWG makes a determin
ation of whether the criteria has been met. If it has, the
SWG
advances the Proposed Standard along with a recommendation for adoption to
the AD
-
SDI Technical Committee. If the comments and revisions to the Proposed
Standard do not meet the criteria, the S
WG sends the Proposed Standard back to the
Standards Development Group (Step 4). SWG recommendations may be appealed to
the AD
-
SDI Technical Committee.

Step 6. Act on Recommendation


The AD
-
SDI Technical Committee reviews the
recommendation of the SWG.
Cu
stodian
: AD
-
SDI Technical Committee.

If the recommendation is approved, the Proposed AD
-
SDI Standard is forwarded to
the
AD
-
SDI Executive Board for formal adoption. If not approved, it is returned, with
comment, to the SWG for appropriate action.

4.3

Final Sta
ge

Step 7.
The AD
-
SDI
Executive Board

reviews the recommendation of the AD
-
SDI Technical
Committee.
Custodian
: AD
-
SDI Executive Board.

If the recommendation of the AD
-
SDI Technical Committee is approved, the standard
is
signed by the AD
-
SDI Executive Board

Chair. Approved AD
-
SDI Standards are
submitted for final publication and public release. If not approved, the
recommendation is returned to the AD
-
SDI Technical Committee.


5

AD
-
SDI Standards Formats

AD
-
SDI Standards will have a title page that will include

the title of the standard, the
responsible AD
-
SDI Working Group, and AD
-
SDI’s postal and E
-
mail addresses.

AD
-
SDI Standards will have a table of contents. All pages will be numbered. AD
-
SDI
Standards will contain an introduction that will describe the fol
lowing:



Mission and Goals of Standard



Relationship to Existing Standards



Description of Standard



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Applicability and Intended Uses of Standard



Standard Development Procedures



Participants



Comments and Reviews



Maintenance of the Standard

The body of the stan
dard will follow the introduction.

References will be listed in a separate section
.

The AD
-
SDI will receive a digital copy of the standard. The digital copy will be submitted
in
an appropriate and previously agreed upon format.

The development group may p
roduce a hypertext version of the standard for inclusion on
the
AD
-
SDI Homepage or to be accessible from the AD
-
SDI Homepage.

If the standard is expected to move on to another authorizing body, the Standard should
be
presented in a format that is compatibl
e with that body. Deviations from the AD
-
SDI format
are acceptable to meet those needs. However. AD
-
SDI will distribute the Standard, both
manually and electronically, with an AD
-
SDI Standard Title and AD
-
SDI contact
information.



6

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-
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7

Related Standards Bodies

7.1

Introduction to International Standards

There are many committees such as the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC) and the
ISO Technical Committee 211 on Geographic Information and Geomatics develop
ing
standards for geospatial data. The various international standards considered for the
development of AD
-
SDI Standards are ISO, OGC, CGDI, FGDC, INSPIRE, W3C,
European, and ANZLIC. Brief descriptions of each one of these organizations and the
correspon
ding standards development activities are provided in the following sections.

7.1.1

ISO

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a world
-
wide federation of
national standards bodies. It is responsible for promoting the development of standards

to
facilitate the international exchange of goods and services. Within ISO, Technical Committee
211 (ISO/TC 211) is dedicated to developing and deploying standards relating to Geographic
information/ Geomatics, also known as the ISO 19100 series. Whilst t
he core standards are
conceptual, they provide a solid foundation for the development of technological
implementations.

ISO 19100 series of base standards aims to establish a structured set of standards for
information concerning objects or phenomena that
are directly or indirectly associated with a
location relative to the Earth. ISO/TC211 standards may specify, for geographic information,
methods, tools and services for data management (including definition and description),
acquiring, processing, analyzi
ng, accessing, presenting and transferring such data in digital /
electronic form between different users, systems and locations. Where possible, the work
shall link to appropriate standards for information technology and data, and provide a
framework for
the development of sector
-
specific applications using geographic data.

