A History of Chemical Engineering - Department of Chemical ...

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A History of Chemical
Engineering

CHEE 2404

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

2

What is a Chemical Engineer?


a) An
Engineer

who manufactures
chemicals


b) A
Chemist

who works in a factory


c) A glorified
Plumber
?


CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

3

None of the above


No universally accepted definition of ChE.


However, aimed towards design of processes that
change materials from one form to another more
useful (and so more valuable) form, economically,
safely and in an environmentally acceptable way.


Application of basic sciences (math, chemistry,
physics & biology) and engineering principles to
the development, design, operation & maintenance
of processes to
convert raw materials to useful
products and improve the human environment.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

4

Chemical
Engineering


ChE involves specifying equipment, operating
conditions, instrumentation and process control for
all these changes.


Mathematics

Chemistry

Physics

Biology

Economics

Natural Gas

Air

Coal

Energy

Minerals

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

5

What are the fields of Ch E?


The traditional fields of ChE are:


petrochemicals, petroleum and natural gas
processing


plastics and polymers


pulp and paper


instrumentation and process control


energy conversion and utilisation


environmental control


CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

6

What are the fields of Ch E?


Biotechnology


Biomedical and Biochemical


food processing


composite materials, corrosion and protective
coatings


manufacture of microelectronic components


Pharmaceuticals

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

7

What do Chemical Engineers do?


Regarding Engineers:

it is not what we do, but how we think about
the world, that makes us different. We use
all
that we know to
produce the
best solution

to a problem (problems that engineers face
usually have more than one solution).


Engineers

use

techniques

of

Quantitative

Engineering

Analysis

to

design/synthesize

products

(materials,

devices),

services,

and

processes

even

though

they

have

an

imperfect

understanding

of

chemical,

physical,

biological,

or

human

factors

affecting

them
.


Engineers

operate

under

the

constraint

of

producing

a

product

or

service

that

is

timely,

competitive,

reliable,

within

the

financial

means

of

their

company,

and

is

consistent

with

its

philosophy
.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

8

What do Chemical Engineers do?


Thus, they are involved in a wide range of
activities such as:


design, development and operation of process
plants


research and development of novel products and
processes


management of technical operations and sales



CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

9


Chemical engineer is either currently, or has
previously, occupied the CEO position for
:

3M

Du Pont

General Electric

Union Carbide

Texaco

Dow Chemical

Exxon

BASF

Gulf Oil

B.F. Goodrich


CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

10

Where do Chemical Engineers
work?


The majority of Chemical Engineers work in businesses known collectively as
the Chemical Process Industries (CPI)


Chemicals,


Oil and Gas (upstream and downstream)


Pulp and Paper,


Rubber and Plastics,


Food and Beverage,


Textile,


Electronics/IT


Metals, mineral processing


Electronics and microelectronics


Agricultural Chemicals Industries


Cosmetics/ Pharmaceutical


Biotechnology/Biomedical


Environmental, technical, and business consulting

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

11

Where do Chemical Engineers
work?


Many Chemical Engineers also work in supplier, consulting and
governmental agencies related to the CPI by engaging in equipment
manufacture, plant design, consulting, analytical services and
standards development.


Chemical Engineers hold lead positions in industrial firms and
governmental agencies concerned with environmental protection since
environmental problems are usually complex and require a thorough
knowledge of the Social Sciences, Physics, Biology, Mathematics and
Chemistry for their resolution.


Chemical engineers have been referred to as
“universal engineers.”

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

12

Where do Chemical Engineers
work?

Initial placement of 2001/1999 graduates (USA)

3.9

5.8

2.4

1.8

5.6

2.1

9.3

3.1

10.6

15.9

15.7

23.3

4.8

Other Industries

6.4

Business Services

2.6

Engineering Services (Environmental Engng.)

2.4

Engineering Services (Research & Testing)

4.8

Engineering Services (Design & Construction)

2.4

Pulp & paper

6.9

Biotech & Related Inds.

3.3

Materials

11.4

Food/Consumer Prods.

15.6

Electronics

12.6

Fuels

26.7

Chemical


CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

13

How much money do Chemical
Engineers make?

