Briefing Sheet 6

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Robotics in the UK



























July 2003

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Briefing Sheet 6




Briefing sheet

24

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1

Robotics

July 2003




Introduction


Robotics in the UK

Robotics in the UK is exciting, vibrant, and at the cu
tting
-
edge. Evidence of UK creative and technical
abilities can be found in the established research groups of universities, but also in the garages of
individual enthusiasts who put spare parts from discarded machinery to innovative uses. Robots
created
in the UK vary from the well
-
engineered aggressive combatants of Robot Wars, to robots
designed to emulate living organisms, from simple ants to humans, and robots designed to solve real
problems, such as gaining access to otherwise inaccessible sites. Ro
bots can be found in UK
research environments, art galleries, schools, space, and even farms. Amongst these pages you can
find examples of all of these, characterised by the impressive resourcefulness and ingenuity of the UK
Robotics community.


The UK ha
s had a strong world presence in robotics for a very long time. Currently one of the world
leaders in biologically inspired robotics, the UK was the birthplace of this modern trend as long ago as
the 1940s. A researcher at Bristol University, William Grey

Walter, with his wife, began building small
-
scale robots. By 1948 he had constructed two autonomous turtle robots that were almost self
-
sufficient.
Controlled by good old fashioned circuitry


there were no computers or transistors on the robots. Yet
they

could leave their hutches, go out performing their simple tasks in the laboratory, and then return to
their hutches to feed on electricity as required. This tradition of artificially intelligent robots is still very
strong in the UK University research gr
oups.


Another great strength in UK robotics is the construction and building of the robot vehicles. It is not only
happening in our world
-
class universities but is being driven to a large extent by the general public.
Robotics has become a national pastim
e thanks to Television Robot competitions that are watched by
between four and seven million people every week.


To give some idea of the growth of public interest, when the first series of Robot Wars was recorded in
late 1997, there were not enough compe
titors to make up the 32 places for the competition and so two
other robots (ringers) belonging to the technical staff had to be brought in.


Nowadays, there are 96 competitors for a series and these have to qualify by competing with
thousands of applicant
s. This means that thousands of teams, families and workmates are spending a
lot of time in their garages designing and testing all sort of new mechanical oddities. And these are only
a small number compared to the many children and parents struggling to u
nderstand and build robots
who do not enter the qualifiers.


What is robotics?

The word ‘Robot’ is one of those elusive terms that has defied unique definition. One reason for this is
that its use changes all the time. Initially, a robot was a humanoid or
human
-
like being. The word
‘Robot’ was derived from the Czech word meaning ‘slave labour’ and was coined by Kapec in his play,
Rossum’s Universal Robots in 1921. These robots were biochemical


what we would now call
androids. This was followed soon after
by a number of films featuring robots such as Fritz Lange’s
1922 Metropolis that excited the imagination of both the public and the science and engineering
communities. Science fiction books such as Asimov’s ‘I Robot’, from where we got the term robotics,
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Robotics

July 2003



were also popular at this time. These robots were easy to define as non
-
living machines that looked
and acted like humans.


In the real world of industry and academia, however, robots were not anything like humanoids. In the
academic world, the most advanc
ed robot in the 1970s was the Stanford Cart which had a body made
up of what looked like a shallow rectangular box on wheels from an old fashioned baby carriage
(pram). In those days the idea was to go for human modes of reasoning, rather than human shapes
.
Unfortunately, because of the complexity of the models of human, perception
-
inference
-
reasoning, this
type of robot would move about one meter every 15 minutes. So the 1980s saw a shift towards robot
controllers being modelled on insects and other animal
s and this enabled the sort of fast reactive
responses that you can see in modern day toy sensing robots and robot pets.


The major uses in industry, e.g. painting cars, required only robot arms rather than whole robots.
Initially these were considered to
be ‘part of’ a robot’s body but they eventually became known as
robots in their own right. The major distinction is now between
non
-
mobile robots

such as arms and
actuators and
mobile robots
which may be wheeled, legged or may even be propelled through wat
er or
air.