7.1.2

OGC

The OGC was founded in 1994 to address issues of interoperability among rapidly growing
GIS and image processing software platforms. The OGC aimed to create a process that
might:



m
ake more commercial as well as non
-
commercial geoprocessing choices available in
the marketplace,



act as a sounding board for the user community to articulate its requirements to the
developer community, and



speed up procurement by aligning the needs of t
he users with the product plans of the
vendors.

The OGC has emerged as the leading voice for geospatial interoperability and has many
liaisons with other key industry consortia such as Organization for the Advancement of


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Structured Information Standards (O
ASIS) and World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), as well
as ISO/TC211 and the International Committee on Information Technology Standards
(INCITS L1).

The OGC works closely with ISO/TC 211. OGC is an international consortium of businesses,
governments and univer
sities that develops publicly available geoprocessing specifications,
or OpenGIS Specifications. These support interoperable solutions that "geo
-
enable" the
Internet, wireless and location
-
based services, and mainstream IT. They also empower
technology dev
elopers to make spatial information and services more accessible to users.
OpenGIS Specifications often relate to technology implementations, including definition of
interfaces; with some being formalized as ISO 19100 standards.

The OGC specifications are
divided into
Abstract Specifications
and
Implementation
Specifications
. The Abstract Specifications provide the conceptual foundation for most OGC
specification development activities. Open interfaces and protocols are built and referenced
against the Abst
ract Specification, thus enabling interoperability between different brands
and different kinds of spatial processing systems. The Abstract Specification provides a
reference model for the development of OpenGIS Implementation Specifications. OGC
Implement
ation Specifications
target a technical audience and detail the structure of the
interfaces between the distributed software components. The implementation of these
specifications is determined to be at the proper level of detail if plug
-
and
-
play interoper
ability
occurs between two software components that were engineered without knowledge of each
other. The interfaces defined in the OGC’s Implementation Specifications encourage loosely
-
coupled component architecture that is bound dynamically based on disco
very and
availability of services. However, not all OGC implementation specifications are loosely
coupled: the Simple Features, Grid Coverage and Coordinate Transformation Implementation
Specifications are fine grained, tightly coupled specs. In January 20
05 the OGC Technical
Committee (TC) confirmed the intent to continue work on fine grained specs in addition to
Web Services.

OGC describes its role in the geospatial domain as follows:



Because there are so many incompatible standards in the geo
-
informatio
n technology
area, geospatial information and geo
-
processing are not part of most information
systems, and sharing geodata between geoprocessing systems and between user
communities requires considerable time and expertise.



Most of the standards attempt to

normalize one of the following:

1)

the encoding of information in software systems (data format standards and
data transfer standards), or

2)

the naming of features and feature relationships (data dictionaries), or

3)

schemas for descriptions of datasets (metadat
a).



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Uniquely, OGC addresses the confusion of data format and data transfer standards by
creating open, common interfaces between software system components, and letting
those systems use any data format internally. These Open Geospatial® Interfaces
provide

access to both information and functionality. OGC also works to develop
open software approaches that address inconsistent data dictionaries and metadata
schemas.

OGC describes the advantages of
standard external interfaces

in this way:



The interface appr
oach has the great advantage of providing "transparent access"
between systems. That is, it becomes possible for the data on another system to be as
readily available to you as the data on your own system. The Open Geospatial
Specification for geo
-
processi
ng interfaces largely eliminates the need for data format
standards and costly batch data conversion. A query returns not a whole data file, but
only the "result," or the answer to the query, and thus the network model eliminates
the need for users to keep

(usually outdated) copies of whole datasets.



