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Guide to Operating Systems 4


Palmer & Walters

Chapter 2

Popular Operating Systems


This chapter lists some of the more commonly used operating systems, and gives some details
about their history and included features. The goal of the chapter is to give some insight into
the more
interesting features that set apart each operating system.


Describe operating systems that laid the groundwork for current desktop and server
operating systems

Identify the basic features and characteristics of popular desktop and server opera

Understand when to use certain operating systems

Key Terms

A procedure to register your copy of a Windows operating system starting with

the Windows XP version. Without this activation, you will not be able to run your

operating sys
tem for more than a small amount of time.

Active Directory

A Windows 2000 database of computers, users, shared printers,

folders, and other network resources and resource groupings that is used to
manage a

network and enable users to quickly find a
particular resource.

Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM)

Allows Active Directory and software

applications to communicate. It provides coordination and authentication of users and


Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS)

Enables o
ne sign
on for both network

based resources.


An internal programming standard that allows various software that runs under

the Windows operating system to communicate with the operating system and other


Berkeley Software
Distribution (BSD)

A variant of the UNIX operating system upon

which a large proportion of today’s UNIX software is based.


In a networking environment, a computer that handles certain user
side software

operations. For example, a network client may
run software that captures user data input

and presents output to the user from a network server.


The ability to share the computing load and resources by linking two or more

discrete computer systems (servers) to function as though they are one

common language runtime (CLR)

A feature developed in Windows Server 2003 that

verifies code before it is run and monitors memory to clean up any leakage before it

becomes a problem.

Component Object Model (COM)

Standards that enable a software object, such as a

graphic, to be linked from one software component into another one.

Distributed File System (DFS)

A set of client and server services to organize

shared files into logical file system.

Guide to Operating Systems 4


Palmer & Walters


A logical grouping of computers and computer resources that helps manage

resources and user access to them.

driver signing

Setting up all drivers so that they cannot be inadvertently overwritten by

earlier driver versions, and only certified versions

of drivers can be installed.

external commands

Operating system commands that are stored in separate program

on disk. When these commands are required, they must be loaded from disk
storage into

memory before they are executed.

failover clustering

erver clusters that are used to provide a high availability of

from the cluster.

File Classification Infrastructure (FCI)

Allows files to be located on servers in the

organization based on predetermined naming conventions.


Small applicatio
ns for readily accessing information and tools.

performance computing (HPC)

Microsoft HPC Server 2008 is designed for
applications that need high speed and highly efficient computing.


A home networking system found in Windows 7.


ws a server to run multiple independent operating systems at the same
time along with running multiple virtual servers on one physical server.

Infrared Data Association (IrDA)

A group of peripheral manufacturers that developed
a set of standards for transm
itting data using infrared light. Printers were some of the
first devices to support the IrDA specifications.

IP Security (IPsec)

A way to secure Internet protocol (IP) traffic by encrypting and
authenticating each packet.

jump list

A list of items such as

documents recently opened, music listened to, or Web
sites visited.


A security system developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to
enable two parties on an open network to communicate without interception by an
intruder, creating a u
nique encryption key per each communication session.


A Windows 7 feature consisting of virtual folders that contain data and
information from various places on the network and the local computer.

line editor

An editor that is used to create text a
line at a time.

Microsoft Management Console (MMC)

A flexible system to provide server
administrators one place to configure the servers and monitor their function.

.NET Framework

A large library available to all programming languages supported by
.NET, wh
ich allows multiple programming languages to utilize code from other

peer networking

A network setup in which any computer can communicate
with other networked computers on an equal or peer
like basis without going through an
intermediary, such as a server or network host computer. Mac OS is a peer
operating system.

Plug and Play

Software utilities that operate with compatible hardware to
facilitate automatic hardware configuration. Windows versions starting with 95
recognize PnP hardware when it is installed, and, in many cases, can configure the
hardware and install require
d software without significant user intervention.

Print Management Console

A console that allows a system administrator to manage
printers and printing throughout the network.

privileged mode

A feature of the operating system kernel introduced in Windows N
which protected it from problems created by a malfunctioning program or process.


A disk cache feature that allows any kind of portable mass storage as

Guide to Operating Systems 4


Palmer & Walters


A Windows database that stores information about a computer’s hardware and
oftware configuration.

Rights Management Services (RMS)

A feature developed in Windows Server 2003 to
secure documents from copying, forwarding, and printing.

Server Core

A scaled
back version of Windows Server 2008 where all configurations
and maintenance

are done via the command
line interface.

SharePoint Services

A collection of Microsoft software used for collaboration, Web
publishing, and file sharing.

on (SSO)

A way to log on once and have access to everything you have
been granted access
to across the network.

storage area network (SAN)

A set of storage devices that appear to the server as being
locally attached, but in fact are on their own network with access granted to the server.

System V Release 4 (SVR4)

A variation of the UNIX operating system. It is very
popular today along with the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).

task supervisor

A process in the operating system that keeps track of the applications
that are running on the computer and the resourc
es they use.

total cost of ownership (TCO)

The cost of installing and maintaining computers and
equipment on a network, which includes hardware, software, maintenance, and support

Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)

An initiative of more than 80 companie
s to develop
products that can be quickly added to a computer or network. These include intelligent
appliances for the home. More information can be found at the Web site

Universal Serial Bus (USB)

A serial bus designed to support up to 127 d
iscrete devices
with data transfer speeds up to 5 Gbits/s (gigabits per second).

User Account Protection (UAP)

A feature of some Microsoft operating systems that
allows for better protection of user accounts by controlling permissions and by limiting
the s
oftware applications that can be run from an account.

virtual folder

A combination of folders and files based on content. The files can be in
any location on the local computer or the network.

virtual private network (VPN)

A private network that is like a
tunnel through a larger

such as the Internet, an enterprise network, or both

and restricted to
designated member clients.

Web browser Software

to facilitate individual computer access to graphical data
presented over the Internet on the World Wide
Web, or over a local area network in a
compatible format.

Windows Hardware Error Architecture (WHEA)

supports memory and cache error
recovery without the operating system being aware of this process.

X Window

A windowed user interface for UNIX and other op
erating systems.