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30 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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CULTURE

Week # 2

A. Introduction



Driving on the left, Chinese food and the movie
Star Wars



A. Introduction


How Eight Pixels Cost Microsoft Millions


So what color should Kashmir be?


In Microsoft’s coloring of 800,000 pixels on a map of India,
it colored eight of them a different shade of green to
represent the disputed Kashmiri territory.


The difference in greens meant Kashmir was shown as non
-
Indian.


This small issue resulted in the product being banned in
India, costing Microsoft millions of dollars.

A. Cont.


Wal
-
Mart’s Cultural Mistakes in Germany


Wal
-
Mart entered the German market in 1998
expecting to successfully transform its American
approach into European success.


However, Wal
-
Mart found that overcoming cultural
differences was a barrier to exporting its
approach into this key European market.


After close to an estimated $1 billion in losses,
Wal
-
Mart has packed up and sold off its stores to
Düsseldorf
-
based Metro (a firm with an
understanding of the German culture.

B. Definition


Culture

refers to the learned, shared, and enduring
orientation patterns in a society. People
demonstrate their culture through values, ideas,
attitudes, behaviors, and symbols.



Culture has proven very difficult to identify and
analyze


B. Cont.


Culture influences (some of the many ex.s):


Interpersonal exchanges
-

greeting and parting rituals.


How far apart to stand, what to say, and whether to
touch or smile.


Ceremonies may vary

as a function of the age, gender,
and status of the greeters.


Gift
-
giving rituals
-

inappropriate items such as knives
or scissors imply cutting off the relationship or other
negative sentiments; chrysanthemums are typically
associated with funerals; and handkerchiefs suggest
sadness.


B. Cont.


Culture incorporates both objective and subjective
elements.


Objective or tangible aspects of culture include tools,
roads, television programming, architecture, and other
physical artifacts.


Subjective or intangible aspects of culture include
norms, values, ideas, customs, and other meaningful
symbols.


C. Characteristics of Culture


Culture is not right or wrong


Culture is learned


Cultures are inherently logical


Culture forms our self
-
identity and community


Culture is dynamic

C. National Culture


Nation is a useful definition of society


Culture is a key characteristic of society and can
differ significantly across national borders


Culture can also take into account several
countries


Can also differ significantly within national
borders (ex. Canada)


Laws are established along national lines



C. A Few Definitions


Ethnocentrism (the view that one’s own culture is
superior to others)


Polycentricism


Geocentricism



Must a company adapt to local cultures or can
corporate
--

often home
-
country dominated
--

culture prevail?



Cross
-
cultural literacy essential

C. Cont.


Socialization: The process of learning the rules and
behavioral patterns appropriate to one's given
society, i.e. cultural learning.


Acculturation: The process of adjusting and
adapting to a culture other than one's own,
commonly experienced by expatriate workers.


D. High Context v. Low Context


High
-
context cultures
(Japan, China, Mexico and
Arab countries) tend to be relational, collectivist,
intuitive, and contemplative


Rely heavily on nonverbal behaviour, intuition, tradition,
and ceremony


Prefer group values, duties, and decisions


Rely on nonverbal cues and the total picture to
communicate.


D. Cont.


Low
-
context cultures (North America, Scandinavia,
and Germany) tend to be logical, linear, and
action
-
oriented


Use more words to convey very explicit messages


Prefer individual initiative, self
-
assertion, personal
achievement


Low
-
context cultures emphasize words,
straightforwardness, and openness. People tend to be
informal, impatient, literal

E. A Culture Model


Dutch anthropologist
Geert

Hofstede

conducted one
of the early empirical studies of national cultural
traits, collecting data on the values and attitudes of
116,000 employees at IBM Corporation,
representing a diverse set of nationality, age and
gender.

E. 5 Factors


Individualism v. Collectivism


Power Distance


Uncertainty Avoidance


Masculinity v. Femininity


Long Term v. The Short Term



E. Individualism vs. Collectivism


Individualistic societies: ties among people are
relatively loose; each person tends to focus on his or
her own self
-
interest; competition for resources is the
norm; those who compete best are rewarded
financially.


Examples
-

Australia, Canada, the UK, and the U.S. tend
to be strongly individualistic societies.

E. Cont.


Collectivist societies: ties among individuals are
more important than individualism; business is
conducted in the context of a group where
everyone’s views are strongly considered;
group is all
-
important, as life is fundamentally
a cooperative experience; conformity and
compromise help maintain group harmony.



