Introduction to computers review sheet 11-12

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ESSENTIAL
INTRODUCTION

TO COMPUTERS

1

2

What is a Computer & What Does It
Do??


Computer: describes a collection of hardware components
that function together as a system. Refer to page COM2



Perform four basic operations: input, output, process, and
storage (aka: the
information processing cycle
)



People who use the computer directly or use the
information it provides are called computer users, end
users, or sometimes, just users.



Green computing involves reducing the electricity
consumed and environmental waste generated when using
a computer.

Cont.


Computers manipulate data to create information


Data


unprocessed items (includes text, numbers, images, etc.)


Information


conveys meaning & is useful

Example: Infinite Campus contains data like course codes and
grades. The computer processes the data to produce your
Progress Report (or other information)

3

How Does a Computer Know?


To perform operations, it MUST have instructions!!


Computer Program/Software: the instructions


Personal Computers and Mobile Devices


Desktop computers


Notebook computers


Laptop computer


Netbook


Tablet PC


Mobile Devices


Smart phone


Portable media player


Digital camera


Plan to
buy a computer that will last you for
two to three
years.



4

Computer Components


6 Primary Components:


Input Devices


Processor (control unit and arithmetic/logic unit)


Output Devices


Storage Devices


Communication Devices


Memory


is housed in the system unit (computer case) with the
processor and storage devices



Peripheral

device that connects to the system
unit and is controlled by the processor in the
computer. (can include input and output devices
as well as some storage devices and
communications devices
)

5

Computer Components


Processor and
Memory


Both are located in the “System Unit”.


Processor/CPU: interprets and carries out the instructions. Most
devices connected to the computer communicate with it to carry out
a task.


Memory/Random Access Memory: temporarily stores
instructions, data, and the results. It fits in a slot on
the motherboard (motherboard is the main circuit
board of the system unit). See COM8
.


Kilobyte (K or KB): about 1,000 memory locations


Megabyte (MB): about 1 million memory locations


Gigabyte (GB): about 1 billion memory locations


Terabyte (TB): about 1 trillion bytes

6

Computer Components
-

Input


Input: hardware used to enter data, programs,
commands, and user responses into a computer.


Ex. Keyboard, Mouse (you can control movement of
the pointer on the screen and make selections from
the screen), Digital Camera, Scanner (most popular
scanner is the flatbed scanner), Microphone


How is a Keyboard & Mouse different on a Personal
Computer vs. Laptop? Know touchpad


Handheld computers like PDAs, smart phones, etc.
can use a stylus to enter information.


Stylus looks like a small ballpoint pen that uses pressure and
not ink.

7

Computer Components
-

Output


Output: makes the information available
for use. (COM 9)


Printers


ink
-
jet and laser printers


Photo
-
printers


Multifunction peripheral (all
-
in
-
one device)


Display Devices: allows you to see the
information


Monitor (LCD (liquid crystal display)


Most
popular flat panel monitor, CRT (cathode ray tube)


looks like an older TV)

8

Computer Components


Storage
Devices


Storage Device: stores instructions, data, and information when
they are not being used in the memory.


Hard disk


Portable hard disks


External hard disk


Removable hard disk


Flash memory storage


Solid state media


Solid state drive


Memory card


USB flash drive


ExpressCard

module


Optical discs


Backup is a duplicate of a file, program, or disk placed on a
separate storage medium that you can use in case the original
is lost, damaged, or destroyed.

9


Magnetic Disks


2 types (
floppy disk

floppy disk drive is a device that can read
from and write on a floppy disk &
hard
disks
), some are portable mediums.


Use magnetic particles to store items such as
data, instructions, and information on a disk’s
surface on tracks.


Track


narrow recording band that forms a circle on
the disk.

10


Optical Disks: portable and is read by a laser. Ex. CD
-
ROM,
CD
-
R, CD
-
RW, DVD
-
ROM, etc.