An even greater advantage is that the interface approach enables geoprocessing to
become an integral part of the new Internet and web
-
based distributed computing
paradigm in which applets, middle
-
ware, componen
ts, e
-
commerce tools, online data
servers, and object request brokers give any networked computing device real
-
time
access to a huge universe of data and processing resources. Any Internet
-
linked
device, even mobile phones, will be able to access countless

data servers and
powerful application servers as if all those terabytes of geodata and sophisticated
software were on their own local storage media. Remote servers will upload little GIS
applets and geo
-
enabled software components and will enable ordinary

users to make
use of smart digital maps in all kinds of desktop documents. Conventional RDBMSs
(through advances not related to the Open Geospatial Specification) will soon store
complex spatial data and serve it (through Open Geospatial® conformant inter
faces)
to a wide variety of GIS and non
-
GIS applications.





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7.1.3

CGDI

The Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) was envisaged to help organizations
enjoy the benefits of having easy access to the geospatial information they need, in a format
they can e
asily integrate into any application they would like to develop. The CGDI can offer
this ease of access because it relies on a set of common standards.

The CGDI has enormous potential to help a wide range of organizations use and access
geospatial informat
ion in their daily operations. When you use services based on CGDI
-
endorsed standards for data delivery, you can integrate data from multiple sources. You can
then develop a whole range of applications that have been, until now, cost
-
prohibitive.
Indeed, t
he CGDI is fostering the development of tools (some open
-
source) that can
efficiently deliver and manipulate data accessible through these standard services.

To reach its full potential, CGDI expects participants to make two commitments:

1.

Data suppliers mus
t provide access to their data through one or more of the
specifications endorsed by the CGDI. (This does not require data suppliers to change
their existing internal data storage formats.); and

2.

Developers must develop applications using a web service arch
itecture.

7.1.3.1

CGDI
-
Endorsed Standards and Specifications

GeoConnections is the program that deploys the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure
(CGDI). As the governing body of the CGDI, it identifies and endorses standards to which
applications and services m
ust conform to in order to be compliant with the CGDI.
Compliance is very important to ensure that CGDI components are interoperable. Standards
and specifications that have been endorsed by GeoConnections for the purpose of CGDI
-
deployed services and appli
cations are called CGDI
-
endorsed specifications.

The GeoConnections program does not develop its own standards and specifications; rather,
it adopts international or national standards so that the CGDI can be interoperable with other
infrastructures around

the world. Services or applications that conform to CGDI
-
endorsed
specifications should be able to operate or interface with other components outside of the
CGDI.

More about CGDI
-
endorsed specifications are available at:

http://www.geoconnections.org/CGDI.cfm/fuseaction/developersCorner.endspecs/gcs.cfm


A high
-
level catalogue descriptions of these specifications are available from the
GeoConnections Discove
ry Portal at:

http://geodiscover.cgdi.ca/gdp/search?action=executeSearch&entryType=service&serviceTy
pe=StandardSpecification





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7.1.4

FG
DC

The United States Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) actively provides
international leadership in implementing spatial data standards through sponsorship of
international bodies such as ISO and OGC. FGDC is an inter
-
agency committee that
promotes

the coordinated development, use, sharing, and dissemination of geospatial data on
a national basis. This nationwide data publishing effort is known as the National Spatial Data
Infrastructure (NSDI). The NSDI is a physical, organizational, and virtual ne
twork designed
to enable the development and sharing of this nation's digital geographic information
resources.

Standards facilitate the development, sharing, and use of geospatial data. The FGDC
develops geospatial data standards for implementing the N
SDI, in consultation and
cooperation with State, local, and tribal governments, the private sector and academic
community, and, to the extent feasible, the international community. The FGDC develops
geospatial data standards only when no equivalent volunt
ary consensus standards exist.


7.1.5

INSPIRE

INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial InfoRmation in Europe) is an EU Directive that lays
down a general framework for a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for the purposes of
community environmental policies and poli
cies or activities which may have an impact on
the environment. It aims to improve the interoperability of, and access to, spatial information
across the European Union at a local, regional, national and international level, facilitate
improvements in the
sharing of spatial information between public authorities and provide
improved public access to spatial information.