Another important distinction is between autonomous and non
-
autonomous robots. Originally, robots
would only be considered to be a robot if it was autonomous. That is, they could operate on their own
without human intervention. It is now perfe
ctly acceptable to call any autonomous vehicle a mobile
robot even if it looks like a car, a plane or a horse. It is also becoming increasingly acceptable to use
the term robot for remote controlled vehicles. This started off with tele
-
robotics, robots ope
rated at a
distance, like those used by emergency services for bomb disposal and firefighting. Then came the
remote controlled robot used in television contests like
Robot Wars
,
TechnoGames
and

Mechanoids.


In the UK many people focus on the mechanical asp
ects of robots while others focus on the artificial
intelligence aspects


or how to make their robot smart and autonomous. Both are needed to develop
effective mobile robots.



Key research groups and institutions


University of Bath:

The Centre for Biomi
metics and Natural Technology, Department of Mechanical
Engineering works on ‘Synthetic Evolutionary Psychology’, a term used to name the project of using
computer simulations and evolutionary robotics to test hypotheses about the evolution of the human
mi
nd. They also do work on the development of energetically autonomous artificial agents. In
response to the problem of the limited life of the batteries used to power autonomous robots,
consideration is being given to the use of deployable solar panels in

mobile robots, currently in
simulation.


Centre for Biomimetics and Natural Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath,

Bath BA 7AY United Kingdom


University of Birmingham
: The Intelligent Robotics Laboratory specialises in tech
niques for the
control of mobile robots. The focus is on robot learning and evolutionary robotics, and they have
projects on:



reinforcement learning implementations on real robots



probabilistic position tracking algorithms for navigation

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Robotics

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exploratio
n control in reinforcement learning



reinforcement learning in continuous state spaces



new model
-
free reinforcement learning with probabilistic graphical models



evolution of sensor placement



evolution of perceptual processing



task driven hidden Ma
rkov modelling



continual learning using constructive neural networks



learning in neural network ensembles.


Intelligent Robotics Lab, School of Computer Science, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham,
B15 2TT United Kingdom


University of

Edinburgh:

The Mobile Robotics Research Group is described as a ‘loose collection of
staff and students who share a broad approach to AI’ and who consider that intelligence will be best
understood through the construction of agents which live autonomously

in the real world, using non
-
symbolic logical tools that include behaviour
-
based architectures, neural networks, genetic algorithms,
ethology and control theory. Their current research projects include:




Evolutionary robotics, where a simulated evolutio
n process is used to develop adaptive robots.



Biological models, where projects include the RoBat project which has the dual purpose of (i)
providing a platform form which to investigate echolocation in bats, and (ii) to engender
artificial navigation sy
stems with some of the sophisticated performance and robustness of
those biological systems. Another set of projects look at control of locomotion: investigating the
possibility of controlling a legged robot with a structure based on the Central Pattern
Ge
nerators of vertebrates; models of the neural networks controlling the anguilliform swimming
of a lamprey.





Social robots, and learning by imitation.




Artificial life projects such as neuroethological robotics, speciation via habitat specialisa
tion,
and an artificial painter.


Mobile Robotics Research Group, Institute of Perception, Action and Behaviour, Division of Informatics, University
of Edinburgh, 5 Forrest Hill, Edinburgh, EH1 2QL United Kingdom


University of Essex
: The Robotics and Inte
lligent Machines group pursues basic and applied research
in the areas of mobile robotics, soft computing, computer vision and distributed robotic systems.
Projects include:



Agent
-
based vehicle scheduling for dockyard operation, addressing the question o
f routing
carriers or vehicles during loading and unloading operations in a dockyard by designing a
multi
-
agent architecture for a team of autonomous vehicles, based on a decentralised
approach.



The investigation of the communication of multiple robots t
o in order to achieve cooperation.



RobotCup challenge; adopting multi
-
agent and evolutionary computation techniques.



Multisensor
-
based navigation and map building.


Essex Robotics, Department of Computer Science, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Col
chester CO4 3SQ
United Kingdom


University of Hertfordshire:
This group has a research profile in



Artificial Life

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Robotics

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Socially Intelligent Agents



Artificial Intelligence

Their projects include the AuRoRA Project which studies how a mobile robot can becom
e a ‘toy’ and a
therapeutic tool for getting children with autism interested in co
-
ordinated and synchronised
interactions with the environment.


