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Planning and Implementation of Cloud Computing

in NIT’s in India: Special Reference to VNIT

Dr. Ravikant M. Deshpande

Bharati V Patle




Ranjana D. Bhoskar

Library Trainee

Library and In
formation Resource Centre

Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology,



Road, Nagpur




Cloud Computing and Information Network both are emerging facets in the fiel
d of Information
Science (IS). Cloud computing has potential to bring another wave of changes to organizations.
lanning and implementation of cloud computing will
be beneficial
terms of

level as well as institutional level


manage by cloud. In this paper we present RECs/NITs
resources to
move on

for manag

cloud computing
. Making the decision to use cloud
based services means
balancing the elements of cost, risk, and benefit to decide whether those services advance the mis
of the library
as well as

. RECs/NITs Libraries can take advantage of the cloud in numerous
ways, such as data s
aring including discovery tools, current status of research,
and software

service which depends on the cloud, emai
l systems an
d social networking etc. Article

road for globalizing REC’s/NIT’s libraries.



“We can’t bind Sun rays,

We can’t block the way of Water,

We can’t bind knowledge in Libraries,

We can’t stop the Technical Revolution,


can’t stop progress in Cloud Computing”

Networking concept is extensively used in the Libraries
. They have developed robust
frameworks for resource sharing and cooperative cataloging, leveraged publisher and aggregator
platforms to deliver electronic c
ollections, and created
vibrant consortia and groups that share services
across regions and countries.
Cloud Computing is a new paradigm in the delivery of
resources on
demand over the internet. The technical foundation of cloud computing is based on ser
vice oriented
architecture (SOA) and virtualization of hardware and software, and internet technologies
. Cloud
computing promises to change the way library computing is performed now, lift all technological
barrier coming in the way of sharing distributed
library resources and provide new tools to make access
to global library resources easier and simpler and ensure that both libraries and all users can benefited
from remote infrastructure and services.

The NITs (National Institute of Technology in India) have been in existing since 6 decades.
They have very good developed
ardware and software to manage their resources at institute level. But
the resources that have been developed by them have little rec
ognition on global level. Hence the
institute in general and libraries in particular has

resources that can be put on cloud thus
allowing those resources to go global

and sharable

The resources that are to be possibly shared have
been further i
dentified in this chapter. Moving on the cloud for the resources need careful consideration
about data security, network access speed, skilled manpower and legal issues to mention a few
. There
are lot of pros and cons to be considered before moving on to t
he cloud with well studied advantages
and disadvantages.


Libraries moving on cloud

The fast growth of technology
needs for shifting traditional libraries to modern libraries.
Libraries all over the world suffer from common problems like flexibility as
sociated with the digital
data, lower level of efficiency, and huge cost involved in managing the entire IT infrastructure
themselves. Few options are available when it comes to collaborating with other libraries as well which
is the prime reason for subor
dinate levels of efficiency. Cloud computing would help up in bridging the
gap between digital libraries and IT. Sharing of data among the libraries will in principle reduce the
overall cost and increase the efficiency. Capital expenditure done on infrastr
ucture will chiefly be
converted into operational expenditure. It will also enhance the users experience and will help in
making the libraries a lot more scalable.

Shift from Traditional Library to Modern Library


Cloud Computing Essential Characteristics


demand self service


user can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as applications, server time and
network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service’s


Broad network access

Capabilities are


over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that
promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e. g. mobile phone, laptops and PDAs)


Resource pooling

The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple

using a multi
model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to


demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the
generally has no control or
knowledge over the exact locatio
n of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a
higher level of abstraction (e. g. country, state or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage,
processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines.


Rapid elastici


can be rapidly and elastically
provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale
out and rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the
consumer, the capability available for provisioning often
appear to be unlimited and can be purc
hased in any
quantity at any time.


Measured Service

Cloud systems automatically control and optimize
resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of
appropriate to the type of
service (e.g. storage, processing, bandwidth

and active user accounts).