The publication of the EU’s INSPIRE Directive became European law on 15 May 2007. The
INSPIRE Directive lays down general requirements to
establish an infrastructure for spatial
information in Europe for the purposes of EU environmental policies and policies and
activities which may have an impact on the environment, using spatial data held by public
authorities. Member States will have to t
ranspose the Directive (bring into force any laws,
regulations and administrative provisions to comply with the Directive) within two years of
that date (ie by 15 May 2009). Additionally, Implementing Rules, largely surrounding
technical aspects of the Dir
ective, will be implemented directly as decisions and regulations,
through the Comitology procedure.

7.1.5.1

Implementation INSPIRE

Spatial data held by a public authority that is related to one or more of the themes listed in the
three priority annexes is covere
d by the Directive, and its daughter legislation, in the form of
Implementing Rules. These Implementing Rules, which will be legally binding as EU
Decisions, will cover key areas of:



Metadata



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Interoperability of spatial datasets



Network services



Data and S
ervice Sharing



Monitoring, reporting and coordination

Although an Implementing Rule covers conditions of access to spatial data by community
institutions and bodies, data sharing within a Member State is covered by the Directive itself
and is not subject t
o an Implementing Rule.

The implementation INSPIRE is based upon themes of data as specified below and in the
directive annexes. The directive will be implemented by ‘Implementation Rules’ that are
drawn up by drafting teams.


An INSPIRE document circula
ted in May 2007 ‘Definition of Annex Themes and Scope
(D2[1].3_v2.0)’ gave initial thoughts on what type of data (i.e. the scope) would be
considered within each theme, using examples and outlining what existing standards and
vocabularies should be conside
red.

7.1.5.2

Preparation of Data Specifications Document

In order to prepare the Commission proposals, an international team of experts has been
working since October 2005 to review available reference material and international
standards to create a set of prime

reference documents that will govern the development of
the draft IR for data specifications:



DS
-
D2.3 Definition and scoping of the Annex themes

Figure
3
: Current structure of the themes (INSPIRE 2007)



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DS
-
D2.5 Generic Conceptual Model



DS
-
D2.6 Methodology for the development of data specifications



DS
-
D2.7 Guidel
ines for the encoding of spatial data

The document,
DS
-
D2.6 Methodology to develop the data specifications

is a document that,
together with user requirements and the other documents mentioned above, is targeted to help
in the process of developing the IR
for data specifications.

In particular, this document specifies how individual INSPIRE spatial data themes have to be
modeled based on the user requirements, the INSPIRE Generic Conceptual Model (DS
-
D2.5)
and the relevant international and industrial stand
ards. DS
-
D2.6 provides the process model,
steps in the development of harmonized data specifications, issues on conformity, data
product specification overview, harmonization guidelines with examples and templates, and
requirements and recommendations. Whe
n developing harmonized data specifications for a
specific INSPIRE spatial data theme, the requirements of this document shall be addressed.
The recommendations provide guidance that depending on the spatial data theme at hand may
or may not be followed.

D
S
-
D2.6 will be used by the Thematic Working Groups as described in the INSPIRE Work
Programme Transposition Phase 2007
-
2009 and in the Terms of Reference of the actors
involved in the data specification process. The result of applying DS
-
D2.6 will be the d
ata
product specifications, prepared according to ISO 19131:2007 Geographic information
-

Data
product specifications, for the individual themes, i.e. conceptual information models that
describe the relevant classes, their attributes, relationships and con
straints, as well as other
information as appropriate like data capturing information or data quality requirements.

7.1.5.3

Purpose of Data Specifications Document

This document, DS
-
D2.6, contains the proposal of the Drafting Team "Data Specifications"
for the com
mon methodology for the development of data specifications for the Annex
themes. The objective of the document is to facilitate the process of creating harmonized data
specifications for the INSPIRE themes (as they are defined in the Annexes I, II and III
of the
INSPIRE Directive and refined in “DSD2.3
-

Definition of Annex Themes and Scope”). The
document DS
-
D2.6 is intended to assist the facilitators, editors and experts who get involved
in the development of data specifications for Annex themes.

