HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE

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pganguli
©2005

India towards a global biomedical
R&D Hub??

Opportunities and Options

Professor Prabuddha Ganguli (PhD)

CEO

“VISION
-
IPR”

&

Adjunct Professor, School of Humanities,
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India.


#101/201, Plot 262 Sher
-
e
-
Punjab Society, Andheri East, Mumbai 400 093, India

e
-
mail: ramugang@vsnl.com

Presentation at Health & Development Forum, Barcelona on November 25
-
26, 2005

pganguli
©2005

Structure of the Presentation


Overview of the Indian Health Care System
and Industry


Is India beginning to provide an enabling
environment for R&D investment?


Sun Shine on the Indian Biomedical
Landscape?


Steps Ahead


pganguli
©2005

Perception of Healthcare


similar
to
Four Blind Men
who
encountered
an elephant
and

reported


The elephant
is like a rope



The elephant
is like a
wall”


The elephant

is
like a
snake”


The elephant is
like a
pillar”

pganguli
©2005

India

….launching into the
future


One sixth of the world population


One of the largest secular democracy


One of the most successful “well
-
spring”
of trained human resource


Mature infrastructure of Science and
Technology


Consistent economic growth now ready
to meaningfully partner technology
transfer and process of globalisation

pganguli
©2005

India

Pre 1991

A Protected Economy


Servicing Local Markets


Limited access to
global markets


Process of infrastructure build
-
up


Slow industrial growth

Restrictive IPR Laws

to promote

adaptive innovations




to
stimulate



domestic inventive
activities



technology development


through
spill over to


indigenous industries

and institution

pganguli
©2005


Knowlitics™


…...

…..
A new international
phenomena


Emerging Socio
-
Political Dimensions
of the Knowledge Trade

IPR plays a decisive role

Transacting Owned
Knowledge

“Knowletics” TM applied for in India by P. Ganguli

pganguli
©2005

The Continual Challenge

to

Team India Pharma [TIP]

[People


Industry


Academics


NGOs/GOs]


Timely healthcare at affordable costs

pganguli
©2005

HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE

1951

1981

2003

Doctors (Allopathy)

61,800

2,68,700

6,05,840

Nurses

18,054

1,43,887

8,32,000

Hospitals

3,100

(1961)

6,800

15,097

Hospital Beds

2,30,000

(1961)

5,69,000

8,70,161

Primary Health Centres,
including Sub
-
Centres and
Community Health Centres


725


57,363


1,63,181

No. of Medical Colleges

N.A.

N.A.

171

No. of Chemists

N.A.

N.A.

5,00,000

No. of Medical Reps.

N.A.

N.A.

3,00,000

Source:OPPI

pganguli
©2005

Apportioning Healthcare costs in India

Doctor’s Fees

9%

Medicines

18%

Diagnostic Investigations &
Pathological Tests

24%

Hospitalisation

14%

Lodging, Traveling etc

20%

Miscellaneous

8%

Others

7%

Source:OPPI

pganguli
©2005

Positive Role of the “TIP”

.. thus far


Abundant availability of medicines at reasonable prices


Improvement in Health Indicators







1951


2003



Life Expectancy (yrs)


36.7


65.4


Birth Rate (per 1000)


40.8


25


Death Rate (per 1000)


25


8.1


Infant Mortality



150


64


(per 1000 live births)


Source:OPPI

pganguli
©2005

Value Chain In India


Drug Discovery

&

Development

Manufacturing

Marketing

Distribution

Wholesaling

Retailing

Investment in R&D to the

tune of 1
-
2% of Sales

Investment in Plant & machinery,

auxiliary equipment, building etc.

Investment in manpower,

training, knowledge,

promotional literature

Manufacturer who is responsible throughout the value chain earns the least

Government earns 37% return

Retailer earns 16
-
20% return

Wholesaler earns 8
-

10% return

Manufacturer earns 7.9%

Investment in logistics, depots,

inventory

Just Stock & sells. Credit

given by manufacturer.

