April 8, 2003
at the end of the class
A late turn
in will not be accepted
and 3.2 (5
What are the five major activities of an operating system in regard to process management?
The creation and deletion of b
oth user and system processes
The suspension and resumption of processes
The provision of mechanisms for process synchronization
The provision of mechanisms for process communication
The provision of mechanisms for deadlock handling
What are th
e three major activities of an operating system in regard to memory management?
Keep track of which parts of memory are currently being used and by whom.
Decide which processes are to be loaded into memory when memory space becomes
Allocate and deallocate memory space as needed.
3.3 and 3.4
What are the three major activities of an operating system in regard to secondary
What are the five major activities of an operating system in regard to file management?
The creation and deletion of files
The creation and deletion of directories
The support of primitives for manipulating files and directories
ng of files onto secondary storage
The backup of files on stable (nonvolatile) storage media
3.7 and 3.10 (5
What is the purpose of system calls?
System calls allow user
level processes to request services of the operating system.
What is the purpose of system programs?
System programs can be thought of as bundles of useful system calls. They
provide basic functionality to users and so users do not need to write their own programs
to solve common problems.
List five services provided by an operating system. Explain how each provides convenience
to the users. Explain also in which cases it would be impossible for user
to provide these services.
. The operating syst
em loads the contents (or sections) of a file
into memory and begins its execution. A user
level program could not be trusted to
. Disks, tapes, serial lines, and other devices must be communicated
with at a very
low level. The user need only specify the device and the operation to
perform on it, while the system converts that request into device
level programs cannot be trusted to only access devices they should
to and to only access them when they are otherwise unused.
. There are many details in file creation, deletion, allocation,
and naming that users should not have to perform. Blocks of disk space are used by
files and must be track
ed. Deleting a file requires removing the name file information
and freeing the allocated blocks. Protections must also be checked to assure proper file
access. User programs could neither ensure adherence to protection methods nor be
trusted to allocate o
nly free blocks and deallocate blocks on file deletion.
. Message passing between systems requires messages be turned
into packets of information, sent to the network controller, transmitted across a communications
medium, and reassembled b
y the destination system. Packet ordering
and data correction must take place. Again, user programs might not coordinate access
to the network device, or they might receive packets destined for other processes.
. Error detection occurs at bo
th the hardware and software levels. At
the hardware level, all data transfers must be inspected to ensure that data have not
been corrupted in transit. All data on media must be checked to be sure they have not
changed since they were written to the media
. At the software level, media must be
checked for data consistency; for instance, do the number of allocated and unallocated
blocks of storage match the total number on the device. There, errors are frequently
independent (for instance, the corrup
tion of data on a disk), so there must be a
global program(the operating system) that handles all types of errors. Also, by having
errors processed by the operating system, processes need not contain code to catch and
correct all the errors possible on a s
What is the main advantage of the layered approach to system design?
As in all cases of modular design, designing an operating system in a modular
way has several advantages. The system is easier to debug and modify because
affect only limited sections of the system rather than touching all sections of the operating
system. Information is kept only where it is needed and is accessible only within a defined
and restricted area, so any bugs affecting that data must be l
imited to a specific module or
How does the distinction between monitor mode and usermode function as a rudimentary
form of protection (security) system?
By establishing a set of privileged instructions that can be executed o
in the monitor mode, the operating system is assured of controlling the entire system at all
For what types of operations is
useful? Explain your answer.
is useful for transferring large quantities of data be
tween memory and
devices. It eliminates the need for the
to be involved in the transfer, allowing the
transfer to complete more quickly and the
to perform other tasks concurrently.
Which of the following instructions should be privil
a. Set value of timer.
b. Read the clock.
c. Clear memory.
d. Turn off interrupts.
e. Switch from user to monitor mode.
The following instructions should be privileged:
a. Set value of timer.
b. Clear memory.
c. Turn off interrupts.
from user to monitor mode.
Some computer systems do not provide a privileged mode of operation in hardware. Consider
whether it is possible to construct a secure operating system for these computers.
Give arguments both that it is and that
it is not possible.
An operating system for a machine of this type would need to remain in control
(or monitor mode) at all times. This could be accomplished by two methods:
a. Software interpretation of all user programs (like some
for example). The software interpreter would provide, in software, what the
hardware does not provide.
b. Require meant that all programs be written in high
level languages so that all object
code is compiler
produced. The compiler would g
enerate (either in
line or by
function calls) the protection checks that the hardware is missing.
Protecting the operating system is crucial to ensuring that the computer system operates
correctly. Provision of this protection is the reaso
n behind dual
mode operation, memory
protection, and the timer. To allow maximum flexibility, however, we would also like to
place minimal constraints on the user.
The following is a list of operations that are normally protected. What is the
f instructions that must be protected?
The minimal set of instructions that must be protected are:
a. Change to monitor mode.
b. Read from monitor memory.
c. Write into monitor memory.
d. Turn off timer interrupt.
and compile myshell sample
code using make utility. Run myshell and find out the following myshell
process’s information (
text and Stack&data size may change at times, but just
Process ID (PID)
Its parent process ID
Text size (code size)
Stack and Data size