Plan for today
Web Interface Design: Lets analyze an
example from Netbeans samples
Mid term review
Chapter 10: relating SOA
Business Process Management refers to activities
performed by enterprises to optimize and adapt their
Business process (BP) is an activity in a company
that uses resources and can involve the activities of
BP has been there for sometime but new impetus
has been brought by BPMS, software tools, etc.
Management of BP involves their design, execution
BP Design: capture of existing processes and repositories to
store process models.
BP Execution: uses interfaces and human intervention to execute
the defined processes.
BP Monitoring: involves tracking of individual processes so that
their state can be observed.
Traditional BPM is confined to the boundaries of a business.
The chapter defines a Collaborative Business Model (CBM) that
extends BPM beyond the boundaries of a business.
exploits semantic web services composition engines to do so.
Design of Collaborative
The authors recommend using (semantic)
Web Services (WS) composition to semi
automatically design a Collaborative
Business Process (CBP).
Lifting: transforming BP to WS
Lowering: transforming WS to BP
Semantic Web Services (SWS)
A semantic WS composition (service
enabling) works on semantically enriched
descriptions of Web Services.
Web service definition
Web service description is in a WSDL
WSDL consists of the definition of independent,
atomic and stateless operations
Operations, messages, ports and data types
Data types are in XML schema (XSD)
Messages are input and output messages
WSDL definition will facilitate technical integration of
Observe that WSDL does not have any information
about behavioral semantics of a web service’s
Semantic WS definition
The components of the semantic web service
definition include a formal description of WS
functionality, its inputs and outputs and its
The formal definition of SWS includes an
annotation which is expressed by using
Ontology consists of concepts, realtions and
SWS definition Languages
WSMO (WS Modeling Ontology)
Each WS description in WSMO contains a capability
The capability describes WS’s functionality
It is used for discovery and selection of appropriate
services for a specific task as a WSMO goal.
Choreography in WSMO describes behavioral
requirements. This is different from choreography in
The business partners participating in the composition provide
SWS : in, out and capabilities in ontological terms.
These are fed into the WS composition engine.
Semantic engine looks for equivalent concepts in the behavior
descriptions and connects them.
After identifying matching concepts, the composition engine
connects fitting input and output.
Result of this process is:
Business processes that contains steps from both partners
Interconnection via mapping activities
Other inputs and outputs that could not be connected as above
Composition is successful when there are no more unconnected
input and output.
Transforming process description into format
used by SWS composition engine.
This is achieved by mapping the process
descriptions to the elements of an ontology.
Two parts: lifting in and out messages and
lifting process description
A very nice formal description is given in
p.214 and Fig. 10.2
Lets understand this.
Lifting WSDL messages
The architecture of the schema lifting component that creates the
alignment between XML schema and the ontology
This takes XML schema and domain ontology as input and yields
an alignment A
N matchers are used:
Data type matcher
Related entities matcher
The outputs of matching then are aggregated to provide SWS.
The CBP is defined as the process steps of
the respective partners plus their appropriate
This step is quite straight forward.
The composition did not alter the original
process structure in the partners.
Execution of CBP
We know how to generate CBP
How to execute CBP?
Fig. 10.6 shows examples of mapping
Types of rules used in mapping
Move, join, merge, split, replicate
Lifting from source schema
Lifting from target schema
Deployment and execution of
See fig. 10.9
Two businesses execute the CBP designed
by invoking the WS offered by the partners
Each partner has an execution environment
controlling only the execution of their
Mediation is a important process during
We studied the design of CBP.
Lets examine the implementation details.
Design using Maestro which is a part of SAP Research business
process management tool suite.
Each partner can create its own business process.
Can be exported, discussed and interconnected with partner’s
Can be manually adapted (connected if needed)
Workflow orchestrations can be created using a special tool
Orchestration + Alignment
WSDL and WS are deployed using Johnson, Gabriel and
Finalization is needed before actual deployment in runtime.
Carrier Shipper Process
Involves three parties: a customer, a shipper
and a carrier
Interfaces, notifications. Contractual
agreements, fulfillments need to be related.
Agreement on common business terms
Design CBPs using heterogeneous business
Executing CBPs using heterogeneous
All these save time and effort in manual