Risk of sales return

borne by manufacturers

Source:OPPI

pganguli
©2005

Several desirables need to get
galvanized


Stable political system


Education system to produce skilled manpower


Infrastructure for scientific excellence


Balanced intellectual property laws, efficient judiciary
and effective enforcement processes


Strong regulatory infrastructure working in synergy
with an operative healthcare system


Tax Laws with appropriate reliefs to encourage R&D
expenditure, creation of intellectual assets, technology
and IP transfer


Competitive cost structure to attract investments.


pganguli
©2005

The Demands……


Growing domestic market for Human Health


Treatment of Tropical and non
-
tropical diseases


Treatment of Life style based ailments such as diabetes, hypertension, etc


Maintenance of good health through balanced nutrition, sanitation, water and general care of
the environment


Need for effective diagnostics


Hygienic environment



Expanding domestic market for Animal Health


Maintenance of good health and safety from infectious diseases to ensure higher
productivity


Need for effective diagnostics


Targeted treatment against traditional and new diseases


Hygienic environment



Escalating demands related to food security


Biotech inputs in traditional agriculture to enhance crop productivity, improve plant health,
creation of targeted crops


Cost effective post harvest technologies to minimize waste


Biotech inputs in maintenance of biodiversity


Need for processed foods with maximum retention of nutritive elements with minimum
inclusion of artificial additives


Maintaining traditional foods with value added inputs from S&T.



Newer Requirements on Industrial Productivity of products / processes
including management systems to meet above demands

pganguli
©2005

Indian Patents Act 1970


Definition of Invention [section 2 (1)(j)]


Criteria for Patentability


Inventions Excluded form Patents (Section 3)


Abolition of Product Patents for Drugs, Medicines
and Foods including products of Chemical Reactions


Reduction in Patent Term


Must apply in India prior to applications in foreign
countries


Enlarged framework for Compulsory Licence

pganguli
©2005

National S&T Policy 2003

salient
features


Vigorously foster scientific research in universities and other
academic, scientific and engineering institutions; and attract the
brightest young persons to careers in science and technology,
by conveying a sense of excitement concerning the advancing
frontiers, and by creating suitable employment opportunities for
them. Also to build and maintain centres of excellence, which
will raise the level of work in selected areas to the highest
international standards.


Provide necessary autonomy and freedom of functioning for all
academic and R&D institutions so that an ambience for truly
creative work is encouraged, while ensuring at the same time
that the science and technology enterprise in the country is fully
committed to its social responsibilities and commitments.

pganguli
©2005

National S&T Policy 2003

..
Salient
features


To substantially strengthen enabling mechanisms that


relate to technology development, evaluation,


absorption and upgradation from concept to utilization.



To establish an Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) regime


which maximises the incentives for the generation


and protection of intellectual property by all types of inventors.




Provide a strong, supportive and comprehensive


policy environment for speedy and effective domestic


commercialisation of such inventions



All efforts are made to have high
-
speed access to information,


both in quality and quantity, at affordable costs;


and also create


digitized, valid and usable content of Indian origin.

pganguli
©2005

National S&T Policy 2003

Salient
Features




Support

innovation

in

all

its

aspects

through

a

comprehensive

national

system

of

innovation

covering

science

and

technology

as

also

legal,

financial

and

other

related

aspects
.





Set

in

mechanisms

to

achieve

synergy

between

industry

and

scientific

research

by

creation

of

Autonomous

Technology

Transfer

Organizations



as

associate

organizations

of

universities

and

national

laboratories

to

facilitate

transfer

of

the

know
-
how

generated

to

industry
.



Encourage

scientists

and

technologists

to

transfer

the

know
-
how

generated

by

them

to

the

industry

and

be

a

partner

in

receiving

the

financial

returns
.