Contact: Dr Kerstin Dautenhahn, and Dr Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, Adaptive Systems Research Group, Department
of
Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane,Hatfield Herts AL109AB United Kingdom


Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine:
The Intelligent Interactive Systems group
contains research groups devoted to Cognitive Robotics and to

Biologically Inspired Robotics. The aim
of the Cognitive Robotics group is to endow robots with a capacity for high level cognition by deploying
the traditional AI concepts of representation and reasoning. The particular interests of the group are
visua
l perception, spatial reasoning and reasoning about action. In the past, they have used a variety
of mobile robots, but their current work is based on an upper
-
torso humanoid.


Intelligent Interactive Systems, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperi
al College of Science, Technology and
Medicine, South Kensington campus, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom


University of Lancaster:

The Mechatronics Research Group works on Mobile and Construction
Robotics. They are particularly interested in the use of mobi
le robots on construction sites, and in the
enhancement of mobility for the disabled. With support from JCB, a robot excavator has been
developed which is capable of autonomously digging a trench in virgin ground. This work involves
fundamental research
in computer control, sensor systems, drives and the development of intelligent
knowledge
-
based systems.


Mechatronics Research Group, Engineering Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Lancaster University,
Lancaster, LA1 4YR, United Kingdom


University
of Leeds:

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Intelligent Systems

Group works on developing innovative mobile robots for a variety of applications, building on work
carried out at the University of Portsmouth. The systems are for hazardous environments
, biomedical
and healthcare and construction. They have built climbing robots for nuclear environments, smelling
robots, and biomedical assistive systems.


I
ntelligent Systems Group, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom


University Colle
ge London
: The Department of Anatomy has used robots to explore the role of the
rat hippocampus in its ability to navigate. The Department of Computer Science has used the Elvis
Robot to research methods for evolving hand
-
eye co
-
ordination for a humanoid r
obot with machine
code genetic programming.


Dr Neil Burgess, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Anatomy, University College London,
Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square London WC1N 3AR United Kingdom


University of Manchester
: The Departmen
t of Computer Science robotics research focuses on mobile
robotics, emphasising subsymbolic and behaviour
-
based approaches to the control of autonomous
mobile robots. A major aspect of recent research has been the problem of robot navigation, using
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Robotics

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eviden
ce
-
based methods to determine the robot’s location within its environment, using natural
landmarks only.


Manchester Robotics, Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester ,Kilburn Building, Oxford Road,
Manchester M13 9PL United Kingdom


Notti
ngham Trent University:
The Digital Research Unit has collaborated with the School of
Cognitive and Computer Sciences at the University of Sussex on a project that involves the
development of an intelligent insect
-
like robot large enough to support a human
.


The Digital Research Unit, Victoria Studios, The Nottingham Trent University Burton St, Nottingham NG1 4BU
United Kingdom


Open University:

The Beagle 2 project is the British led effort to land on Mars as part of the European
Space Agency’s Mars Exp
ress Mission to be launched in June 2003.


Robotics Outreach Group, Faculty of Technology, The Open University Walton Hall Milton Keynes MK7 6AA ,
United Kingdom


University of Oxford
: There are eight robotics research groups whose interests range from me
dical
imaging to producing scheduling tools for manufacturing. The groups include The Active Vision Lab,
whose members research methods of motion understanding for a variety of applications from robot
navigation to human motion understanding, and the Medic
al Vision Laboratory, whose research
involves the development of 2D and 3D image processing techniques for quantifying disease
progression and regression and organ function.


Robotics Research Group, Ewert House, Ewert Place, Summertown Oxford OX2 7BZ, Uni
ted Kingdom


University of Plymouth
: The Robotic Intelligence Lab focuses on several key problems in the design
of domestic and helper robots. These include artificial vision for object recognition and vision for
spatial navigation, actions planning and s
equencing and natural language instruction dialogues
between user and robot. The laboratory has close links with the Centre for Neural and Adaptive
systems and with the Plymouth Institute of Neuroscience. Awareness of biological solutions is an
important

factor enabling the design of new technical solutions.


