Leslie F. Sikos, Ph.D.

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10 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML
Leslie F. Sikos, Ph.D.
Apress8
Content s
About the Author xvi i
About the Technical Reviewer xvii i
Preface xi x
Part 1: Web Standards 1
Chapter 1: Introduction to Web Standards 3
The Basic Concepts 3
The Role of Standardization.. 4
Th e Cos t o f Nonstandardize d Marku p 4
Benefit s o f Standard-Complian t Marku p 5
Development and Announcement of Standards 6
W3C 7
WHATW G 8
ERCI M 8
IET F : 8
Ecm a Internationa l 8
Unicod e Consortiu m 8
DCM I 9
IAN A 9
OASI S 9
ISO 9
Standards Promotion and Distribution 9
IV
I CONTENT S
Groups and Associations 1 0
Staying Informed: Events and Courses 1 1
Resources 1 2
Types, Stages, and Status of Standards 12
The Variety of Rendering Engines 13
Trident 1 4
Gecko 1 5
KHTML 1 6
WebKit 1 6
Presto 1 6
Amaya 1 7
Testing the Standard Support of Browsers 17
Standard Compliance Tests 1 7
Comprehensive Tests 1 9
Standards vs. Quirks Modes, DOCTYPE Switching 19
Problem Statement 2 0
Server-Side Technologies and Content Management 21
Limited Standards Support in Development Tools 2 2
Major Concerns 2 2
Bad Practices 2 2
Lack of Support 2 2
Unconcern 2 3
Influential Sites 2 3
The Popularity of Flash 2 4
Well-formedness 2 5
Interoperability 2 6
Eliminated Version Targeting 2 7
Backward Compatibility 2 8
I CONTENT S
Forward Compatibility 2 9
Functionality 2 9
Device Independence 2 9
Separating Content from Presentation 3 0
Usability 3 0
Reliable Layouts 3 1
Code Optimality 3 1
Summary 3 1
References 3 1
Chapter 2: Internationalization 3 9
The Importance of Character Encoding 39
Unicode 4 1
Characters That Should Be Avoided in Markup Contexts 44
Formatting Characters Suitable Also for Markup 4 6
Special Characters 4 6
NFC Normalization Is Recommended 4 7
Unicode Should Be Preferred 4 8
Declaring Character Encoding for the Markup 48
Encoding Declaration in the HTTP Header 4 9
In-Document Declarations 4 9
Declaring Character Encoding for CSS 50
HTTP Header Declarations 5 0
In-Document Declarations 5 0
Escape Codes, Special Characters, and Symbols 51
Numeric References 5 1
Entity References 5 1
Checking I18N \. 52
VI
i CONTENT S
Summary 5 2
References 5 3
Chapter 3: Markup Languages: More Than HTML5 55
SGML Languages 5 6
HTM L 5 6
XML Languages 5 7
XHTM L 5 7
Version Overview 5 7
HTM L Version s an d Variant s 5 8
XHTM L Version s an d Variant s 5 9
HTML 5 : 6 4
Markup Syntaxes 6 6
Th e HTM L Synta x 6 6
Th e XHTM L Synta x an d Restriction s 6 7
Data Types 7 4
Markup Elements 7 7
Bloc k vs. Inlin e Element s 8 6
Attributes 8 7
HTML Document Structure 10 2
Documen t Typ e Declaratio n 10 6
XHTM L Documen t Structur e 11 2
Moving from HTML to XHTML 12 0
Specific Markup Languages 12 1
SVG ^ 121
MathM L 12 4
Combinations, Profiles, and Mixed-Namespace Documents 127
(X)HTML+RDF a 12 7
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• CONTENT S
XHTML-Print 12 8
XHTML + MathML + SVG 12 9