Encourage

Industry

to

financially

adopt

or

support

educational

and

research

institutions,

fund

courses

of

interest

to

them,

create

professional

chairs

etc
.

to

help

direct

S&T

endeavours

towards

tangible

industrial

goals
.

pganguli
©2005

India Post TRIPS…. An Audit


1st (1999) and 2nd Patents Amendment Act (2002)
with Patent Rules 2003; 3
rd

amendment bill
introduced in December 2003 has lapsed; Patent
Ordinance 2004 on December 26
th

2004. The Bill for
the 3
rd

Amendment was passed in Lok Sabha on
22/3/05 and in Rajya Sabha on 23/3/05




The Trademarks Act 1999 and TM Rules 2002 (rules
notified on September 15, 2003)


Copyright Act 1957 with Copyright rules 1958
followed by International Copyright Order 1999.


Designs Registration Act 2000 with Design rules 2001


Geographical Indications Act 1999 with GI rules 2002


Protection of Layouts for Integrated Circuits Act 2000


The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights
Act 2001


Bio
-
diversity Act 2002

pganguli
©2005

Amended Indian Patents Act 2005


Re
-
introduction of Product Patents for Drugs,
Medicines and Foods including products of Chemical
Reactions


Invention, inventive step, pharmaceutical product
redefined.


Certain Inventions Excluded form Patentability
(Section 3)


Patent Term 20 years from date of filing a complete
specification


Enlarged framework for Compulsory Licence

Booster for R&D and to make Indian Pharma International

pganguli
©2005

Advantage India


Strong Knowledge Base of Traditional System of Medicine


Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy, and other traditional systems being practiced
over centuries


Use of selective elements from huge biodiversity


Increasing inclination and belief on nutraceuticals



World Class expertise in Natural Product Chemistry, Synthetic
Chemistry, Economic Botany, Marine biology, Microbiology, IT,
engineering, etc


Ideal quality manpower for cost effective product and process design and
development, contract manufacturing, contract research


Well established IT skills for lead role in bioinformatics


Trained engineers to take on plant design, equipment development & production,
engineering services



Maturing base for Clinical trials


Large and diverse base for patient recruitment



Scale Advantage of Large Domestic Market



pull for drugs, diagnostic services, healthcare delivery, health insurance, etc.



Enabling policies of Government on Stem cell / GM crops

pganguli
©2005

What did the Indian Patents Act
1970 do for India?

pganguli
©2005



Indian Pharma Industry Performance 2004



Domestic sales of Rs. 268 Bn.



Net Foreign Exchange Earner Export Rs.183 Bn.


Imports Rs. 44 Bn.


Top Ten companies total market share 34.9%


Domestic industry highly competitive and fragmented


Production estimated Rs.415 Bn.


Bulk Drugs


Rs. 94 Bn.


Formulations
-

Rs.321 Bn.

Source:OPPI

pganguli
©2005



Indian Pharma Industry Performance
2004



Ranks 4
th

in Volume and 13
th

in Value terms.



Over 10,000 manufacturing units.


Highly fragmented.


Only about 300 in the organised sector.


60,000 Brands. 60 Therapeutic Categories.


Share of World Pharma Market


………1% in Value, 8% in Volume

Source:OPPI

pganguli
©2005

Indian Pharma Industry

.... Growth Trends

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Total
Growth (%)

10.5

9.7

8.3

5.1

6.4

Volume led
Growth (%)

8.2

8.8

8.8

5.8

6.6

Price Led
Growth (%)

2.3

0.9

-

0.5

-

0.7

-

0.2

Source: ORG
-
IMS also includes Vaccines and Serums which are excluded from 2004 Study of ORG
-
IMS

Source:OPPI

pganguli
©2005

What does the future look like?

pganguli
©2005

Looking through the Indian
Biotech Crystal Ball


Biotech

industry

recorded

a

turnover

of

$
700
mn

in

2003
-
2004

expected

to

reach

$

1

Billion

in

2004
-
2005

and

$

5
Bn

by

2010
.