The Robotic Intelligence Lab, Contact: Dr Guido Bugmann, School of Computing, University of Plymouth,
Plymouth PL4 8AA United Kingdom



University of Reading:

Cybernetic Intelligence Research Group

has researched multiagent learning,
and methods of increasing rates of learning within groups of reinforced learning agents. In particular,
the sharing of experiences between groups of learning autonomous mobile robots is shown to produce
faster learning

rates and more robust solutions than learning without experience sharing. The research
group constructed a group of five autonomous mobile robots, which they use to research flocking.


Cybernetic Intelligence Research Group, Department of Cybernetics, Wh
iteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AY
United Kingdom


University of Salford
: The School of Acoustics and Electronics Engineering has a research group in
Advanced Robotics which focuses on telepresence and the control of walking robots. The School of
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Robotics

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Aero
nautical and Mechanical Engineering researches fundamental issues in machines and kinematics
and the application of those fundamentals to robotics.

Ruth Aylett is professor of Intelligent Virtual Environments. One of her research interests is in mobile
r
obotics, and she worked on the MACTA project which aimed to produce cooperating mobile robots
carrying out complex tasks.


School of Acoustics and Electronic Engineering, University of Salford, Salford, Manchester M5 4WT, United
Kingdom

Contact: Ruth Ayl
ett, The Centre for Virtual Environments, Business House, University of Salford, Salford,
Manchester M5 4WT United Kingdom


University of Sheffield:
There are groups in both Psychology and in Computer Science.


The Adaptive Behaviour Research Groups projec
ts include EPSRC funded Whiskerbot: A robot
whisker system modelled on Rat Mystacial Vibrissae (face whiskers), the aim being to design and
implement a sensory system modelled on that of the rat, capable of supporting surface texture
analysis. And a projec
t on Robot control using a model of central structures in the vertebrate brain, with
the aim of reverse engineering the systems that underlie animal behaviour.


Adaptive Behaviour Research Group Department of Psychology University of Sheffield Sheffield S1
0 2TP United
Kingdom


Neurocomputing and Robotics Group focuses on machine learning (neural network learning and
evolutionary methods) for developing robot controllers to operate in unknown environments. More
recently, they have also focussed on some high
profile museum and public awareness projects funded
by the millennium commission, the Arts Council of England, and the Engineering and Physical Science
Research Council of the UK.


Neurocomputing and Robotics Group, Department of Computer Science, Regent C
ourt, Portobello Rd, University
of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4DP


Silsoe Research Institute

develops automation techniques for machines which interact with natural
and biological objects. Examples of projects:




The Robot Sheepdog
was collaboration betwee
n SRI and the Universities of Bristol, Leeds and
Oxford. An autonomous robot that can gather and safely manoeuvre a flock of ducks to a
predetermined goal. The system was developed in simulation, and tested with a real robot and ducks.
The system consis
ts of a robot vehicle, a computer and a camera. The next step would be to have the
camera on the robot itself, rather than at a fixed position.




A voluntary milking system

has been unveiled on a farm in Sweden. The system revolves around
the cows' na
tural system of milking, feeding and resting.




Automated mushroom harvesting
: a pilot mushroom harvester which uses several handling
systems. Mushrooms are located and sized, and an expert selection algorithm decides which picking
action should be use
d. A suction cup mechanism attached to a Cartesian robot is used to detach
individual mushrooms and place them gently into a conveyer.


Silsoe Research Institute, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HS United Kingdom

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Robotics

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University of Southampton:
The BioRobot
ics research group, that includes Bob Damper, whose
interests encompass a range of practical and theoretical issues. These range from grasping and
manipulation, to learning methods, and the implications of embodied AI and autonomous systems for
issues in t
he philosophy of mind.


Biorobotics Research Group, Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Highfield, Southampton SO17
1BJ United Kingdom


University of Stirling:
The Cricket Robots Lab research projects include the Morphological and Neural
Modell
ing of the Orthopteran Escape Response (the escape response of crickets and cockroaches),
through the construction of a robot model.