Choosing a Markup Language 131
The Benefits of XHTML 1.x over HTML 4.x 13 1
The Benefits of HTML5 over HTML 4.x and XHTML 132
Alternatives to Web Markup 132
Summary 13 3
References 13 3
Chapter 4: Serving and Configuration 139
The HTTP Header 13 9
Internet Media Types (MIME) 140
Common Media Types 14 1
Serving XHTML 14 7
Serving XHTML as HTML 14 7
Serving XHTML as XML 14 7
URIs, URLs, and URNs 14 9
Persistent URIs 15 0
Summary 15 5
References 15 5
I Chapter 5: Style Sheets 16 1
Cascading Style Sheets 16 1
Levels, Profiles, and Modules 16 2
Grammar and Conventions 16 3
Implementation 17 8
Display and Visibility 18 1
Cascading 18 1
Inheritance 18 3
via
B CONTENT S
Scopes and Structure 18 4
The Box Model 18 5
Overview of CSS Properties 18 7
Initial Property Values 20 4
Default Styles of Rendering Engines 20 4
XSL 20 6
XSLT Style Sheets 20 6
Combinin g CS S an d XS L 20 9
Summar y 21 0
Reference s 21 0
Chapte r 6: Scriptin g an d Application s 21 3
Client-Serve r Architecture s 21 3
Scriptin g an d Standard s Implementatio n 21 4
Client-Sid e Developmen t 21 5
Ajax 21 5
Flex 21 6
HTML5APIS 21 7
Java Applets 22 9
ECMAScript and JavaScript 23 0
Silverlight 23 3
Server-Sid e Developmen t 23 4
ColdFusion 23 5
Java 23 5
The .NET Framework 23 5
Perl 23 6
PHP 23 6
Python 23 8
IX
B CONTENT S
Rub y 23 8
SSJ S 23 8
Combinations of Client-Side and Server-Side Technologies 238
Database Technologies 23 9
Alternate Content and Fallback Mechanism for Scripts 239
Summary 24 0
References 24 0
Chapter 7: Metadata and the Semantic Web 245
The Semantic Web 24 5
Structure d Dat a 24 7
Linke d Ope n Dat a 24 8
Wide Variety of Annotations and Syntaxes 249
The meta Tags 25 0
Schemas, Vocabularies, and Ontologies 251
Microformat s 25 3
Microdat a 26 1
FOA F 26 3
DOA C 26 5
Dubli n Cor e 26 6
Resourc e Descriptio n Framewor k 27 4
OWL 28 3
Combining Metadata 28 7
Combinin g Vocabularie s i n RD F 28 8
Microdat a an d Microformat s 28 9
Dubli n Cor e an d vCar d i n RDF 29 0
Dubli n Core, vCard, an d Math-Ne t 29 0
DC, IMS, an d ODR L 29 1
• CONTENT S
Special Applications 29 2
Image Metadata and XMP 29 2
Metadata for YouTube Videos 29 4
Metadata in SEO 29 5
Summary 29 6
References 29 7
i Chapter 8: Web Syndication 30 7
News Feeds 30 7
Really Simple Syndication 30 7
Creating an RSS File 30 8
Required Elements 30 9
Optional Elements 31 0
Subelements of the item Element 31 9
Namespaces 32 2
Styling RSS Feeds 32 3
Atom 32 4
Creating an Atom File 32 5
Containers 32 6
Metadata and Content Elements 32 8
RSS or Atom? 33 1
Summary 33 2
References 33 2
Chapter 9: Optimized Appearance 33 5
Layout 33 5
Positioning and Floating 33 5
Tableless Web Layout 33 6
Typography 34 2
xi
5 CONTENT S
Misused Characters 34 2
Web Fonts 34 3
Embedding External Content 34 7
Raster Graphics 34 7
Vector Graphics 35 5
Flash 35 5
Audio 35 7
Video 35 8
Summary 36 3
References 36 3
Chapter 10: Accessibility 36 7
Defining Web Accessibility 36 7
WCAG1.0 36 9
WCAG2.0 37 0
Migrating from WCAG 1.0 to WCAG 2.0 392