Potential

to

create

one

million

new

jobs
.

The

number

of

companies

grew

to

235

from

150

in

2002
-
2003
.

Biotech

exports

is

56
%

of

the

total

turnover
.

About

1000

students

graduate

from

Indian

Institutions

in

biotechnology,

60

bio

informatics

centers,

Biotech

Parks,

incubation

centers,

centers

of

Biotech

Excellence
;

growing

fidcal

incentives

by

Government

pganguli
©2005

Bio
-
based Opportunities in India


Biopharmaceuticals alone : US$ 2 billion market


from vaccines and bio
-
generics.


Clinical development services > US$1.5 billion


Bioservices or outsourced research services > US$1 billion


Agricultural and industrial biotechnology > US$500 million


pganguli
©2005

Evolving Opportunities for Indian
Pharma and Biotech Sector


manufacturing

outsourcing,


development

outsourcing

involving

pre

clinical

and



clinical

trials

and

customised

chemistry

services,


contract

research

for

molecules

in

the

pre

launch

stage,



take

lead

position

in

herbal

based

products

and

services,



providing

value

added

cost

effective

business

processing



in

health

care

services

working

in

strategic
-
tandem

with



global

partners

with

good

partnering

practices

(GPP),



continuing

its

dominance

in

generics

(adding

bio
-
generics



to

the

portfolio)

would

be

the

trajectory

for

the

near

future
.


pganguli
©2005


ENABLING ENVIRONMENT


Peak Customs Rate reduced from 20% to 15%.


100% Deduction in Profits for Companies carrying
out R&D till March 2007.


Weighted Deduction of 150% of Expenditure on in
-
house R&D till March 2007


Excise Duty waiver on products patented in any two
countries outside India e.g. USA, Japan and any
country of the EU


Exemption from Drug Price Control order (conditions
apply)


Accelerated Depreciation allowance for plant and
machinery installed for manufacturing goods using
indegeneously developed S&T.


Tax Deduction for Sponsoring Research

pganguli
©2005

Maturing Indian Infrastructure


Allocation to Department of Health & Family Welfare
increased from Rs.84200 m to Rs.10,2800 m (22% increase)


Several Indian Pharmaceutical Companies are gaining critical
mass and are already in or about to be in the league of $ 250
million turnover companies.


Most of these companies are increasingly adopting the
desirable GMPs, GLPs, getting their manufacturing units
approved by USFDA and other regulatory bodies, setting up
world class facilities for R&D, clinical trials etc.


Decades of experience in synthetic organic chemistry,
understanding of reaction mechanisms, backed up by sound
foundations in chemical engineering to deliver cost effective
manufacturing processes



pganguli
©2005

Maturing Indian Infrastructure


>
60

FDA

approved

plants

in

India

……
.

the

largest

concentration

outside

the

USA
.


Expertise

in

designing

and

manufacturing

low

cost

equipment,

machinery

and

medical

devices


Manpower

and

infrastructure

now

in

a

state

to

partner

global

companies

in

early

stage

development

of

molecules,

delivering

full

synthetic

routes,

and

selective

phases

of

the

clinical

trials
.


Successful

use

of

traditional

knowledge

in

therapeutics

based

on

systems

such

as

Ayurveda,

Sidha

&

Unani

and

in

recent

times

blending

it

with

modern

science

to

seed

and

nurture

the

market

of

neutraceuticals,

cosmoceuticals,

herbals,

etc
.


Rich

experience

in

the

development

of

formulations

and

drug

delivery

systems


Undertake

research

to

create

new

knowledge

for

drug

discovery

and

development

pganguli
©2005

Maturing Indian Infrastructure


Fertile

ground

for

clinical

trials

with

220

Medical

Colleges,

350
Universities,

390

Research

Institutes,

27
ICMR

Institutes,

over

500
Private

hospitals

and

over

100

NGOs

and

voluntary

agencies

to

help

in

recruitment

and

management

of

patients

during

trials
.


