Class 2 Notes - Fleming College User Pages

jazzydoeΛογισμικό & κατασκευή λογ/κού

30 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Week # 2

A. Introduction

Driving on the left, Chinese food and the movie
Star Wars

A. Introduction

How Eight Pixels Cost Microsoft Millions

So what color should Kashmir be?

In Microsoft’s coloring of 800,000 pixels on a map of India,
it colored eight of them a different shade of green to
represent the disputed Kashmiri territory.

The difference in greens meant Kashmir was shown as non

This small issue resulted in the product being banned in
India, costing Microsoft millions of dollars.

A. Cont.

Mart’s Cultural Mistakes in Germany

Mart entered the German market in 1998
expecting to successfully transform its American
approach into European success.

However, Wal
Mart found that overcoming cultural
differences was a barrier to exporting its
approach into this key European market.

After close to an estimated $1 billion in losses,
Mart has packed up and sold off its stores to
based Metro (a firm with an
understanding of the German culture.

B. Definition


refers to the learned, shared, and enduring
orientation patterns in a society. People
demonstrate their culture through values, ideas,
attitudes, behaviors, and symbols.

Culture has proven very difficult to identify and

B. Cont.

Culture influences (some of the many ex.s):

Interpersonal exchanges

greeting and parting rituals.

How far apart to stand, what to say, and whether to
touch or smile.

Ceremonies may vary

as a function of the age, gender,
and status of the greeters.

giving rituals

inappropriate items such as knives
or scissors imply cutting off the relationship or other
negative sentiments; chrysanthemums are typically
associated with funerals; and handkerchiefs suggest

B. Cont.

Culture incorporates both objective and subjective

Objective or tangible aspects of culture include tools,
roads, television programming, architecture, and other
physical artifacts.

Subjective or intangible aspects of culture include
norms, values, ideas, customs, and other meaningful

C. Characteristics of Culture

Culture is not right or wrong

Culture is learned

Cultures are inherently logical

Culture forms our self
identity and community

Culture is dynamic

C. National Culture

Nation is a useful definition of society

Culture is a key characteristic of society and can
differ significantly across national borders

Culture can also take into account several

Can also differ significantly within national
borders (ex. Canada)

Laws are established along national lines

C. A Few Definitions

Ethnocentrism (the view that one’s own culture is
superior to others)



Must a company adapt to local cultures or can

often home
country dominated

culture prevail?

cultural literacy essential

C. Cont.

Socialization: The process of learning the rules and
behavioral patterns appropriate to one's given
society, i.e. cultural learning.

Acculturation: The process of adjusting and
adapting to a culture other than one's own,
commonly experienced by expatriate workers.

D. High Context v. Low Context

context cultures
(Japan, China, Mexico and
Arab countries) tend to be relational, collectivist,
intuitive, and contemplative

Rely heavily on nonverbal behaviour, intuition, tradition,
and ceremony

Prefer group values, duties, and decisions

Rely on nonverbal cues and the total picture to

D. Cont.

context cultures (North America, Scandinavia,
and Germany) tend to be logical, linear, and

Use more words to convey very explicit messages

Prefer individual initiative, self
assertion, personal

context cultures emphasize words,
straightforwardness, and openness. People tend to be
informal, impatient, literal

E. A Culture Model

Dutch anthropologist


conducted one
of the early empirical studies of national cultural
traits, collecting data on the values and attitudes of
116,000 employees at IBM Corporation,
representing a diverse set of nationality, age and

E. 5 Factors

Individualism v. Collectivism

Power Distance

Uncertainty Avoidance

Masculinity v. Femininity

Long Term v. The Short Term

E. Individualism vs. Collectivism

Individualistic societies: ties among people are
relatively loose; each person tends to focus on his or
her own self
interest; competition for resources is the
norm; those who compete best are rewarded


Australia, Canada, the UK, and the U.S. tend
to be strongly individualistic societies.

E. Cont.

Collectivist societies: ties among individuals are
more important than individualism; business is
conducted in the context of a group where
everyone’s views are strongly considered;
group is all
important, as life is fundamentally
a cooperative experience; conformity and
compromise help maintain group harmony.

China, Panama, and South Korea tend
to be strongly collectivist societies.

E. Power Distance

High power distance societies have substantial
gaps between the powerful and the weak; are
relatively indifferent to inequalities and allow
them to grow.


Guatemala, Malaysia, the Philippines and
several Middle East countries

E. Cont.

power distance societies have minimal gaps
between the powerful and weak.


Denmark and Sweden, governments
instituted tax and social welfare systems that ensure
their nationals are relatively equal in terms of income
and power.

E. Uncertainty Avoidance

High uncertainty avoidance societies create
institutions that minimize risk and ensure financial
security; companies emphasize stable careers and
produce many rules to regulate worker actions and
minimize ambiguity

Belgium, France, and Japan are countries that score
high on uncertainty avoidance.

E. Cont.

Low on uncertainty avoidance societies socialize
their members to accept and become accustomed to
uncertainty; managers are entrepreneurial and
comfortable with taking risks

India, Ireland, Jamaica, and the U.S. are examples of
countries with low uncertainty avoidance.

E. Masculinity versus Femininity

Masculine cultures value competitiveness,
assertiveness, ambition, and the accumulation of
wealth; both men and women are assertive, focused
on career and earning money, and may care little
for others.


Australia, Japan.

E. Cont.

Feminine cultures emphasize nurturing roles,
interdependence among people, and caring for less
fortunate people

for both men and women.

Scandinavian countries

welfare systems
are highly developed

E. Long
term Versus Short

term orientation tend to take the long view to
planning and living, focusing on years and decades.

Short term is the right now.

F. Idioms


is an expression whose symbolic meaning
is different from its literal meaning

a phrase that
cannot be understand by simply knowing what the
individual words mean.

Idioms exist in virtually every culture and are used as a
short way of saying something else.

F. Language Mistakes

Japanese knife manufacturer labeled its exports to the United
States with “Caution: Blade extremely sharp! Keep out of

English sign in a Moscow hotel read, “You are welcome to visit
the cemetery where famous Russians are buried daily, except

Sign for non
speaking guests in a Tokyo hotel read,
“You are respectfully requested to take advantage of the

F. Cont.

Sign in English at Copenhagen ticket office read, “We
take your bags and send them in all directions.”

Braniff Airlines’ English
language slogan “Fly in
Leather” was translated into “Fly Naked” in Spanish.

G. Stereotypes?

Always bad?

Or is it necessary to group people?

Where is the line?

H. Cultural Differences That Impact

Developing products and services

Communicating and interacting with foreign business

Screening and selecting foreign distributors and
other partners

Negotiating and structuring international business

H. Cont.

Interacting with current and potential customers from

Preparing for overseas trade fairs and exhibitions

Preparing advertising and promotional materials

H. Cultures Creates Challenges

Team work

Do you like it?

Life time employment

How would your work ethic change if you worked for
the same company the rest of your life?

Pay for performance system

What motivates you?

H. Cont.

Organizational structure

Should older workers get paid more than junior

Union management relationships

Has union protection gone too far?

Attitudes toward ambiguity

The midterm test will have questions!


A. What is one of the primary root causes of
football hooliganism?

B. In the show, they referred to two English fans
being stabbed to death in Turkey. What team
were they associated with? This happened outside
what restaurant?

C. Who saved Galatasary Football Club from

D. Who won the game?

E. Did anything shock you about this video?

Football Factories

Part I

Part II

Part III

Part IV

Part V

For This Coming Week

Case Study: Fed Ex v. UPS


In Search of a High CQ