The Cricket Robots Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Scotland FK9 4LA, United Kingdom


University of

Surrey:

The Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research Group projects include the
intelligent control of debris clearance systems on sweeping vehicles, leading to semi
-
autonomous
sweeping vehicles, and the development of a haptic interactive system.


Mech
atronic Systems and Robotics Research Group, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University
of Surrey, Guildford , Surrey GU2 7XH United Kingdom


University of Sussex
The Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Robotics contains the following

research groups: Modelling Neural Systems; Evolutionary and Adaptive Robotics, Evolutionary
Electronics, Insect and Robot Navigation, the Theory of Natural and Artificial Evolution, and the
Computational Creative Research group.


Centre for Computational
Neuroscience and Robotics, Room 3D8, School of Biological Sciences, University of
Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RH, United Kingdom

Evolutionary and Adaptive Systems Group The Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton
BN1 9RH United

Kingdom


University of Wales, Aberystwyth:
The Intelligent Robotics group’s key areas of research are
innovative algorithms for dynamics and force control; autonomous operation for real world applications
including the food industry, mobile robotics, incl
uding space applications, and skeletal kinematic
modelling.


Intelligent Robotics Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales


University of West of England:
The Intelligent Autonomous Systems Engineering Laboratory
resea
rches ways in which autonomous robots


large and small, walking, climbing and flying


can be
developed to ‘do the right thing at the right time’. Researchers at UWE are developing robots to assist
humans in dangerous situations, including detecting land

mines, inspecting and sorting mail, and risk
assessment or maintenance of hazardous or inaccessible plant machinery, or locating the sources of
pollution.
SlugBot:

This project was undertaken at University of West of England, where it is described
as the

first stage of a study in energy autonomy, a proof
-
of
-
concept vehicle capable of detecting and
collecting slugs.


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Intelligent Autonomous Systems Laboratory, University of West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY
United Kingdom



UK companies


A growing number of UK companies are now specialising in robotics production and robotics kits. Quite
a few companies sell robot parts and kits as a small part of their inventory. The companies below are
specialists.


The Shadow Robot Company

has made the
world's first fully dextrous hand.

Their objective is to build a humanoid robot ‘which should be genuinely useful to anybody and
everybody, at a cost which ordinary people can afford.

The Shadow Robot Company, 251 Liverpool Rd, London, N1 1LX, UK


Total Ro
bots

sell robot kits, components, control products and accessories to Educationalists,
Hobbyists and Industrialists

Total Robots Ltd, Global House, Ashley Avenue, Epson, Surrey, KT18 5AD, UK


Merlin Systems Corp. Ltd
. The primary goal of the company is th
e development of service robots
designed to work for or with people.

Merlin Systems Corp. Ltd, ITTC Tamar Science Park, 1 Davy Rd, Derriford, Plymouth, PL6 8BX


Sixaxis Ltd
. A dedicated industrial robotics and automation company whose main service is the s
upply
of robot programmers.

www
.sixaxis.ltd.uk (no address given)


Kawasaki Robotics (UK) Ltd

is the UK robotics division of Kawasaki

Heavy Industries Japan

Kawasaki Robotics (UK) Ltd., Units 6 & 7, Easter Court, Europa Boulevard,

Warrington, WA5 7ZB


OC Robotics
: a UK based manufacturer of snake
-
arm robots

OC Robotics Ltd, 5 Fallodon Way, Henleaze, Bristol, BS9 4HR


Swallow Systems

make and sell educational robots

Swallow Systems, 134 Cook Lane, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, UK H
P13 7EA


OxIM

have the stated aim of, ‘Intelligent Machines for Industry is to provide ingenious robotic
automation solutions to identified problem areas in the production environment’.

OxIM Ltd, HJS Unit B, Oxford Rd, East Hanney, Oxon, OX12 OHP


Robotica

provides services in the fields of product design and prototyping and Robotics and Motion
Control

Robotics Ltd 17
-
19 Park Terrace Lane, Glasgow, G3 6BQ, UK





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Sources of funding


There are no sources of funding exclusively for robotics in the UK. However
, the UK research councils
do fund robotics projects relevant to their brief. Some examples of recently funded robotics projects are
given below.