Undisputed expertise in IT infrastructure, skills for
developments in bio
-
informatics, tele
-
medicine, device
interfacing etc.



Rich Traditional Knowledge Base and Practices now
waiting to be integrated with modern scientific processes
for major breakthroughs in cost effective development of
pharmaceutical products and services. Projects already
underway .


pganguli
©2005

Maturing Indian Infrastructure


Strong

governmental

support

for

the

pharmaceutical

and

biotech

sector


Government

having

initiated

steps

to

curb

spurious

drugs

by

amending

law

to

make

activities

related

to

spurious

drugs

as

a

cognizable

offence


Government

initiating

moves

to

introduce

positive

industry

friendly

regulatory

laws

and

framework
.


Department

of

Biotechnology

(DBT)

http
:
//dbtindia
.
nic
.
in
;

Council

of

Scientific

and

Industrial

Research

(CSIR)

http
:
//www
.
csir
.
res
.
in

and

University

Grants

Commission

(UGC)

http
:
//ugc
.
ac
.
in

nationally

focusing

on

building

manpower

and

infrastructure

to

service

emerging

needs

in

biotechnology,

immunology,

genomics,

proteonomics,

bioinformatics,

etc
.

pganguli
©2005

Maturing Indian Infrastructure


Stress on academic
-
industry
-
government teamwork for
targeted deliver of business oriented results through
innovative funding schemes such as
New Millennium
Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI)

http://www.csir.res.in/nmitli/nmitli.html
; Drugs &
Pharmaceutical Research

http://dst.gov.in/scprog/tecdev/drugspharmares.htm
;
Instrumentation Development Programme
http://dst.gov.in/scprog/tecdev/instrdevprog.htm
;
Grants to Industry
-

PATSER Programme Aimed at
Technological Self Reliance (PATSER)
http://dsir.nic.in
;
Home
-

Grown Technology Programme (HGT)
http://www.tifac.org.in/
; Department of Information
Technology
http://www.mit.gov.in/R&D/projects/index.htm#about


pganguli
©2005

BioPharamceuticals

India….Status

2004
-
2005

Rs. 37500 m

VACCINES

Rs 16690 m

THERAPEUTICS


Rs. 5000 m

DIAGNOSTICS


Rs. 6010 m

OTHERS

Rs. 8000 m

Growth 28.88%

Growth 20.48%

Growth 47.67 %

Growth 25.98 %

Human 28%

growth

Animal 75%

growth

pganguli
©2005

Infrastructure Development

Strong pool of scientist and engineers


Vast institutional network and cost effective manufacturing.


Over a hundred National Research Laboratories


employing thousands of scientists



>300 college level educational and training institutes


~ 500,000 students on an annual basis



> 100 medical colleges add ~17,000 medical practitioners / year


~ 300,000 postgraduates


1500 PhDs qualify in biosciences and engineering each year.

pganguli
©2005

The Key Challenge

pganguli
©2005

Diagnostics

Rs. 6020 m


Reagents & Allied
Businesses


Kits for pregnancy,
ovulation, estimation
of T3, T4, TSH, HIV,
HBV, HCV infection,
rheumatoid diseases
and disorders, cancer,
liver function


Instruments Business


Strongly import
driven


Indigenization is a
great opportunity


Need to resolve
regulatory issues

pganguli
©2005

BIO AGRI….Rs 3300 m


Bt cotton led business ( 76.75%)

… lead by Monsanto Technology. Monsanto marketing
arm… Mahyco
-
Monsanto Biotech India. Monsanto also
licensed their technology to others at Rs. 1200/
-

per packet

…. Sygenta technology; Indo American Hybrid Seed;
Metahelik; NBRI’s indigenous technology ready for
transfer.