CD
-
ROM: read
-
only memory. You can use it, but you may not
record on it. Ex. Software Programs


CD
-
R: compact disc recordable. You can record/write on it only
once, then you can read from it as many times as you wish.


CD
-
RW: compact disc rewriteable. It is erasable and you can write
on it multiple times.


DVD
-
ROM: stores more than any CD


DVD
-
R


DVD+R


DVD+RAM


Blu
-
ray Disc


BD
-
R


BD
-
RE


Cloud Storage

Internet service that provides hard disk
storage to computer users (fee arrangements vary).

11


Miniature Mobile Storage Media


Allows users to
transport images, documents, etc. easily.


Flash memory card, USB flash drive, etc.



Tape


magnetically coated ribbon of plastic housed in a
cartridge. Stores large amt. of data at a low price. Used
for long
-
term storage and backup.

12

Computer Components


Communications Devices


Communications Device: hardware component that allows
a computer to send and receive data, instructions, etc. to
other computers. (Ex. Modem or telephone or wireless)
(If your computer has a modem, then you can access the
Internet using a standard telephone line.)


Communications occur over transmission media (telephone lines,
cables, satellites)

13

Computer Software


2 Types of Computer Software


System Software: programs that control the operations of
computer equipment. Ex. Operating System (is necessary for
computer to work).


Types are Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7


Application Software: assists users with tasks.


Word Processing Software


Microsoft Word. Users can easily
make changes in documents, correct spelling, change margins,
add, delete, and relocate paragraphs


Spreadsheet Software


Microsoft Excel. Allows user to add,
subtract, and perform user
-
defined calculations on rows and
columns of numbers.


Database


Microsoft Access. Allows user to enter, retrieve, and
update data in an organized and efficient manner.


Presentation Graphics


Microsoft PowerPoint. Allows user to
create slides for use in a presentation to a group.


E
-
mail (electronic mail)

transmission of messages and files via a
computer network.

14

Networks & The Internet


Network: collection of computers/devices connected
together, often wirelessly, via communications devices
and transmission media.


Allows users to share resources (hardware, software, data, and
information). Saves time & money.


LAN


Local Area Network: connects computers in a limited geographic
area. Ex. School computer lab, group of office buildings


WLAN

Wireless LAN


WAN


Wide Area Network: covers large geographical area. Ex.
National organization

15


Internet: World’s largest network


Access provider


Can connect through an ISP (Internet Service
Provider) that charges monthly fee.


Can connect through an OSP (Online Service
Provider) that provides specialized content and
services like news, weather, etc. AOL and MSN.


WISP


Wireless Internet Service Provider: provides
wireless Internet access to computers and mobile
devices like smart phones and PDA’s. AT&T, Sprint
Broadband Direct, T
-
Mobile, and Verizon Wireless
are examples.

16


World Wide Web: a segment of the Internet containing
Web pages. (also called the Web)



A Web page can contain text, graphics, audio, and
video, and has built
-
in connections, or links, to other
Web documents.


URL: Uniform Resource Locator


web address (see
next slide)


Web browser: software that allows you to read web pages
(Internet Explorer)


Web site: collection of related web pages.


http:// (hypertext transfer protocol) is the communications
standard used to transfer pages on the Web
.

(see next slide)


Searching
the Web


Search engine


Search text


Subject directory


17


A
URL consists of the following:


http://www.us
-
parks.com/grand_canyon/scenic_vistas.html








Protocol
, Domain Name, Path, Web Page Name



Web server

computer that delivers requested Web pages to
your computer
.


Web 2.0 refers to Web sites that provide a means for users to
share personal information, allow users to modify the Web site
contents, and/or have software built into the site for users to
access.


Social networking Web site or online social network


Blog


E
-
commerce


18

Computer Viruses and Other Malware



Malware (Malicious software)


Worm


Trojan horse


Rootkit



Antivirus program protects a computer against viruses by
identifying and removing any viruses found in memory, on
storage media, or on incoming files.