It is im
portant to note that the term “harmonization“ is understood as providing access to data
through network services in a representation that allows for combining it with other INSPIRE
data in a coherent way. This includes agreements about the different harmon
ization
components, described in details in generic Conceptual Model. In other words, by enabling
interoperability, data can be used as if it had been harmonized.

A simplified view to the processing of data today is shown in the following figure. In most
c
ases, each member state uses input data according to different, often undocumented or ill
-
documented data specifications and uses different methods to process the input data to
produce more or less similar information relevant for policies within the Commu
nity.



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The input data in the member states and their maintenance procedures will typically be more
-
or
-
less the same prior to INSPIRE, but in addition the data will be provided by the network
services of the member states following the harmonized data spe
cifications.

The updated figure based on data specifications developed using the proposed methodology
is as follows where the highlighted area indicates the focus of this document:

Figure
4
: Current Situation
-

Data Stovepipes



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It may be noted that the situations in the INSPIRE member states, current

and target as
depicted above, are not very different from those of the entities in the AD
-
SDI community.




Figure
5
: Target situation
-

Harmonized data views, eliminating data stovepipes



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7.1.6

W3C

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) develops interoperable technologies
(specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web to it
s full potential. W3C is a
forum for information, commerce, communication, and collective understanding. In the field
of GIS, W3C develops standards for interoperable technologies that enable the delivery of
geospatial information on
-
line.

W3C conducts wo
rk in the following areas. Each is called a W3C Activity.


Extensible Markup Language (XML)



Graphics



HTML



Internationalization



Math



Mobile Web Initiative



Multimodal Interaction



Patent Policy



Privacy



Rich Web Client



Security



Semantic Web



Style



Synchronized M
ultimedia



Ubiquitous Web Applications



Video in the Web



Voice Browser



WAI International Program Office



WAI Technical



Web Services



XForms



eGovernment



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7.1.7

European National Standards

CEN/TC 287 is the Technical Committee of CEN concerned with geographic inform
ation.
The secretariat is held by NEN, the Dutch standardization institute. The list of European
National Standards in the field of Geographic information is provided below:

Country

National standards

Austria

OENORM A2260 Interface for digital exchange of

geographic data

OENORM A 2261 Catalogue of feature codes for the digital exchange of geographic data

Part 1: General guidelines

Part 2: Natural stock

Part 3: Land register for underground utilities

Part 5: Real estate cadastre

Belgium


Czech republic

CS
N 97 9839 Geographic information


Functional standards

Denmark


France

NF Z44
-
081 Documentation


Catolguing


Form and structure of headings for geographic names

NF Z52
-
000 Information processing


Electronic Data Interchange in the field of Geographic

Information

FD Z52
-
001 Geographic information


Data description techniques

Germany

DVGW GW 119 Verbesserung von Geschäftsprozessen durch die Einbindung von GIS
-
Systemen

Italy


Netherlands

NPR 3511 Application of NEN 1878 in the object
-
oriented transfe
r of data of objects related to the
earth’s surface

Poland

PN
-
N
-
02270 Geographic information


Referencing


Direct position

Slovakia


Spain

UNE 148001 Aggregated relational geographic information interchange mechanism

Sweden

SS 637002 Geographic infor
mation


Data description


Message type for the transfer of geodetic
field survey data

SS 637003 Geographic information


Locational address


Conceptual Schema

SS 637004 Geographic information


Road & railway networks


Conceptual & application
schema

S
S 637005 Geographic information


Facilities


Conceptual & application schema

SS 63 70 08 Geographic information
-

Surface water systems
-

Conceptual & application schema

Switzerland

SN 612020 Surveying and geographic information


GEOBAU/GEOBAT data ref
erence model

SN 612031 Surveying and geographic information


INTERLIS 2 modeling language and data
transfer method

SN 612040 Surveying and geographic information

Address of buildings


structure, spatial
referencing, presentation and data transfer method

United
Kingdom

BS 7567
-
1 Electronic transfer of geographic information (NTF)