Examples
-
China, Panama, and South Korea tend
to be strongly collectivist societies.


E. Power Distance


High power distance societies have substantial
gaps between the powerful and the weak; are
relatively indifferent to inequalities and allow
them to grow.


Examples
-

Guatemala, Malaysia, the Philippines and
several Middle East countries

E. Cont.


Low
-
power distance societies have minimal gaps
between the powerful and weak.


Examples
-

Denmark and Sweden, governments
instituted tax and social welfare systems that ensure
their nationals are relatively equal in terms of income
and power.

E. Uncertainty Avoidance


High uncertainty avoidance societies create
institutions that minimize risk and ensure financial
security; companies emphasize stable careers and
produce many rules to regulate worker actions and
minimize ambiguity


Belgium, France, and Japan are countries that score
high on uncertainty avoidance.

E. Cont.


Low on uncertainty avoidance societies socialize
their members to accept and become accustomed to
uncertainty; managers are entrepreneurial and
comfortable with taking risks


India, Ireland, Jamaica, and the U.S. are examples of
countries with low uncertainty avoidance.

E. Masculinity versus Femininity


Masculine cultures value competitiveness,
assertiveness, ambition, and the accumulation of
wealth; both men and women are assertive, focused
on career and earning money, and may care little
for others.


Examples
-

Australia, Japan.

E. Cont.


Feminine cultures emphasize nurturing roles,
interdependence among people, and caring for less
fortunate people
-

for both men and women.


Examples
-
Scandinavian countries
-

welfare systems
are highly developed

E. Long
-
term Versus Short
-
term
Orientation


Long
-
term orientation tend to take the long view to
planning and living, focusing on years and decades.


Short term is the right now.


F. Idioms


An
idiom

is an expression whose symbolic meaning
is different from its literal meaning
-

a phrase that
cannot be understand by simply knowing what the
individual words mean.


Idioms exist in virtually every culture and are used as a
short way of saying something else.

F. Language Mistakes


Japanese knife manufacturer labeled its exports to the United
States with “Caution: Blade extremely sharp! Keep out of
children.”


English sign in a Moscow hotel read, “You are welcome to visit
the cemetery where famous Russians are buried daily, except
Thursday.”


Sign for non
-
Japanese
-
speaking guests in a Tokyo hotel read,
“You are respectfully requested to take advantage of the
chambermaids.”

F. Cont.


Sign in English at Copenhagen ticket office read, “We
take your bags and send them in all directions.”


Braniff Airlines’ English
-
language slogan “Fly in
Leather” was translated into “Fly Naked” in Spanish.


G. Stereotypes?


Always bad?


Or is it necessary to group people?


Where is the line?

H. Cultural Differences That Impact
Business


Developing products and services


Communicating and interacting with foreign business
partners


Screening and selecting foreign distributors and
other partners


Negotiating and structuring international business
ventures

H. Cont.


Interacting with current and potential customers from
abroad


Preparing for overseas trade fairs and exhibitions


Preparing advertising and promotional materials

H. Cultures Creates Challenges


Team work


Do you like it?


Life time employment


How would your work ethic change if you worked for
the same company the rest of your life?


Pay for performance system


What motivates you?

H. Cont.


Organizational structure


Should older workers get paid more than junior
employees?


Union management relationships


Has union protection gone too far?


Attitudes toward ambiguity


The midterm test will have questions!


Questions


A. What is one of the primary root causes of
football hooliganism?


B. In the show, they referred to two English fans
being stabbed to death in Turkey. What team
were they associated with? This happened outside
what restaurant?


C. Who saved Galatasary Football Club from
bankruptcy?


D. Who won the game?


E. Did anything shock you about this video?


Football Factories


Part I


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XJa5hd8kiRI&feature=PlayList&p=576E0E35406414B8&
index=0


Part II


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ei3HkrTmrNM&feature=PlayList&p=576E0E35406414B8
&index=1


Part III


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
-
E0hXu
-
0924&feature=PlayList&p=576E0E35406414B8&index
=2


Part IV


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=inuj4TCAhZk&feature=PlayList&p=576E0E35406414B8&i
ndex=3


Part V


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gf7XA
-
_h8Bg&feature=PlayList&p=576E0E35406414B8&index=4

For This Coming Week


Case Study: Fed Ex v. UPS



Reading:


In Search of a High CQ