19

Vocabulary Words


access
provider (COM 22)


all
-
in
-
one
device (COM 9)


antivirus
program (COM 26)


application
software (COM 18)


arithmetic/logic
unit (COM 8)


backup
(COM 11)


BD
-
RE
(COM 17)


blog
(COM 24)


Blu
-
ray
Disc (COM 17)


byte
(COM 8)


cloud
storage (COM 17)


CD
-
R
(COM 16)


CD
-
ROM
(COM 16)


CD
-
RW
(COM 16)


central
processing unit (CPU) (COM 8)


cloud
storage (COM 17)


communications
device (COM 17)


computer
(COM 2)


computer
users (COM 3)


control
unit (COM 8)


data
(COM 3)


database
(COM 20
)



database software (COM 20)


desktop
computer (COM 4)


digital
camera (COM 5)


display
device (COM 10)


DVD+RAM
(COM 17)


DVD+RW
(COM 17)


DVD
-
ROM
(COM 16)


DVD
-
ROM
drive (COM 16)


DVD
-
RW
(COM 17)


e
-
commerce
(COM 25)


e
-
mail
program (COM 21)


end
users (COM 3)


ExpressCard

module (COM 15)


external
hard disk (COM 12)


gigabyte
(GB) (COM 8)


graphical
user interface (GUI) (COM
18)


green
computing (COM 3)


hard
disk (COM 11)


head
crash (COM
11)


http:// (COM 24)


Hypertext Transfer Protocol (COM 24)



20

Vocabulary Words Continued


information
(COM 3)


information processing cycle (COM 3)


input device (COM 5)


installing (COM 18)


Internet (COM 22)


ISP (Internet service provider) (COM 22)


keyboard (COM 5)


kilobyte (K or KB) (COM 8)


laptop computer (COM 4)


LCD monitor (COM 10)


local area network (LAN) (COM 21)


malware (COM 26)


megabyte (MB) (COM 8)


memory (COM 8)


memory card (COM 13)


mobile computer (COM 4)


mobile device (COM 4)


monitor (COM 10)


motherboard (COM 8)


mouse (COM 6)


multifunction peripheral (COM 9)


network (COM 21)



netbook
(COM 4)


notebook computer (COM
4)


online (COM 21)


online service provider (OSP) (COM 24)


online social network (COM 24)


operating system (COM 18)


optical disc (COM 15)


output devices (COM 9)


peripheral (COM 3)


personal computer (COM 4)


photo printers (COM 9)


pixels (COM 10)


pointer (COM 6)


portable media player (COM 5)


presentation software (COM 19)


printer (COM 9)


processor (COM 8)


program (COM 18)


RAM (COM 8
)


resolution (COM 10
)


removable hard disk (COM 12)


rootkit (COM 26)



21

Vocabulary Words Continued


search
engine (COM 25)


search text (COM 25)


sectors (COM 11)


smart phone (COM 5)


social networking Web site (COM 24)


software (COM 18)


solid state drive (SSD) (COM 12)


solid state media (COM 12)


spreadsheet software (COM 20)


storage device (COM 10)


storage medium (COM 10)


stylus (COM 6)


subject directory (COM 25)


system software (COM 18)


system unit (COM 8)


Tablet PC (COM 4)


terabyte (TB) (COM 8)


touchpad (COM 7)


track (COM 11)


transmission media (COM 17)


Trojan horse (COM 26)


URL (Uniform Resource Locator) (COM 24)



uninstalling
(COM 18)


USB flash drive (COM 15)


users (COM 3)


utility
program (COM 18)


virus (COM 26)


Web (COM 24)


Web 2.0 (COM 24)


Web address (COM 24)


Web application (COM 18)


Web browser (COM 24)


Web page (COM 24)


Web server (COM 24)


Web site (COM 24)


wide area network (WAN) (COM 22)


wireless (COM 17)


wireless Internet service provider (COM 24)


wireless LAN (WLAN) (COM 21)


word processing software (COM 19)


worksheet (COM 20)


World Wide Web (COM 24)


worm (COM
26)

22