Embedded System Design

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15 Αυγ 2012 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 28 μέρες)

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ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

Embedded System Design

Paul J. Weber

October 4, 2007

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

2

Teaching at UMD


ECE 1315


Digital System Design


Fall 2006


Spring 2008



ECE 2325


Microcomputer System Design


Spring 2008


ECE 4951


Design Workshop: Energy & Transportation


Spring 2008



ECE 2006


Electric Circuit Analysis


Fall 2006


Spring 2007

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

3

Embedded Systems


Computational Controller + Hardware


Specific Application


vs. Personal Computer


Examples


Cell Phones


IPODs


Fridge


Car


Traffic Lights


Nuclear Power Plants

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

4

Computer Structure


Arithmetic



Memory



Control



I/O


http://img.dell.com/images/global/topics/vectors/2004_pcie_012.gif

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

5

How to Drive a Car


Groups of 3


5


At Least 7 Aspects


Scenarios


In Town


Highway


Day


Night


Etc.


Events

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

Embedded System
Components

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

7

I/O Options


Polled I/O


Deer?


Busy Waiting


Interrupts


Flag When Ready


CPU Free to Do Other Things


Counters


Flag When Rolling Over


Time
-
stamping


Precision

http://www.inl.org/bicycle/tasmania/day2/

http://www.turbophoto.com/Deer
-
Photos/index.htm

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

8

Signal Conditioning


Vision


Object


Recognition


Temperature


Voltage


A
-
D


Digital Value


Tolerance, Error


Output


Petal


Extra Power

http://www.yorku.ca/eye/invert.htm

ADC

To CPU

Thermistor

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

9

Control & Arithmetic


Hardware


e.g. Clock Synchronization


Faster



Software


Programming


Assembly


Embedded C


General Purpose


http://ui.netbeans.org/docs/ui/code_navigator/Navigator%20spec.html

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

10

Memory


Instructions


Storage


Adaptive Controllers


Depends on History


Driver’s Ed


Black Box


http://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/ksm/lowres/ksmn1271l.jpg

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

11

Systems: Motorola 68HCxx

1

2

3

4

6

5

*

7

8

0

9

#

D

A

C

B


CME11E9
-
EVBU


Motorola 68HC11 Lab Development Kit


LCD


Keypad


I/O





Dragon


68HC12

I Love ECE!

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

12

Systems: Cyclone II Programmable FPGA


System On a Programmable Chip (SOPC) Generation


NIOS II CPU


Memory


JTAG UART


PIO


Timers


Etc.

www.clifford.at

www.altium.com

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

Project Example:

Quadrasteer
®

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

14

Steering Functionality (1 of 4)


Variable Steering


Greater Control


Better Efficiency


Different Speeds


Different Functionality


Three Ranges


Normal


Negative
-
Phase


In
-
Phase

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

15

Steering Functionality (2 of 4)


Normal Steering


Front Wheels Always Turn


Rear Wheels Straight


Intermediate Speeds


ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

16

Steering Functionality (3 of 4)


Slower Speeds


Negative
-
Phase Steering


Rear Wheels Opposite


Tighter Turning Radius



ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

17

Steering Functionality (4 of 4)


Faster Speeds


In
-
Phase Steering


Rear Wheels Follow


Efficient Lane Changes

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

18

Quadrasteer




Step 1: Wheel Speed


Hall
-
Effect Sensor


DC Motor with Slotted Disk


Pulse Accumulation


Determines RPM


Photo Emitter
-
Detector Pair


Step 2: Wheel Position


Step 3: Control


Look
-
Up Table (LUT

Memory)


Equation Calculation


ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

19

Steering Design Goals


Functionality


Ensuring Safety


Limited Turning Degree


Boundary Cases


Fail
-
Safe


Default Mode

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

Developing

Technologies

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

21

Real
-
Time System: X
-
by
-
Wire Truck

14 & 42 V Alternators

36 Volt

Battery

Equivalent

Voltage Display

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

22

Hy
-
Wire


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lcs662uA7zY&mode=r
elated&search



http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hy
-
wire3.htm

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

23

Other Technologies


Intelligent Power Grid


Renewable Energies


Distributed Generation


Intel Trans Sys (ITS)


Communication


Inter
-
Auto, Road
-
Auto


Autonomous Vehicles


Swarms


Research


System Size


Architecture

http://media.whatcounts.com/onenw_climatesolutions/energyweb.gif

ECE 1001


UMD Fall 2007

10/4/07

24

More Information


257 MWAH


http://www.d.umn.edu/~pjweber


pjweber@d.umn.edu



http://www.altera.com/


http://www.pickuptruck.com/html/stories/qs420/page1.ht
ml