Rest in biofertilisers, Biopestisiddes, Markers …..
Lead companies International Panacea and Biotech
International.


Present challenge is to combat spurious cotton
seeds… regulatory issues

pganguli
©2005

Industrial Biotech… Rs. 3200 m

34.45% growth


Enzymes for Detergents (17%); Textiles (17%); Foods &
Feed (17%); Leather (8%); Pharma (41%).


Company

Revenue
Rs Million

Growth
%

Market
Share %

Biocon

897

34.82

28

Novozyme

690

30.19

21.5

Adv.
Biochemicals

395

21.8

12.36

Rossari

Biotech

330

37.50

10.31

Maps India

220

29.41

6.88

pganguli
©2005

Bio
-
informatics.. Rs 1000 m


Projected to grow to Rs 5300 m by 2006


Integration of IT with drug development

….. Collaborative R&D

….. Licensing for further development


on path to maturation… future will
experience a lot of shake up .. Mergers,
acquisitions, etc.

pganguli
©2005

Bio Services .. Rs 4250 m

growth 54.54%

Company

Revenue

Rs. m

Growth

Market
share

Syngene

660

72

15.5

Quintiles

645

3.2

15.2

Vimta Labs

522

49

12.3

Lotus Labs

276

120

6.5

Lamda
Therapeutics

250

56

5.9

Acquisition of Lotus Labs by Actavis Group

Data management Centers by Quintiles, Pfizer, GSK, Wyeth

pganguli
©2005

Life Science Suppliers

Rs 12300 m


Essentially MNC led…61.3% marker share

Distributors… 38%


In
-
licensing agreements; exclusive
marketing agreements; strategic alliances.


Reduction of Customs Duty to 5% on 9
specific instruments

pganguli
©2005

Company Profile ..biopharma

Company

Revenue (Rs million)

Market Share

Biocon

5567

18.74
[R&D Rs 1032 m]

Serum Institute

5050

17

Panacea Biotec

2173

7.32

Venkateshwara
Hatheries

1880

6.26

Bharat Serums

810

2.73

Indian Immunologicals

724

2.44

Shanta Biotech

689

2.32

Wochardt

670

2.26

Bharat Immunologicals
&Biotechnological

533

1.79

Bharat Biotech
International

410

1.38

pganguli
©2005

Company Profile ..biopharma

Company

Revenue (Rs million)

Market Share

Novo Nordisk

1360

4.56

Aventis Pharma

843

2.84

Chiron Behring
Vaccines

780

2.63

Glaxo Smith Kline

778

2.62

Eli Lilly

684

2.30

Important to note that these NMCs have very small market share

As compared to the Indian Companies.


Future: Strategic Alliances, in
-
licensing, mergers & acquisitions.

pganguli
©2005

Ball on the Roll

……Contract Manufacturing


Several Indian Companies such as Dishman Pharma,
Shasun Chemicals, Suven Pharma, Innovasynth
Technologies, Hikal, Matrix Laboratories, Divis Labs,
Orchid Pharmaceuticals, Strides Arcolabs, and
Jubiliant Organosys are actively engaged in making
quality bulk drugs and APIs for GSK, Bayer, Merck
KgaA, Pfizer, Aventis, Solvay Labs and Novartis.




Companies like Cipla, Nicholas Piramal, Ranbaxy, Dr
Reddy’s Labs, Glenmark Labs, Themis Medicare,
Unichem Labs and Sun Pharmaceuticals have set up
dedicated manufacturing facilities for making of bulk
drugs for exports.

pganguli
©2005

Ball on the Roll


……Contract Manufacturing


Indian Companies have also been serving
global generic companies like Teva, Alpharma,
Sandoz, Merck Generics, Ivax, Apotex, Bexel,
Hexal, Stada and ParPharma.