Specification for NTF structures

BS 7567
-
2 Electronic transfer of geographic information (NTF)


Specification for implementing
plain NTF

BS 7567
-

Electronic transfer of geogr
aphic information (NTF)


Specification for

implementing NTF using BS 6690





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7.1.7.1

United Kingdom Location Strategy

In the April 2006 Transformational Government Implementation Plan, Ministers asked the
Geographic Information Panel to create a UK Geographic Info
rmation Strategy. The Panel,
chaired by Vanessa Lawrence CB, conceived, developed, and championed the UK Location
Strategy as portrayed in the recently published
Place matters: the Location Strategy for the
United Kingdom
, a report by the Geographic Inform
ation Panel to Baroness Andrews,
Minister for the Geographic Information Panel, November 2008.

The objective of the Location Strategy for the United Kingdom is to maximize the value to
the public, government, UK business and industry of geographic informa
tion. It will provide
a consistent framework to assist national, regional and local initiatives and service delivery.

Key areas where the Location Strategy will be of benefit are in policy and operational areas
of the public and private sector, where share
d and integrated place
-
based information is
essential for decision making. It will also be the basis for delivering the United Kingdom’s
obligations under the European INSPIRE directive.


7.1.8

Australia & New Zealand Standards

Standards Australia International
Limited (SA) has a close relationship with Standards New
Zealand (SNZ)


part of a regional cooperation agreement


agreeing to prepare and publish
joint standards where appropriate.

The Joint Technical Committee IT
-
004, a group of experts from industry, g
overnments,
consumers and other sectors, is responsible for standards relating to Geographical
information/Geomatics. Standards Australia also represents Australia on ISO/TC 211.

National Office for the Information Economy (NOIE) and New Zealand e
-
Governme
nt
initiatives are promoting an interoperability framework which adopts many W3C standards
for implementing on
-
line government web services.

The Australia New Zealand Land Information Council (ANZLIC) is developing key
partnerships with business and govern
ment to facilitate the adoption of its policies and best
practice principles in spatial data management through projects such as the Australian Spatial
Data Infrastructure (ASDI). ANZLIC has historically delivered metadata standards and
profiles based on i
nternational best practice.

ANZLIC works closely with SA/SNZ (sponsoring Australian participation at international
ISO/TC211 meetings), and with the Intergovernmental Committee on Survey and Mapping
(ICSM) and PSMA Australia Limited to raise the awareness
and uptake of geospatial
standards.




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7.1.9

More Information

The following web sites provide more information about geographic information and related
standards :



International Organization for Standardization

<www.iso.org>



OpenGIS Consortium





<www.opengis.org
>



Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI)

<www.geoconnections.org>



Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)

<www.fgdc.gov>



INSPIRE






<inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu>



World Wide Web Consortium



<www.w3.org>



European National Standards




<www.nen.
nl>



Standards Australia





<www.standards.com.au>



Standards New Zealand




<www.standards.co.nz>


7.2

List of AD
-
SDI Applicable Standards

This section contains a list of specifications published by the ISO, the OGC and the W3C
pertaining to GI interoperab
ility services. The list proposes a reference for adoption of the
standards as follows:

Existing:

The standard is already utilized by t
he SD
C during the foundation phase;

Target:

The adoption of the standard shall be a “Target” during the AD
-
SDI Program 3
-
years initial implementation;

Future Target:

The adoption of the standard shall be a “Future Target” i.e. not
necessarily bound by the time schedule confines of the current AD
-
SDI Program;

Reference:
The standard is considered as a reference document i.e.
not normative.

The list contains also a field entitled Triggers that describes briefly the triggers behind the
initiation of adoption of any one standard.

The standards can be categorized into the following:



Data



Data Access



Access and Discovery Services



I
ntegrative Services



User Interface

An abstract description of every standard in the list below is provided in Appendix B for
reference.