Starting salaries (USA)


The
National Association of Colleges and
Employers

(NACE) reported that, between Sept
1999
-

Jan 2000, the average starting salary offer
made to graduating chemical engineering students
in the USA was:



$49,418 with a Bachelor's degree


$56,100 with a Master's degree


$68,491 with a Ph.D.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

14

What is an Industrial Chemist?


Industrial Chemists are Applied Scientists.


Typically, they undertake optimization of complex
processes,
but

unlike engineers
, they examine
and change the chemistry of the process itself.


Industrial Chemists are capable of fulfilling a
multiplicity of roles
-

as research scientists,
development chemists, technical representatives
and as plant/company managers.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

15


As the
Industrial Revolution

(18th Century to the
present) steamed along certain basic chemicals quickly
became necessary to sustain growth.


Sulfuric acid

was first among these "industrial chemicals".
It was said that a nation's industrial might could be gauged
solely by the vigor of its sulfuric acid industry



With this in mind, it comes as no surprise that
English
industrialists

spent a lot of
time
,
money
, and
effort

in
attempts to improve their processes for making sulfuric
acid. A slight savings in production led to large profits
because of the vast quantities of sulfuric acid consumed by
industry.

Early Industrial Chemistry

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

16


The

German

chemical

industry

experienced

a

period

of

rapid

growth

during

the

19
th

Century
.

It

was

focused

on

the

production

of

fine

chemicals

or

complicated

dyestuffs

based

on

coal

tar
.

These

were

usually

made

in

batch

reactors

(something

all

chemists

are

familiar

with)
.

Hence,

their

approach

to

running

a

chemical

plant

was

based

on

teaming

research

chemists

and

mechanical

engineers
.


However,

the

English

and

American

chemical

industries

produced

only

a

few

simple

but

widely

used

chemicals

such

as

sulfuric

acid

and

alkali

(both

made

in

continuous

reactors,

something

chemists

have

little

experience

with)
.

These

bulk

chemicals

were

produced

using

straightforward

chemistry
,

but

required

complex

engineering

on

a

large

scale
.

The

chemical

reactors

were

no

longer

just

big

pots,

instead

they

involved

complex

plumbing

systems

where

chemistry

and

engineering

were

inseparably

tied

together
.

Because

of

this,

the

chemical

and

engineering

aspects

of

production

could

not

be

easily

divided
;

as

they

were

in

Germany
.


CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

17


Economics drives industry and
technological developments.


Sulfuric Acid (Oil of Vitriol) & "Fuming"
Sulfuric Acid (Oleum) (H
2
SO
4
)


Required for the production of alkali salts
(used in fertilizers) and dyestuffs

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

18

Lead Chamber Process


1749 John Roebuck developed the process to make
relatively concentrated (30
-
70%) sulfuric acid in lead lined
chambers rather than the more expensive glass vessels.


air, water, sulfur dioxide, a nitrate (
potassium, sodium, or
calcium nitrate
, and a large lead container.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

19


The nitrate was the most expensive ingredient because
during the final stage of the process, it was
lost to the
atmosphere

(in the form of nitric oxide).


Additional nitrate (
sodium nitrate)

was imported from
Chile

-

costly
!


In 1859,
John Glover

helped solve this problem with
a
mass transfer tower to recover some of this lost nitrate
.
Acid trickled down against upward flowing burner gases
which absorbed some of the previously lost nitric oxide.
When the gases were recycled back into the lead chamber
the nitric oxide could be re
-
used.


CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

20

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

21


Notice how
sulfuric acid production closely mirrors historical events

effecting the American economy.


Sulfuric acid production dropped after the American involvement in
World War I

(1917
-
1919) and open world trade
resumed.


The stock market crash of 1929 further stagnated growth which was restored at the outbreak of


World War II

(1938). As the U.S. entered the war (1941) economy was rapidly brought up to full production
capacity.


The post war period (1940
-
1965) saw the greatest economic growth in America's history, and this was reflected in
ever increasing sulfuric acid production.


Massive
inflation

during the late sixties and the
energy crisis

and economic recession of the early seventies also
reveal themselves in the sulfuric acid curve

Figure 1
-
1
, Source: "US Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics from Colonial Times to 1970."