Resource usage can be
monitored, controlled and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the
utilized service.


Library S


Platform as a service (PaaS)

Platform as a service is a type of services meant for cloud developers, means to develop a
platform to build up, install and control SaaS applications. This platform usually includes

software glue with its infrastructure and services is internet

accessible by patron. Cloud
platforms are emerging from a number of organizations like OCLC (WorldShare Platform), ExLibris
(Alma), Serials Solution, Library Thing, Hathi Trust, SirisDynix, Summon, DuraCloud,
Google App
Engine. Microsoft Azure s
ervices, CloudFoundry,
Amazon Web Service, and Enterprise KOHA have
since demonstrated the usefulness of cloud computing in hosting libraries on to a common platform.


Software as a service


Software as a service a software distribution form in
which applications are hosted by services
supplier and ended to clientele over the internet. Clientele purchase the facility to access and utilize an
application or service which is packed in the cloud. SaaS is usually available on demand and via the
net and can thus be configured remotely. SaaS service providers offer special selections of
software running on their infrastructure. SaaS is also known as software on demand. Thus, this service
is highly cost
effective and location independent.

The applic
ations are accessible from various client
devices through a thin client interface such as web browser
(e. g. Web
based email)


Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)

Cloud computing offers virtualized systems to access to computer hardware resources such as
networks and storage.
IaaS, Infrastructure as a service, defined by the variety of services to supply, i.e.
servers, storage and network hardware. IaaS provides vir
tual machines and other related hardware and
software systems through a service
based application programming

(API). The capability
provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental
computing resources
where the consumer does not manag
e or control the underlying clou
infrastructure but has control over operating systems
; storage, deployed applications, and possibly
limited control of select networking components. Education, Microsoft Flexiscale,

S3, Cloudstatus, GoGrid, and Oracle Coherence are offering IaaS.


Deployment Models of

Cloud Computing



The public cloud is mainly is for public use, which can be accessed by everyone. It is mainly
use by large organization or institution.
In this deployment the cloud infrastructure is accessible to
general public and shared in a “pay as you

model of pay
ment. The cloud resources are accessible
via the internet and the provider is responsible for ensuring the economies of scale and the management
of the shared infrastructure. It is highly scalable and automated provisioning of commodity computer
The Google App Engine, Microsoft windows Azure, IBM Smart Cloud and Amazon EC2 are
example of public cloud. In this type of cloud, the organization does not access or use the public cloud
which is accessible to the general public.



Private cloud and internal cloud are terms used to describe offering that emulate cloud
computing on private network. It is infrastructure to be operated within the organization, for the users
who wants to share specific information within the institution.

In this model

the cloud resources are not
shared by unknown third parties.
Clients’ security and compliance requirements are not affected though
this offering does not bring
the benefits associated
with reduced capital
expenditure in IT
infrastructure inv
The general public does
not have access to the private
cloud neither does the
organization use the public


Hybrid Cloud

Hybrid c
combination of
infrastructure of two or more
clouds i.e. public or
private. One hy
brid cloud

servers its clientele with
the collection of multiple
public or private clouds as
per their demand and requirement. A hybrid cloud exhibits the characteristics of both public and private
clouds. It achieves maximum cost reduction through outsourcing which

is a feature of public clouds,
and maintains high degree of control over sensitive data, which is a feature of private cloud.
example for hybrid cloud would be library data stored in private cloud of each participating library and
application running i
n the public cloud / community cloud


Community Cloud

A community cloud is applicable to serve a common function or purpose.
In which cloud
services are shared by several organizations and support a specific community that has shared and
similar concerns. These services may be managed by the organizations or third party and may exist off
It may be for one university or for

several universities, but they share common concerns such as
their mission, policies, online resources, union catalogues, security, regulatory compliance needs, and
so on.