Arts Council England
is the national development agency for the arts in England, distributing public
money fr
om Government and the National Lottery
.

www.artscouncil.org.uk


The Nuffield Foundation
is an independent charity that mainly funds self
-
contained projects which
advance education or social welfare, often by means of research or practical innovation.

www.n
uffieldfoundation.org.uk


The Wellcome Trust
is an independent research funding charity that aims to improve human and
animal health.

www.welcome.ac.uk


European Science Foundation
promotes high quality science at a European level. It acts as a
catalyst f
or the development of science by bringing together leading scientists and funding agencies to
debate plan and implement pan
-
European initiatives
.

www.esf.org


The Leverhulme Trust
makes awards for the support of research and education. The Trust
emphasise
s individual and encompasses all subject areas.

www.leverhulme.org.uk


The Royal Society
runs a scheme of research appointments within the UK and a series of
programmes encouraging exchanges of information, dialogue and visits overseas
.

www.royalsoc.ac.uk/
funding/index.html


EPSRC:
The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) is the UK Government’s
leading funding agency for research and training in engineering and the physical sciences
.

www.epsrc.ac.uk


An example project: EPSRC funded fe
asibility study of robotic ironing, conducted in Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Kings College London. This research investigates the application of robotic
techniques to one of the most demanding household activities.


BBSRC

is Britain’s lead fundi
ng agency for academic research and training in the non
-
medical
sciences
.

www.bbsrc.ac.uk


NERC:
Natural Environment Research Council aims to support basic, strategic and applied research in
terrestrial, marine and freshwater biology and Earth, atmospheric
, hydrological, oceanographic and
polar sciences and Earth observation.

www.nerc.ac.uk


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An example project: Autosub Under Ice is a five
-
year programme to explore the marine environment
beneath floating ice shelves using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle. F
unded by the Natural

Environment Research Council (NERC), the programme brings together UK researchers from a broad
range of disciplines to investigate the role of sub
-
ice shelf processes in the climate system.


ESRC:
The Economic and Social Research Counc
il addresses economic and social concerns.

www.esrc.ac.uk


NESTA
is the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts. They aim to fill a funding
gap by investing in outstanding ideas and the people who have them
.

www.nesta.org.uk


Some examples

of current robotics projects:



The Shadow Robot Company: a helping hand for the disabled.



Roboteers in Residence



Techno Games



Steve Grand and Lucy



Colm McKeown and the Robotic Farmhand



Bruce Davies IceRobotics


Department For Educa
tion and Skills

provide student support for students in England and Wales.

www.dfes.gov.uk


British Council

provide a web page of sources of funding for international students

www.britcoun.org/education/funding/index.htm



Educational resources


With the
rise in public enthusiasm for all things robotic there is a need for easily digestible information.
Some of the more prominent websites developed for this need are the BBC Robot World at
www.bbc.co.uk/science/robots; the Techno Games website at www.techno
-
games.co.uk; and the
Robot Wars website www.robotwars.co.uk.



Real Robots magazine is a bimonthly UK magazine with articles on robot news and building tips. Its
main attraction is that it provides parts every week for a robot that readers can build increm
entally. The
web site is www.realrobots.co.uk. There is also an enthusiasts’ website for readers of the magazine at
www.robotbuilder.co.uk.



Art and robotics


Robotics and the arts is a relatively new tradition in the UK although it is also part of th
e tradition of
Automata. Some of the best examples include:


The Performance Arts Digital Research Unit at The Nottingham Trent University that launched the
Sci
-
Art: Bio
-
Robotic Choreography

project in collaboration with the School of Cognitive and Comput
er
Sciences at the University of Sussex, supported by the Wellcome Trust. It involves the development of
an intelligent insect
-
like robot large enough to support a human.

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Bill Bigge
: Robotics/Alife sculpture whose work includes ‘evolving electric pets’.
He has created
electric bugs and exhibited them by hiding them, and getting the public to track them down with the
help of a map.