Many more India companies are setting up
manufacturing units to service the growing
opportunity. It has recently been reported Teva
has set up their own manufacturing facility in
India . Similarly Sandoz has set up their
facilities for manufacture and development of
generic drugs in India.

pganguli
©2005

Ball on the Roll

…..JVs in the making


GSK



Ranbaxy
;


Novartis



Torrent
;



Novartis

-

Dr

Reddy’s
;

Novo

Nordisk

-

Dr

Reddy’s
;



Pfizer

-

Shanta

Biotech
;

Schwarz

-

Ranbaxy
;

Allergan



Nicholas

Piramal

(NPIL)
;

Cambridge

Biostability

-

Panacea

Biotech

(Delhi)

are

working

examples

to

act

as

trendsetters

for

the

events

to

follow

in

the

strategic

backward

integration

into

the

drug

discovery

value

chain

for

the

Indian

players

with

their

already

existing

basket

of

product

portfolios,

technical

skills

and

infrastructure

that

might

need

marginal

upgradation
.



For

example

Nicholas

Piramal

has

set

up

a

world
-
class

new

clinical

unit

called

Wellcrest
.



pganguli
©2005

Ball on the Roll

…..CROs and Tech Parks


APFirst

in

the

state

of

Andhra

Pradesh

is

a

body

promoting

investments

and

developments

in

a

“Pharma

City”

in

Visakhapatnam
.

It

is

also

establishing

an

Indian

Institute

of

Life

Sciences

for

Discovery

Research,

upgrading

hospitals

in

3

cities

to

perform

Clinical

trials

to

international

standards

thereby

sending

positive

signals

to

the

pharma

world





There

are

about

30

CROs

in

India

with

Lambada

Therepeutic

Centre,

Lotus

Labs,

Suven

Life

Sciences,

Clininvent

Research

Pvt

Ltd

Quest

Life

Sciences

Pvt

Ltd,

Sipra

Labs,

Sygene

International

a

subsidiary

of

Biocon

to

name

a

few
.


pganguli
©2005

Ball on the Roll

….Public Private Partnerships


CSIR
-
led

New

Millennium

Indian

Technology

Leadership

Initiative

(NMITLI)




The

initiative

so

far

is

worth

Rs

1500
-
million

and

has

disbursed

Rs

100

million

in

two

years
.




TCS’

bioinformatics

educational

software

development,

new

chemical

molecule

development

with

the

help

of

the

chemical

industry
.

Gene

marker

identification

initiated

by

IGIB

are

funded

in

addition

to

other

biotech

/

bioinformatics





Project

titled

"Latent

M
.

tuberculosis
:

New

targets,

drug

delivery

systems

and

bio
-
enhancers

and

therapeutics"

in

the

year

2001

by

CSIR

Lupin

Laboratories,

Mumbai

partenering

4

institutions
.



Dabur

India

investigating

a

gall

blastoma

lead

under

its

collaborative

Genomics

Research

Project

with

CSIR
.




pganguli
©2005

B

I

O


C

L

U

S

T

E

R

S

pganguli
©2005

On track



……Contract Manufacturing


….. ..JVs in the making


….…..CROs and Tech Parks


…… ….Public Private Partnerships


……………Mission oriented projects (consortia)


……….. Growing involvement of Industry







Associations

pganguli
©2005

“ Arise , Awake and Stop Not till the desired end is reached.

Be not afraid,

For all great power, throughout history of humanity,

has been with the people.

From out of their ranks

have come the greatest geniuses of the world,

and history can only repeat itself.

Be not afraid of anything. You will do marvellous work.

The moment you fear, you are nobody.

It is fear that is the great cause of misery in the world.

It is fear that is the greatest of all superstitions.

It is fear that is the cause of all our woes,

and it is the fearlessness that brings heaven even in a moment.

Therefore “Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is reached.”


[Address at Calcutta … more than 100 years ago….

The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda,

Subsidised Edition, Vol. 3, pp 320


321]