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

22

Making soap


a luxury


It has been suggested that some form of soap, made by boiling fat with
ashes, was being made in Babylon as early as 2800BC, but probably
used only for washing garments.





Pliny the Elder (7BC

53AD) mentions that soap was being produced
from tallow and beech ashes by the Phoenicians in 600BC.


Oils or fats are boiled with alkali in a reaction which produces soap
and glycerin


Saponification is hydrolysis of an ester under basic conditions, forming
an alcohol and salt


Soap acts to reduce surface tension (surfactant) of water to make it
“wetter” and emulsifiying dirt (holding it in suspension)


CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

23

Historically,

Na
2
CO
3

was used

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

24


1700’s the demand for soap increased due to washing of clothes,
requiring Na
2
CO
3


The
Alkali compounds
,
Soda ash

(Na
2
CO
3
) and
potash

(K
2
CO
3
),
were used in making
glass
,
soap
, and
textiles

and were therefore in
great demand.


This alkali was imported to France from Spanish and Irish peasants
who burned seaweed and New England settlers who burned brush,
both to recover the ash


At the end of the 1700's, English trees became scarce and the only
native source of soda ash in the British Isles was
kelp

(seaweed).


Alkali imported from America in the form of wood ashes (potash),
Spain in the form of barilla (a plant containing 25% alkali), or from
soda mined in Egypt, were all very expensive due to high shipping
costs.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

25




Nicolas Leblanc was a poor young man working in a
chemistry research lab established by the wealthiest man in
France, the Duke of Orleans.


It took Leblanc 5 years to stumble upon the idea of
reacting NaCl with sulfuric acid to form sodium sulfate,
and then converting to sodium carbonate with limestone.


In 1789 he went to collect his prize…unfortunately this
was during the time of the French Revolution.


A factory was built, but the Duke was executed and the
factory seized.



King Louis XVI of France offered an award (equivalent
to half a million dollars) to anyone who could turn NaCl
(common table salt) into Na
2
CO
3

because French access
to these raw materials was threatened.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

26

Alkali and the Le Blanc Process


Dependence on imported soda ended with the
Le Blanc Process
which

converted common
salt

into
soda ash

using
sulfuric acid
,
limestone
and
coal

as feedstock (raw materials) and produced
hydrochloric acid

as a by
-
product.



2 NaCl (salt) + H
2
SO
4

(sulfuric acid) => Na
2
SO
4

(saltcake,
intermediate) + 2 HCl (hydrochloric acid gas, a horrible waste product)


Na
2
SO
4

(saltcake) + Ca
2
CO
3

(calcium carbonate, limestone) + 4 C(s)
(coal) => Na
2
CO
3

(soda ash extracted from black ash) + CaS (dirty
calcium sulfide waste) + 4 CO (carbon monoxide)

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

27

Alkali and the Le Blanc Process


In many ways, this process began the modern chemical industry.


From its adoption in 1810 it was continually improved over the next 80
years through elaborate engineering efforts mainly directed at
recovering or reducing the terrible by
-
products of the process, namely:
hydrochloric acid, nitrogen oxides, sulfur, manganese, and chlorine
gas.


Indeed because of these polluting chemicals many manufacturing sites
were surrounded by a ring of dead and dying grass and trees.


CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

28

Alkali and the Le Blanc Process


A
petition against the Le Blanc

Process
in 1839 complained that:



"the gas from these manufactories is of such a
deleterious nature as to blight everything within its
influence, and is alike baneful to health and property.
The herbage of the fields in their vicinity is scorched,
the gardens neither yield fruit nor vegetables; many
flourishing trees have lately become rotten naked sticks.
Cattle and poultry droop and pine away. It tarnishes
the furniture in our houses, and when we are exposed
to it, which is of frequent occurrence, we are afflicted
with coughs and pains in the head...all of which we
attribute to the Alkali works."

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

29

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

30

Soda Ash and the Solvay Process


In 1873 a new process
-

the
Solvay Process

-

replaced Le Blanc's
method for producing Alkali.


The process

was perfected in 1863 by a Belgian chemist,
Ernest
Solvay
. The chemistry was based upon an old discovery by A. J.
Fresnel who in 1811 had shown that
Sodium Bicarbonate

could be
precipitated from a
salt

solution containing
ammonium bicarbonate
.