Automata and mechanical sculptures

from Martin Smith, an artist inventor, and the Cabaret
Mechanical Theatre, a museum of Aut
omata.


The Full Empties

is an art and robotics work in progress by Professor Noel Sharkey (Computer
Science, University of Sheffield) and John France (Fine Art, University of West England), funded by the
Arts Council of England.



Courses in Robotics and
Artificial Intelligence


The UK has a long tradition in teaching artificial intelligence. Now there are also an emerging number of
robotics courses both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. In addition, the institutions below and
others, will take on
research students for Mphil and PhD degrees. It is best to do web searches for
supervisors who might share interests with you and contact them directly. The URLs for these institutions
can be found at:
www.britishcouncil.org/science/robotics



Undergraduate degree courses


University of Aberdeen


Computing Science (Artificial Intelligence)
BSc


University of Aberystwyth

Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence
BSc


University of Birmingh
am


Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science
BSc



University of Central England in
Birmingham

Computing with Intelligent Systems BSc


City University


Computer Science with Artificial Intelligence
BSc


University of Durham

Artificial Intelligence BS
c



University of East Anglia


Computing for Artificial Intelligence BSc

University of Edinburgh

Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science
BSc


University of Essex

Computer Science (Artificial Intelligence)
BSc

Computer Science (Robotics and Intellige
nt
Machines),

Computer Science (Embedded Systems
and Robotics) BSc


Heriot
-
Watt University

Robotics and Cybertronics MEng/BEng

Computer Science (Artificial Intelligence)
BSc


University of Huddersfield


Software Development with Artificial
Intelligence BS
c


Imperial College of Science, Technology
and Medicine


Computing (Artificial Intelligence) MEng



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University of Leeds


Artificial Intelligence and Philosophy BSc


University of Liverpool


Computer and Robotic Systems
MEng/BEng

Artificial Intelligence BS
c



Liverpool John Moores University


Robotics and Manufacturing Systems BSc



University of Luton


Artificial Intelligence and Robotics BSc

Computer Science and Robotics BSc



University of Manchester


Artificial Intelligence BSc


Manchester Metropolitan

University


Artificial Intelligence BSc



The North East Wales Institute of Higher
Education


Mobile Robot Technology


Oxford Brookes University


Computing Science/Intelligent Systems


University of Plymouth

Robotics and Automated Systems Beng



Universi
ty of Reading


Artificial Intelligence and Cybernetics BSc


The Robert Gordon University

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics BSc



Royal Holloway, University of London


Computer Science with Artificial Intelligence
BSc



University of Sheffield


Artificia
l Intelligence and Computer Science
BSc/McompAI


Sheffield Hallam University


Computing, Automation and Robotics BSc


University of Southampton


Computer Science with Artificial Intelligence
BSc/Meng



Staffordshire University


Design Technology for Roboti
cs BSc

Intelligent Systems BSc/Meng


University of Sunderland


Artificial Intelligence BSc



University of Sussex


Robotics, Cybernetics and Process
Automation MEng/BEng

Artificial Intelligence BSc



University of West of England


Artificial Intelligence
and Computing BSc



University of Westminster


Artificial Intelligence BSc




Postgraduate courses


Chester College

Artificial Intelligence, MSc, PG Cert, PG Dip


University of Edinburgh

Artificial Intelligence, MSc, PG Dip


University of Essex

Comput
er Science (Robotics and Intelligent
Machines) MSc

Computer Science (Artificial Intelligence
and Agents) MSc

___________________________________________________________________________________________


13

Robotics

July 2003



University of Hertfordshire

Artificial Intelligence MSc


King's College London, University of
London

Biomaterials, Biofluid Flows, Biomechanics
or Robotics MSc

Artificial Intelligence MSc


University of Liverpool

Information and Intelligence Engineering
MSc (Eng)

University of Portsmouth

Mobile Robotics, MSc, PG Dip


University of Salford

Robotics and Automation, MSc, PG Dip


University of Sussex

Computer Science and Artificial
Intelligence, MSc, PG Dip







This briefing sheet was prepared by Professor Noel Sharkey, Department of Computer Science and
Creative Robotics Unit at Magna.