The Papier-Mâché Toolkit

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15 Αυγ 2012 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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The Papier
-
Mâché Toolkit




Document, Image and Voice Analysis Research Group (DIVA)

Department of Informatics (DIUF), Faculty of Science

University of Fribourg, Switzerland



Pedro de Almeida, Dominique Guinard, Martin Eric Ritz

“Automation need not require getting rid of paper strips. We suggest

keeping the existing paper flight strips as physical objects.”

(Wendy Mackay, Paris
-
Sud University)

Introduction (I)


paperless office
:
owing to the technological
progress
paper will disappear

from the desks and
offices


Statistics: paper does not decrease, but increase


Result:
paperless office is a myth


BUT: paper
-
saturated office is
not

a
failing of
technology
; it is a validation of our expertise with
the physical world


Question: how to better integrate the physical and
electronic worlds by building physical interfaces?

The paper is dead, long lives the paper!


Introduction (II)


Answer
:
Tangible user interfaces

(TUIs) augment
the physical world by combining everyday physical
objects with digital information


BUT: Currently only some experts can build TUIs
because of the
difficult acquisition

and
abstraction

of physical

input.


Papier
-
Mâché
, was developed to
simplify the
developing

of tangible interfaces.


“Papier
-
Mâché”

(I)

The expression has
two meanings
:


1.
Technique for creating forms by
mixing wet paper
pulp with glue or paste
. The crafted object
becomes solid when the paste dries. Papier
-
Mâché was originated by the Chinese.


“Papier
-
Mâché” (II)


The expression has
two meanings
:


2.
Papier
-
Mâché stands for a
toolkit

for
building
tangible interfaces

using
computer vision
,
electronic tags

and
barcodes
.


“Papier
-
Mâché”

(III)





But, what does tangible user interfaces has


to do with a handicraft technology


?

“Papier
-
Mâché” (IV)



probably it points on the
characteristic

of the
Toolkit to be able to
join

several
individual
elements simply to a whole one
.



During their practical attempts the developers
used
scraps of paper

with different symbols which
served as
control units

by the
optical recognition
.


Installation

Before installing the Papier
-
Mâché Toolkit:



Install
Java 2 Platform

Standard Edition 5.0

, the
Java Media
Framework

and
Java Advanced Imaging
.


Install a CVS client:
Netbeans

(integrated CVS support)


if necessary: Install
Phidgets SDK

for RFID /
Java TWAIN

for use
a TWAIN source


Make the Papier
-
Mâché Source
-
Forge
CVS repository accessible

from
Eclipse


Set the project in Eclipse to be
J2SE 5.0 compliant
.


To use a camera first
run

the
JMRegistry

application.


To use RFID
add

the
lib folder

of Papier
-
Mâch
é

to your
path
.

Functions (I)


The Papier
-
Mâché toolkit aims at
providing toolkit
level support for physical input
.


Advantages:


enables
developers

to build TUIs quite
fast


permits to
adapt

the underlying sensing
technologies

with a small expenditure of time.


Therefore a
developer

has two
main tasks
:


declaring

the
input

that he want to process


and
associate

it to
application
behaviour
.

Functions (II)


Papier
-
Mâché supports
computer vision
,
electronic tags

(e.g. RFID tags), and
barcode

(includes 2D variants) input


Vision is the most flexible and powerful of these
technologies: it
supports any camera

with a
standard driver, from simple webcams to high
-
quality 1394 cameras.


Papier
-
Mâché represents a physical object as a
PHOB
.

Functions (III)




a PHOB?!



Functions (IV)


Phobs (
Ph
ysical
Ob
ject
s
) contain an array of
data
elements

(such as an RFID tag) and an array of
properties

(e.g. location).


The
toolkit provides

a
monitoring

window which
displays the current input objects, image input
and processing, and behaviors being created or
invoked with the association map.


programmer
only

responsible for
selecting input

types. => no need to discover the attached input
or to establish a connection to them.


Once he has selected an input device, Papier
-
Mâché
generates

events

representing

all
state
changes

of the corresponding sensor.

Functions (IV)


Event
types

are the
same

for all

different
technologies. (facilitates technology portability)


Events can be filtered using
EventFilters
.

Currently there are three implemented:


MeanColorClassifier: filters objects whose
colour

is within distance ε of a given colour.


ROIClassifier: filters objects in a particular
region

of interest of the camera view.


SizeClassifier: filters objects whose
size

is
within a Euclidean distance ε of an ideal size.

Functions (V)


While all technologies have the same events,
each technology provides
different types of
information

about

the physical
objects

it senses:



RFID: tag
ID

and the reader
ID


Vision: provides the
size, location, orientation,
bounding box
, and
mean colour

of an object


Barcodes: provide the
ID
, the
type

(EAN,
PDF417, or CyberCode), and a reference to
the barcode image, which allows vision
information such as
location

and
orientation
.

Possibilities and borders


Papier
-
Mâché enables programmers to program an
application with
knowing not more than Java
.


…but within Papier
-
Mâché, the
processing

is
bound

by

the
image processing computations
:


On an ordinary computer, Papier
-
Mâché runs at
interactive rates. The developers of the toolkit report
that during their tests a dual Pentium 4 running
Windows XP was much sufficient for topological and
spatial applications with discrete events. The
performance numbers indicated by the developers
should be considered as lower bounds, as the image
processing code

is entirely
unoptimized
.

Integration into larger systems



Papier
-
Mâché is designed so that it
can be used
to
-
gether with other toolkits


Developers give 24 examples of existing tangible
user interfaces employing paper and other
“everyday” objects. In all cases the Papier
-
Mâché
toolkit could be useful.


This shows clearly, that Papier
-
Mâché
can be
used for a multitude of applications

even it
supports actually only computer vision, electronic
tags and barcode input exclusively.

3 Project:
Service Counter System


The
Service Counter System

is an environment
with the capability of providing counter
management functionalities through an tangible
interface.



This environment is based on user identification
and both optical and radio
-
frequency objects
recognition. Objects motions will enable the user
to interact with the counter and, therefore, execute
actions.

3 Project:
Service Counter System

Digital Camera

Interactive Board

RFID Sensor

3.1 Scenario


The Library Assistant

IN

OUT

1. Detect and identify user

1

2. Identify book

3. Choose an action

2

3

3

3.2 Required Components


Hardware


An interactive board


A digital Camera


RFID Sensor


RFID Transponders


A PC station



Software


Netbeans 5.0 (or another IDE)



3.3 Installation procedure


Create a new project under
NetBeans.


Import the Service Counter System project
(located into the CD
-
ROM).


Connect the digital camera and the RFID sensor


Run file
«

ServiceCounterSystem.java

»

as
an JAVA application under
NetBeans.