This chemistry was far simpler than that devised by Le Blanc, however
to be used on an industrial scale many
engineering obstacles

had to be
overcome. Sixty years of attempted scale
-
up had failed until Solvay
finally succeeded.
Solvay's contribution was therefore one of
chemical engineering
.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

31

Soda Ash and the Solvay Process


The heart of his design was an
80 foot tall

high
-
efficiency
carbonating tower

in which ammoniated brine trickled down and
carbon dioxide flowed up. Plates and bubble caps created a large
surface area (
contacting area
) over which the two chemicals could
react forming sodium bicarbonate.


Solvay's
engineering

resulted in a
continuously operating

process

free of hazardous by
-
products

and with an
easily purified final
product
.


By 1880 it was evident that it would rapidly replace the traditional Le
Blanc Process.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

32

The dawn of Chemical Engineering


English industrialists spent a lot of
time
,
money
, and
effort

in attempts
to improve their processes for making bulk chemicals because a slight
savings in production led to large profits because of the vast quantities
of sulfuric acid consumed by industry.


The

term

"chemical

engineer"

had

been

floating

around

technical

circles

throughout

the

1880
's,

but

there

was

no

formal

education

for

such

a

person
.


The

"chemical

engineer"

of

these

years

was

either

a

mechanical

engineer

who

had

gained

some

knowledge

of

chemical

process

equipment,

a

chemical

plant

foreman

with

a

lifetime

of

experience

but

little

education,

or

an

applied

chemist

with

knowledge

of

large

scale

industrial

chemical

reactions
.


CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

33

The dawn of Chemical Engineering


In 1887
George Davis
, an Alkali Inspector from the "Midland" region
of England molded his knowledge into a series of
12 lectures

on
chemical engineering, which he presented at the
Manchester
Technical School
. This chemical engineering course was organized
around individual chemical operations, later to be called “
unit
operations
”.
Davis explored these operations
empirically

and
presented operating practices employed by the British chemical
industry.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

34

A new profession “Chemical
Engineering”


For

all

intents

and

purposes

the

chemical

engineering

profession

began

in

1888

when

Professor

Lewis

Norton

of

the

Massachusetts

Institute

of

Technology

(MIT)

initiated

the

first

four

year

bachelor

program

in

chemical

engineering

entitled

"
Course

X
"

(ten)
.

Soon

other

colleges,

such

as

the

University

of

Pennsylvania

and

Tulane

University

followed

MIT's

lead

in

1892

and

1894

respectively
.



CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

35

First US Chemical Engineering
education


1888, Lewis M. Norton at MIT, as part of
Chemistry Department.


In response to rapid rise of the industrial
chemical industries.


Based on
descriptive industrial chemistry
,
of salt, potash, sulfuric acid, soap, coal.


Graduates lacked concepts and tools to
solve new problems in the emerging
petroleum and organic chemical industries.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

36

First Canadian Chemical
Engineering education


1878 Toronto (Analytical and Applied Chemistry)


1902 Queen’s (Department of Chemical Engineering)


1904 Toronto (Department of ChE and Applied Chemistry)


1912 Ecole Polytechnique (from “Diploma d’ingenieur
-
chimiste”

granted through Laval)


1942 Ecole Polytechnique (Industrial Chemistry)


1958 Ecole Polytechnique (Department of chemical Engineering)



1914

McGill


1915 UBC


1926

Alberta


1934 Saskatchewan


1940 Laval


(Nova Scotia Technical College 1947)

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

37

A new profession “Chemical
Engineering”


From

its

beginning

chemical

engineering

was

tailored

to

fulfill

the

needs

of

the

chemical

industry

which,

in

the

USA,

was

mostly

based

on

petroleum

derived

feedstocks
.

Competition

between

manufacturers

was

brutal,

and

all

strove

to

be

the

"
low

cost

producer
.
"

However,

to

stay

ahead

of

the

pack

chemical

plants

had

to

be

optimized
.

This

necessitated

things

such

as
;

continuously

operating

reactors

(as

opposed

to

batch

operation),

recycling

and

recovery

of

unreacted

reactants,

and

cost

effective

purification

of

products
.