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Table
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: List of Data and Technology Standards


List of Standards


Standard Title

Standard

Pro
jected
Adoption

Triggers/ Use

ISO 19125
-
2 Simple Feature Access
-

part
2: SQL Option

ISO

Existing

Supports storage, retrieval, query
and update of simple geospatial
feature collection e.g. Spatial Query
Services

ISO 19125
-
1 Simple Feature Access
-

Part
1:
Common Architecture

ISO

Existing

Establishes a common architecture
for geographic information

Metadata ISO 19115:2003

ISO

Existing

Metadata Standards adopted during
the Foundation Stage

ISO 19123:2005 Schema for coverage
geometry and functions

ISO

Exist
ing

Image intensive applications such as
remote sensing and urban planning

ISO 19109:2005 Geographic information
-

Rules for application schema

ISO

Existing

Data Standards

Spatial Data Transfer Standard FGDC
-
SDTS

FGDC

Existing

Standard for structure, and

format
for exchange of spatial data

ISO/CD 19136


Geography Markup
Language (GML)

ISO

Target

Web streaming for data view and
download services

OGC Topic 4, Stored Functions and
Interpolation:

OGC

Target

Geospatial analysis performed by
exploiting vari
ous kinds of
coverages?

ISO/DIS 19128 Web Map Server Interface

ISO

Target

Specifies the behavior of service that
produces spatially referenced maps
dynamically from geographic
information
e.g. General Map View

Universal Description, Discovery and
Integra
tion (UDDI)

OASIS

Target

Publishes service listings and
interaction of services over the
Internet
for public access & service
provision

OASIS eXtensible Access Control Markup
Language (XACML) V2.0.

OASIS

Target

Security and Access Control by
Administrator

Open GIS Web Map Context
Specifications (WMC)

OGC

Target

Relevant to WMS

Web Map Services (WMS)

OGC

Target

Produce Maps and answer queries
e.g. General Map View and Spatial
Query Services

The Service Oriented Architecture Protocol
(SOAP)

W3C

Target

Pro
vide a basic messaging
framework for Authored Content

ISO 19131 Data Product Specifications

ISO

Target

Requirements for geographic data
specifications i.e. data standards

Web Feature Services (WFS)

OGC

Target

Client can perform data manipulation
operatio
ns on a set of geographic
features
e.g. Spatial Query Services

OGC Topic 5 The Open GIS Feature

OGC

Target

Classification Scheme?
as
Technology Standards

OGC Topic 3 Location Geometry

OGC

Target

Abstract GIS models
as Data


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List of Standards


Standard Title

Standard

Pro
jected
Adoption

Triggers/ Use

Standards

OGC Topic 2 Spatial
Reference System

OGC

Target

Spatial referencing modeling
requirements
as Data Standards

Catalogue Service Specifications

OGC

Target

Common interfaces to discover,
browse, and query metadata about
data, services, and other potential
resources
for catalogue

of data and
services

OASIS Web
-
Service Security Core
Specification 1.1.

OASIS

Target

Secure message exchanging using
range of security protocols
for
infrastructure security

Simple Feature Corba and OLE/COM

OGC

Target

Interfaces to develop applications
t
hat expose functionality required to
access and manipulate geospatial
information
for spatially enabling e
-
Government services

OGC Topic 13

OGC

Target

Catalogue services

SLD Styled Layer Descriptor

OGC

Target

Allow user
-
defined symbolization of
feature a
nd coverage data (WMS) in
order to improve the services look &
feel

OASIS Security Assertion Markup
Language (SAML) V2.0.

OASIS

Target

Security Assertion
for infrastructure
security

The OpenGIS® Filter Encoding
Implementation Specification

OGC

Target

Fil
ter encoding used with web
services
for spatially enabling e
-
Government services

ISO 19101:2002 Reference Model

ISO

Target

Framework for standardization

OASIS Web Services for Remote Portlets
(WSRP 1.0).