This community cloud model for library can be very suitable model and can be deploy
ed at
various levels (Institutional Consortia, National and International.) very much similar Government or
Cloud. This type of cloud comput
ing is provided by one or more a

for use by all, or most


Status of REC’s/NIT’s

in India

India is a huge country with a population of more than 1 billion. In India, by tradition, education
and learning are highly valued. In fact, India has one of the largest higher education systems in the
world, with regard to the number of institution. Ed
ucation is a necessity. It is the most effective
instrument with which the
people can acquire the
knowledge, skills, and
capability to develop
wisdoms it is developing
The seeds for
some of India’s higher
education institutions
were planted in the
half of the Twenty
Century. National Institutes
of Technology (NITs)

are premier institutes of
engineering and
technology in India and are
the new faces of the
earlier Regional Engineering
Colleges (RECs).

In the year 2002, the
Govt. of India’s
nistry of Human Resource
Development, decided
to upgrade all the 17 existing
Regional Engineering
Colleges (RECs) as National
Institutes of Technology
(NITs), on the lines of the
Institutes of Technology
. The NITs have
the responsibility of
providing high quality
education in engineering and technology to produce competent technical manpower for the country.
Libraries being treasure house of knowledge and information are

one invaluable way to provide
informal education since each library is a hub of all academic activities.

All the 30 NIT’s now offer degree courses of Bachelors, Master and Doctorate levels in various
branches of Engineering and Technology. The entire non

recurring expenditure and expenditure for
post graduate courses during the REC times were borne by the central government. On the other hand
the entire recurring expenditure on undergraduate courses was shared equally by the central and state
NITs have a Central Library equipped with technical books, literature, fiction, scientific
journals, and other electronic material. Most have digitized their libraries. Some provide an intranet
library facility. Every departmental library has high
speed co
nnectivity. Electronic libraries allow
students access to online journals and other periodicals through the AICTE
INDEST consortium, an
initiative by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Students also have access to IEEE
documents and journals. Whil
e some have video conferencing facilities, others are upgrading under the
World Bank funded TEQIP scheme.

All REC’s / NIT’s have various factors are responsible for moving on towards sharable e
resources as well as institution records for finding statisti
c easily and it should be provide access only
to authorized, authenticated users and those users need to be able to trust that their data is secure in
cloud computing.

Institute Status as National Importance Uninterrupted Technological Support from

the Institute

Facilities for E
Facilitating Management Support

RFID Implementation

Adequate Financial Support

Automated Library
Aid from MHRD

Qualified Network Support TEQIP Funding

Library Digitization in Progress ISO Accredited LIRC

Hold of

AICTE Consortium Well Qualified and Trained Human Resources

Well Organized Library on Functional Basis Well Defined Policies Rules and Regulations


Cloud Computing Challenges
Shaping Library Services
REC’s/NIT’s in


Increasing competition for resources and attention across


and communities is driving
changes in the ways

resource centers

work and collaborate.
NIT’s resource centers are investing in
programs and technologies that can raise the
visibility of and access to their resources. NIT’s resources
Centre are coming together for facing challenges for shaping library services.

Build capacity and impact through cooperation

The need for broader, diverse partnerships

Challenges of proving

Finding new efficiencies as budget pressures intensify

Dynamics of serving and education system under reconstruction

Factors Responsible
for moving on Cloud

Amplify the value they bring to the community they serve

Rethinking the library’s role in the terms of greater collaboration and
cooperation with other

Redeveloping the library’s online presence to better address user needs

The need for new types of analytics and metrics more closely tied to performance measures

Share innovative and efficient solutions to keep up with
the rapid pace of change

Analyze data in new way that link library value to student learning, educational value and
community impact

Demands to deliver resources electronically, ubiquitously, seamlessly

Managing the transaction from print to electronic med

Keeping pace with the rate of technological change

Leverage their higher
value services



and Implementation of
Cloud Computing

in REC’s/NIT’s

Every new technology has advantages over the previous one, but necessarily lacks some of its

predecessors attributes. Familiarity, which no doubt breeds contempt, breeds also comfort; that

is unfamiliar breeds distrust

Planning is a continuous process, it changes in the course of time and in
the light of experience as we ourselves change. F
or fulfilling the patron demands there is a necessity for
improvement in the plan and implement of new technologies. If planning and implementing innovative
technologies in
library are introduced to understand and fulfill the needs of the 21

century digi
native users in one face of the coin, then assessing and accounting for the success of these services is
the other important face of the same coin