U.S. Section 508 39 3
Semantic (X)HTML5 Elements and WAI-ARIA 394
JavaScript Accessibility 39 4
PDF Accessibility 39 5
Flash Accessibility 39 7
Accessibility of Mathematical Notations 397
Summary 39 8
References 39 8
Part 2: Developing with Standards 40 1
Chapter 11: Development Tools 40 3
Feature Requirements 40 3
Xll
i CONTENT S
Text Editors 40 4
WYSIWYG Editors 40 6
Content Management Systems and Bloggers 408
Web Standards Support 40 9
Specific Editors 41 0
Semantic Editors and Reasoners 41 0
MathType 41 1
Markup Correctors 41 2
HTML Tidy 41 2
Tidy for PHP 41 3
Log Validator 41 3
Browsers as Development Tools 41 3
Debugging and Add-ons 41 3
Testing Web Pages in Text Browsers 41 4
View the Source Code 41 5
Summary 41 5
References 41 6
l Chapter 12: Putting It All Together 41 9
Choosing the Relevant Standards 41 9
Switching Between Standards 41 9
Step-by-Step Development 42 0
Starting from Scratch..... 42 0
Links 42 7
Images 42 8
Lists 42 8
Tables 43 2
Drop-Down Selection Lists 43 6
xni
i CONTENT S
Form s 43 7
Flas h Conten t 43 9
RS S New s Feed s 44 0
Making Web Sites Valid Through Redesign 441
Summary 44 1
References 44 2
Chapter 13: Best Practices 44 3
Appropriately Used Elements 44 3
Content in Logical Order 44 3
Reliable Positioning 44 4
Sizes and Proportions 44 4
Length s i n Relativ e Unit s 44 5
Combin e Unit s Properl y 44 5
Embedding External Content Properly 446
Embeddin g YouTub e Video s a s Vali d XHTM L o r HTML 5 44 7
Embeddin g Googl e Map s a s Vali d XHTM L o r HTML 5 44 8
Semantic Web Best Practices 450
WAI-ARIA Best Practices 450
Mobile Web Best Practices 450
Providing Robustness 451
Declarin g Fallbac k Generi c Font s 45 1
Declaration s wit h Appropriat e Specificit y 45 2
Testing 45 2
Renderin g i n Multipl e Browser s 45 2
Readabilit y Withou t Style s 45 2
Summary 45 3
References 453
XIV
I CONTENT S
Chapter 14: Validation 45 5
Concepts 45 5
Markup Validation 45 6
Validating XML 46 0
Validating RDF/XML 46 0
Validating News Feeds 46 2
Validating CSS 46 2
Validating 118N 46 3
Validating Hyperlinks 46 4
Validating Accessibility 46 4
Validating Mobile-Friendliness 46 7
Unified Validators 46 7
W3C Unicorn 46 8
Total Validator 46 9
SortSite 47 0
Extracting Semantic Content 47 1
Expressing Validity 47 4
W3C Icons 47 5
Representing Technologies 47 6
Summary 47 8
References 47 8
i Chapter 15: Most Common Errors 48 1
Common Serving Errors 48 1
Common Markup Errors 48 1
Incorrectly Used Elements 48 1
Incorrect Structure 48 3
xv
I CONTENT S
Misused Tables 48 3
Nonoptimal Code Length 48 4
Element and Attribute Errors 48 4
End Tag Errors 48 4
Identifiers 48 5
Common Style Sheet Errors 48 5
Nonexisting Properties 48 5
Nonexisting or Incorrectly Used Property Values 48 5
Ignored Inheritance 48 6
Color Errors 48 7
Incorrect Locations 48 8
Transparent Backgrounds 48 8
Miscellaneous Errors 48 8
Common News Feed Errors 48 9
Common Script Errors 48 9
Common Accessibility Errors 48 9
Summary 49 0
References 49 0
Index 49 1
XVI