OASIS

Target

Standard set of web service
interface
s allowing integrating
applications

19103
-

Conceptual Schema Language

ISO

Target

Describes the spatial characteristics
of geographic features, and a set of
spatial operations consistent with
the schemas
useful for technology
standardization

ISO 19138 Dat
a Quality Measures

ISO

Target

Commonly used data quality
measures
as part of data quality
monitoring & control

ISO 19116 Positioning Services

ISO

Future Target

Position
-
using device(s) can obtain
and unambiguously interpret
position information
e.g. Routi
ng &
Logistics

ISO 19113 Quality Principle and ISO
19114 Quality Evaluation Procedures

ISO

Future Target

Quality Standards

ISO 19139 Metadata
-

XML Schema
Implementation

ISO

Future Target

Metadata Advanced Implementation
(to be justified by complexity of
metadata uses)

ISO 19135:2005 Procedures for items
ISO

Future Target

Useful for standardizing


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List of Standards


Standard Title

Standard

Pro
jected
Adoption

Triggers/ Use

registration

classification scheme (register
elements of geographic information)

Open Location Services (OLS)

OGC

Future Target

Mobile wireless
-
IP services

Com
mon OGC Web Services Common
Specification

OGC

Future Target

Web Services

Grid Coverage

OGC

Future Target

Useful for raster analysis and
processing

Web Processing Service (WPS)

OGC

Future Target

Useful standard for implementing
processing services across
the
internet

The Web Services Description Language
(WSDL)

W3C

Future Target

Common language for web services

19132
-

Location based Services Possible
Standards

ISO

Future Target

Standards under current
development

Coverage Portrayal Services (CPS)

OGC

F
uture Target

Useful to portray coverages (refer to
WCS)

Web Coverage Services (WCS)

OGC

Future Target

Allows access to geospatial coverages
for analysis

ISO Geographic Information
-

Portrayal
(ISO 19117:2005)

ISO

Reference

Portrayal Schema
e.g. General Ma
p
View

ISO 19105 Conformance and Testing

ISO

Reference

Reference standards for products
conforming implementation

ISO 6709:1983 Standard Representation
of latitude, longitude and altitude for
geographic point locations

ISO

Reference

Reference standard fo
r geographic
point locations

ISO 19106 Profiles

ISO

Reference

Reference for implementation of
abstract ISO data standards

OGC Topic 8 Relations between features

OGC

Reference

Reference abstraction for
relationship between entities

ISO/DIS 19104 Terminol
ogy

ISO

Reference

Reference data standard (taxonomy
and glossary)

OGC Topic 0 Overview

OGC

Reference

Data Standard: introduction to
abstract specifications

Data Quality


Reference

Background Information on data
quality

ISO 19107:2003 Conceptual Schemas

ISO

Reference

Data Standards

Ontologies


Reference

Background Information on data
taxonomy

OGC Topic 10 Feature Collections

OGC

Reference

Data Standards

The OpenGIS® Coordinate Transformation
Services

OGC

Reference

Data Standards

OGC Topic 16

OGC

Refer
ence

Reference image coordinate
transformation services

OGC Topic 15

OGC

Reference

Reference image exploitation
services

OGC Topic 12

OGC

Reference

Service taxonomy

ISO/TR 19120 Functional Standards

ISO

Reference

Reference to Functional Standards



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List of Standards


Standard Title

Standard

Pro
jected
Adoption

Triggers/ Use

ISO 1
9119 Services

ISO

Reference

Architecture patterns for service
interfaces

ISO/IEC 13249
-
3:2003 (Spatial)

ISO

Reference

Reference standard to support
geographic information, decision
support, data mining and data
warehousing systems

ISO 19137 Core Profile
of the Spatial
Schema

ISO

Reference

Reference data standards and
application schema

19124
-

Imagery & Gridded Data
Components

ISO

Reference

Reference Standards for Imagery &
Gridded Data

Web Ontology Language (OWL)

W3C

Reference

Background Information fo
r context
taxonomy

Document Object Model Core Level 3

W3C

Reference

Dynamic access and update of
documents

Geographic information
-

Temporal
schema ISO 19108:2002

ISO

Reference