Computing is a different form of IT infrastructure. Information software or other IT
are stored and accessed via third party servers connected to the internet, rather than on
individual computers or on private server
. This is not a new concept. Anyone who has a web
email account such as ‘Hotmail’ or ‘Gmail


using a simple form of cloud
computing. Amazon,
Microsoft, Dell, IBM, Google and Yahoo are just a few of the major IT companies who are developing
or expanding their offerings to the commercial sector by giving businesses the opportunity to out
source var
ious elements of their IT infrastructure with access achieved via the Internet (also known as

Cost savings and a reduced burden of running and maintaining IT Infrastructure is the key
features that make cloud
sourcing attractive.
Removing storage and processing burdens on businesses
can save huge amounts in capital cost (in terms of having to provide

hard drives and servers to
physically store and process data) and running costs (the housing and maintenance of on
site servers).
re are also arguments that this can reduce a business’s carbon footprint.

To make Real
Library with Cloud
Scale Integration successful in

global, 24×7 information

/information center’s operations need to be plugged into
the Web. Library systems have to
connect seamlessly to users and all the rich resources available online. In this webcast, we need to learn
about the technologies and operation models that enable real
time connections with users and
resources, and find out

the characteristics to look for when selecting a cloud integration platform.

Budgeting is a managerial device used for planning and facilitating resolutions about the
distributing of resources. It is also one means of monitoring the results to ensure the
y conform to the
plan. The budget expresses financially how the library will achieve its outcomes, and as such must be
linked to the libraries priorities. Preparation of the budget should always be the role of the library
advisory committee in consultation

with other library staff.

The first step in developing a library budget
is to look at what the library hopes to accomplish in the next year. The availability of a current long
range plan will make this step much easier, because the plan should already doc
ument library user
resources need and the library activities necessary to meet those needs.

The second step is to determine the total financial resources necessary for what the library
wants to accomplish in the coming year. Often, increased funding is necessary because of increased
costs, increased usage, and/or new services that will be offered
. Additional resources for new services
can also
be made available by shifting resources from a lower priority to a higher priority services.
Budgeting should not be seen as an isolated or incidental exercise. It must be inextricably tied to the
notion of
priorities and needs. The effective budget should be fair, appropriate, documented and well
publicized. It is essential that forthcoming needs are clearly identified and
cost effective

Fig. All NITs sharing through cloud


Integration among REC’s /

NIT’s Resources Centers

REC’s/ NIT’s l
ibraries are finding it difficult to keep pace with the ever growing need of
enhanced and better forms of information. Ever year, thousands of books are bought by the
resource Centers
in order to keep track with the latest available literature on different subjects.
Obviously, with their fixed budgets, not all books (or eBooks) can be purchased. Every library tends to
have certain data which may be present in some other libraries too wh
ich leads to a lot of duplication of
data. However, if the
libraries integrate their data, there would be no more duplication
since the libraries would be sharing the common data. The implementation of this technique, though,
may not be as simp
le as it may seem to be. It is here that cloud computing can play its part. Cloud
computing can help
libraries collaborate with each other in a facile manner. Every library has its
own electronic data resources. If the all the electronic data resourc
es are put together in a single place
which may be accessed by a group of
libraries, the whole electronic data base will become huge.
This space which contains all the electronic data can be some cloud, say, a library cloud. This library
cloud will c
ontain the digitized data of different libraries and hence, will help libraries integrate their
data. The need for maintaining and backing up the data will be no more the responsibility of the
libraries since all the data will be stored in the cloud which
shall be managed by some cloud provider.