These

advances

in
-
turn

required

plumbing

systems

(for

which

traditional

chemists

where

unprepared)

and

detailed

physical

chemistry

knowledge

(unbeknownst

to

mechanical

engineers)
.

The

new

chemical

engineers

were

capable

of

designing

and

operating

the

increasingly

complex

chemical

operations

which

were

rapidly

emerging
.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

38

Unit operations


In transforming matter from inexpensive raw materials to highly
desired products, chemical engineers became very familiar with the
physical and chemical operations

necessary in this metamorphosis.


Examples of this include:



filtration



drying


distillation


crystallization


grinding


sedimentation


combustion


catalysis


heat exchange


coating, and so on.

Physical

Chemical operations

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

39

Unit Operations


These "
unit operations
" repeatedly found their way into
industrial practice, and became a convenient manner of
organizing chemical engineering knowledge.


Additionally, the
knowledge gained concerning a "unit
operation" governing one set of materials can easily be
applied to others


driving a car is driving a car no matter what the make

.


So, whether one is distilling alcohol for hard liquor or
petroleum for gasoline, the underlying principles are the
same!

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

40

Unit operations


The

"unit

operations"

concept

had

been

latent

in

the

chemical

engineering

profession

ever

since

George

Davis

had

organized

his

original

12

lectures

around

the

topic
.


But,

it

was

Arthur

Little

who

first

recognized

the

potential

of

using

“Unit

Operations"

to

separate

chemical

engineering

from

other

professions


While

mechanical

engineers

focused

on

machinery
,

and

industrial

chemists

concerned

themselves

with

products
,

and

applied

chemists

studied

individual

reactions
,

no

one,

before

chemical

engineers,

had

concentrated

upon

the

underlying

processes

common

to

all

chemical

products,

reactions,

and

machinery
.

The

chemical

engineer,

utilizing

the

conceptual

tool

that

was

unit

operations,

could

now

make

claim

to

industrial

territory

by

showing

his

or

her

uniqueness

and

worth

to

the

American

chemical

manufacturer
.


CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

41

Paradigm: a pattern or model


Paradigm

is a constellation that defines a
profession and an intellectual discipline



Firm theoretical foundations, triumphant applications to
solve important problems


Universities agree on
core subjects

taught to all
students, standard textbooks and handbooks,
accreditation of degrees


Professional societies and journals


Organize research directions
-

what is a good research
problem, and what are legitimate methods of solution?

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

42

Chemical engineering paradigms


Pre
-
paradigm
-

engineers with no formal
education

1. The first paradigm
-

Unit Operations
, 1923

2. The second paradigm
-

Transport Phenomena
, 1960

3. The third paradigm
-

?

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

43

Pre
-
paradigm


Fire (300,000 BC) as the first chemical technology


Led to pyro
-
technologies: cooking, pottery, metallurgy,
glass, reaction engineering



Chemical technology as empirical art, with no
reliable scientific foundation or formally educated
engineers.


Ecole des Ponts et Chausee, 1736, first modern
engineering school.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

44

The first paradigm


Arthur D. Little, industrialist and chair of
visiting committee of chemical engineering
at MIT, wrote report in 1908

“Unit Operations should be the foundation of
chemical engineering”



First textbook Walker
-
Lewis
-
McAdams

Principles of Chemical Engineering
” 1923

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

45

The first paradigm: early success


Became


core of chemical engineering curriculum, unit
operations, stoichiometry, thermodynamics


principle to organize useful knowledge


inspiration for research to fill in the gaps in
knowledge


Effective in problem solving


graduates have a toolbox to solve processing
problems in oil distillation, petrochemical, new
polymers

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

46

The first paradigm: later
stagnation


World War II creation of new technologies by
scientists without engineering education: atomic
bomb, radar.


Engineering students needed to master new
concepts and tools in chemistry and physics.


Unit Operations no longer created streams of
exciting new research problems that were
challenging to professors and students, and useful
in industry.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

47

The second paradigm


First textbook “
Transport Phenomena
” by Bird
-
Stewart
-
Lightfoot, 1960, based on kinetic theory
of gases


CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

48

The second paradigm


Textbook by Amundson

Mathematical Methods in
Chemical Engineering
”,
(1966).