It will also help the
libraries in scaling up or down their data capacity whenever required.
This scaling up or down is purely a function of need. Hence, the libraries would be consuming exactly
the required
space. Not a megabyte more! As a result,
libraries will not have to predict their
future needs and buy space and infrastructure beforehand. This co adjuvant effort of the
will not only increase the overall efficiency (since the data w
ill be shared) but also open doors for
innovation, make libraries a lot more scalable and help save money as well. HathiTrust3 is a great
example which shows us what cloud computing holds in store for the libraries. HaithiTrust is a
repository for keeping
huge amount of digitized data being shared among its members. It was founded
in October 2008 and already has over sixty partners mostly including university libraries all around the


Security and Privacy

There are numerous security issues for
cloud computing as it encompasses many technologies
including networks, databases, operating systems, virtualization, resource scheduling, transaction
management, load balancing, concurrency control and memory managem
ent. Therefore security issues
for many

of these systems and technologies are applicable to cloud computing. For example, the
network that interconnects the systems in a cloud has to be secure. Furthermore, virtualization
paradigm in cloud computing leads to several
security concerns.

Data secu
rity involves encrypting the
data as well as ensuring that appropriate policies are enforce for data sharing. In addition, resource a
location and memory management algorithms have to be secure.

Security can be established using
strong authentication, auth
orization and accounting procedure, establishing security of data at rest and
in transit, locking down networks and hardening operating systems, middleware, and application
software. It should be provide access only to authorized, authenticated users and t
hose users need to be
able to trust that their data is secure.

Cloud computing have wonderful security measure of e
ncrypted and de
encrypted privacy

which there is arrangement of scrambled words which are not familiar to the machine language but it is
familiar to human being these efforts
are being made to identifying human being to a machine

There is interface of identifying correct

human being to the machine so that machine will
move on the information more securely if the person is identified.

scramble words are
needed to be entering so that the correct human beings are too identified. Then only there is a foolproof
. For example in IRCTC
debit card or credit card are being verified at IRCTC
for visa


Preamble of VNIT

Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur is one of the thirty National Institutes of
Technology in the country. E
arlier, the Institute was known as Visvesvaraya Regional College of
Engineering (VRCE). It was established in the year 1960 under the scheme sponsored by Govt. of India
and Govt. of Maharashtra.

In 2002 VRCE become VNIT with Deemed University status from U
and Central Government taking full financial & administrative responsibility. August 2007 VNIT
becomes Institute of National Importance under the act of parliament.

The Library has been established in the 1960 when the state engineering college was in
existence. The Library has also received recognition as one of the best libraries in central India due to
REC status. VNIT Library serves its users with the best services and to fulfill the requirements of the
users as well as the organization. S
ince in th
is changing environment with the

introduction of new
technologies and the changing perception about the information and the information

em it is seen
that the library

need to understand this change and work accordingly with the current

situations and
ccept the current trends. As automation become a boon factor

changed itself

from a
traditional library to the new modern library with the introduction of different technologies available

for library automation.

From 1994 onwards VNIT, LIRC is usi
ng LIBSYS software package for library
activities. It made an infrastructure for LIBSYS software by using different networks like LAN and
different points for user (OPAC) to consult the catalogue. After this it started with new technology i.e.
Barcode tech
nology in the year 2010 and now it has gone one step ahead with the implementation of
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID).
The status of VNIT is capable for encroachment of cloud


Factors Responsible for

moving on
Cloud Computing in

Development needs up
gradation and for perusing next step VNIT is ready to accept new
Above all NIT’s level factors are also seen in VNIT therefore organization can be moving
on cloud computing.

These are the factors of LIRC VNIT which are responsible for cloud computing.

Institute Status as National Importance

Automated Library

Library Digitization in Progress

RFID Implementation

Hold of INDEST
AICTE Consortium

Facilities for E

Well Organized Library on Functional Basis

Well Defined Policies Rules and Regulations

Qualified Network Support

Well Qualified and Trained Human Resources

Uninterrupted Technological Support from the Institute

Techno Savvy Chairman ET and LS

ting Management Support

Adequate Financial Support

ISO Accredited LIRC

Aid from MHRD

TEQIP Funding




that can be moved to
Cloud Computing

National important acquired
institute have robust framework for statistical,
literary, cultural,
educational resources so again for maintaining standard there is need of sharing these resources to
every person. Therefore cloud computing

architecture will open up new opportunities for more shared
access and more use and creation of
new information for the organization.

A Cloud base information
service for education and research institution will open up numerous opportunities for sharing data and
information that are currently held within the servers of specific institute. VNIT can sh
are following
data through cloud computing.

Faculty Profile

Student Profile
(like student grade report)

Literary Events

Funding Criteria for admission

Cultural Events

Technological Event Axis, Consortium, Yuddha, Love for Physics, Astronomy Club

Sharing of Virtual Class Room

Social Networking

National / International Conferences


Resources at
Library Level

that can be move to
Cloud Computing

Cloud computing represents one of the most important technology trends

of our time. Every day

make use of computing and information resources

through a web browser powered by some

and diffuse infrastructure.

This model has become routine for personal use

mail, word


social networking, photo sharing. In more recent months and y
ears cloud

computing has entered the
library technology sphere. Cloud computing

brings the opportunity for libraries to shift away from the
need to own and

operate their own servers to power their core automation applications and to

shift to gainin
g similar functionality through web
based services. In

order to develop technology
strategies in this context, it’s essential for

libraries to have a solid

understanding of this new technology
landscape, to

move beyond a vague awareness of cloud


VNIT resource center have ready to
encroach cloud computing for these knowledgeable resources which are beneficial for our patrons.
Migration of libraries are responsible for researchers activity
which are
bust up our national level
through moving library

material on cloud computing.

VNIT have valuable resource material as



NPTEL Lectures

Workshop Programmers

Institutional Repository (with the help of Greenstone)

Assessment and peer review

Research Publications

National / International Conferences

Thesis and Reports

Research Work

Digitization of
are Books in



the use of newly introduction of “RECAPTCHA”


Cloud computing will help the integration of
REC’s / NIT’s
libraries in a painless easy manner.
NIT’s l
ibraries will be able to share their electronic data resources which shall lead to reduction of
duplicate data resulting in cutting down the overall budget of libraries. The dependency of libraries on
external ag
encies for matters pertaining IT is also expected to reduce considerably. Capital expenditure
on hardware resources will be converted to operational expenditure. Scalability of cloud computing
will also help in saving money. Libraries will also become gree
ner by embracing the cloud. Server
utilization, which will increase considerably, along with multi
tenancy, will help reduce carbon
emissions annually.

The more the NIT’s libraries work together to aggregate and share data, utilize
shared infrastructure an
d collaborate as a global community, the more value can be delivered to the
users of libraries.


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Centre: Copyright Issue”,

International Conference on Academic Libraries
, (Feb 2013): 68

Wikipedia, “National Institute of Technology”,

Chris Anderson. “Libraries Operating at Webscale”
OCLC: A Discussion Document

2011): 19

Faiz Abidi, Hasan Jamal Abidi, “Cloud Libraries: A Novel Application of Cloud Computing”
tional Journal of Cloud Computing and Services Science (IJ

Vol 1, No 3
(Aug 2012)

Bhoopendra Singh, Krishna Sirohi. “Cloud computing use case for Library”,

Conference on Academic Libraries
, (Feb 2013): 30

Neeraj Kumar. “Cloud
computing for Academic Library: A SWOT Analysis”,

Conference on Academic Libraries
, (Feb 2013): 187

Ravikant Deshpande, Bharati Rahangdale, Ranjana Bhoskar. “Factors Responsible for Current
Status of Libraries of National Institute of

Technology in India”,

International Conference
on Academic Libraries
, (Feb 2013):

Marshall Breeding
Cloud Computing for Libraries
, (
Chicago: ALA TechSource,