A new burst of creative
research activities.


American chemical
industry dominated world,
DuPont and Exxon
content to recruit
academically educated
graduates, willing to teach
them technology.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

49

The second paradigm: early
success


The Engineering Science movement
became dominant in the US, and was taught
at all the leading universities.


AIChE accreditation requires differential
equations, transport phenomena.


Research funding agencies and journals turn
their backs on empirical and qualitative
research as
“old fashioned”.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

50

Chemical Engineering
accomplishments


Production of Synthetic Ammonia and Fertilizers,


Production of petrochemicals,


Commercial
-
scale production of antibiotics (biotechnology/ pharmaceuticals),


Establishment of the plastics industry,


Establishment of the synthetic fiber industry,


Establishment of the synthetic rubber industry,


Electrolytic production of Aluminum,


Energy production and the development of new sources of energy,


Production of fissionable isotopes,


Production of IT products (storage devices, microelectronics, ultraclean
environment),


Artificial organs and biomedical devices,


Food processing,


Process Simulation tools.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

51

Undergraduate curriculum


Designed to provide students with a
broad background

in the
underlying sciences of Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics


Detailed knowledge of
engineering principles and practices
, along
with a good appreciation of
social and economic

factors


Laboratory involvement is an important component


Develop team work skills,


Development of problem
-
identification and problem
-
solving skills.


Stress the preparation of students for independent work and
development of interpersonal skills necessary for professional
engineers.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

52

Undergraduate curriculum


Elective courses provide an opportunity to obtain additional training in
areas of emphasis:


Environment


Computers and Process Control


Energy


Biotechnology


Petroleum


Research & Development

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

53

Curriculum


Basic Sciences


Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry


Engineering Sciences


Thermodynamics (Heat, work, phase equilibrium, chemical
equilibrium)


Transport Phenomena (heat transfer, fluid mechanics, mass
transfer)


Numerical Analysis


Engineering Design


Computer
-
Aided Design


Chemical Reaction Engineering


Separation Processes


Process Control


Process Design

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

54

Co
-
operative education


Co
-
operative education
integrates

on
-
campus studies with practical work experience


Results in a degree solidly grounded in both theory and practice


Acquiring skills that are complementary to academic training


Facilitates getting a desirable job upon graduation (50% of jobs are not advertised)



Co
-
op is a challenging and rewarding way to earn your degree and the necessary work
experience to gain an edge on the career market at graduation






FALL

WINTER

SUMMER


Year 1

AT1

AT2

FREE


Year 2

AT3

AT4

FREE


Year 3

WT1

AT5

WT2


Year 4

AT6

WT3

WT4


Year 5

AT7

AT8






Students also have the ability to do a
12 or 16 month

internship in which all work terms
are done at once

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

55

Skills required


Technical skills are vital.


But

all employees will have a high level of technical competence
(otherwise they aren’t employed for long).



“Soft Skills” advance careers


Leadership (self motivated),


Ability to work in groups,


Communication


With such a broad education, Chemical Engineers are well prepared to
address problems involving all types of changes to the physical and/or
chemical state of materials.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

56

Chemical Engineering: New
Directions?


Phasing out of formerly successful products: tetra
-
ethyl
lead, DDT, cellophane, freon or CFC.


End of the parade of new polymers: celluloid, bakelite,
nylon, kevlar.


To attract the best students, the lure of new products to
enhance lives
-

laptop computers, cellular phone and
internet.


Cost
-
cutting and environmental protection is no match for
glamorous new products.


We need to give chemical engineers the intellectual
toolbox, to
innovate exciting new products

that people will
learn to love.

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

57

Product Engineering: a third
paradigm?


Product engineering is innovation and design of
useful products that people want


1. Define a product, study the customers &
needs


2. Understand property
-
structure


3. Design and innovate the product

CHEE 2404:Industrial Chemistry

58


AIChE


www.aiche.org


CSChE


www.chemeng.ca


IChemE

www.icheme.chemeng.ed.ac.uk



Join the student chapter of CSChE


Talk to Chemical Engineers


Read Chemical Engineering magazines

How do I find out more information?