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Motion Capture:

History, Approaches, Applications,
and Future trends

By: Ryan Frost

MSIM 742 : Visualization II

Old Dominion University

Introduction

Motion capture
is the recording of human
body movement (or other movement)
for immediate or delayed analysis and
playback

Motion capture
refers
to the technique of
recording the actions of
human actors, and
using that information to
animate digital
character models in 3D
animation


History


Interest in studying
motion dates back to
1400’s


1400’s: Leonardo da Vinci


1500’s: Galileo


1600’s: Borelli


Newton, Bernoulli, Euler,
Pioseuille, and Young


1900’s:Muybridge, Marey

Applications of Motion Capture


Entertainment (Movies, Games)


Medical Field


Sports Analysis and Enhancement


Industrial Field


Increase process efficiency, product design,
ergonomics evaluation


Research and Defense

Approaches to Motion Capture


Marker Based


Goniometers



Magnetic



Inertial



Opitcal


Magnetic

Inertial

Optical

MIT’s Pfinder Markerless Approach


2D Blob Model







http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BVwKPnIErrA


Stanford Markerless Motion
Capture Project


3D voxel
reconstruction from
silhouettes

http://www.stanford.edu/~stefanoc/Markerless/Markerless.html


Human Shape and Pose from
Images Using SCAPE


SCAPE Models


Template

Body Pose

Body Shape

Human Shape and Pose from
Images Using SCAPE

Input Images overlaid with
estimated body model

Overlap (yellow) between
silhouette (red) and
estimated model (blue)

Recovered model from
each camera view

Future Trends of Motion Capture


Markerless Motion Capture


In general



Increased speed


Increased capture area


Decreased cost


Multiple character motion capture

Resources


Markerless

Motion Capture:


Organic Motion



http://www.organicmotion.com/


Mova




http://www.mova.com/



MaMoCa




http://www.mamoca.com




Optical

Motion

Capture:


VICON



http://www.vicon.com/


MotionAnlysis



http://www.motionanalysis.com


OptiTrack



http://www.naturalpoint.com/optitrack/


Qualisys

Motion Capture Systems


http://www.qualisys.com


PhaseSpace

Motion Capture


http://www.phasespace.com



Goniometer

Motion Capture


Animazoo




http://www.animazoo.com


Magnetic Motion Capture:


Ascension
-

http://www.ascension
-
tech.com/


Polhemus



http://www.polhemus.com


Inertial Motion Capture:


Animazoo



http://www.animazoo.com


InterSense



http://www.isense.com/


Moven



http://www.moven.com



Motion analysis software:


Autodesk


http://usa.autodesk.com



3
-
D CAD
and animation software.


C
-
Motion, Inc.


http://www.c
-
motion.com



3
-
D motion
analysis software.


References



[1] Struman, David, A Brief History of Motion Capture for Computer Character Animation, found on the web:
http://www.siggraph.org/education/materials/HyperGraph/animation/character_animation/motion_capture/history1.htm



[2] Furniss, Maureen, Motion Capture, found on the web:
http://web.mit.edu/comm
-
forum/papers/furniss.html




[3] Human Motion Analysis, found on the web:
http://www.xsens.com/index.php?mainmenu=technology&submenu=research&subsubmenu=human_motion



[4] Eadweard Muybridge, from Wikipedia, found on the web:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadweard_Muybridge



[5] Adventures in Cybersound, found on the web:
http://www.acmi.net.au/AIC/MAREY_BIO.html



[6] Animazoo, found on the web:
http://www.animazoo.com/




[7] Motion capture, from Wikipedia, found on the web:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motion_capture



[8] A.G. Kirk, J.F. O'Brien, D.A. Forsyth, Skeletal Parameter Estimation From Optical Motion Capture Data, Computer Vision an
d P
attern Recognition,
2005. CVPR 2005. IEEE Computer Society Conference Volume 2, 20
-
25 June 2005 Page(s): 782

788.



[9] Meta Motion, found on the web:
http://www.metamotion.com/metamotion.htm



[10] J.F. O’Brien, R.E Bodenheimer, Jr., G.J. Brostow, J.K. Hodgins, Automatic Joint Parameter Estimation from Magnetic Motio
n C
apture Data,
Graphics Interface 2000.



[11] H. Zhou, H. Hu, Kinematic model aided inertial motion tracking of human upper limb, IEEE Conference on Information Acqui
sit
ion, June27
-
July3,
2005.



[12] Moven, found on the web:
http://www.moven.com




[13] Organic Motion Launches Markerless Motion Capture System, Studio Daily (
www.studiodaily.com
), August 9, 2007.



[14] Organic Motion, found on the web:
http://www.organicmotion.com




[15] L. Mundermann, S. Corazza, T.P. Andriacchi, The Evolution of Methods for the Capture of Human Movement Leading to Marker
les
s Motion Capture
for Biomechanical Applications, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, 2006.



[16] C. Wren, A. Azarbayejani, T. Darrell, A. Pentland, Pfinder: Real
-
Time Tracking of the Human Body, IEEE Transactions on Patt
ern Analysis and
Machine Intelligence, Volume 19, Issue 7, Jul 1997 Page(s): 780

785.



[17] A. Sundaresan, Towards Markerless Motion Capture: Model Estimation, Initialization and Tracking, University of Maryland,

20
07.



[18] Stanfords Markerless Motion Capture Project, found on the web:
http://www.stanford.edu/~stefanoc/Markerless/Markerless.html




[19] S. Corazza, L. Mundermann, A.M. Chaudhari, T. Demattio, C. Cobelli, T.P. Andriacchi, A Markerless Motion Capture System
to
Study
Musculoskeletal Biomechanics: Visual Hull and Simulated Annealing Approcah, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 6,

Ju
ne 2006, Page(s):
1019
-
1029.



[20] A.O. Balan, L. Sigal, M. Black, J.E. Davis, H.W. Haussecker, Detailed Human Shape and Pose from Images, IEEE Conference
on
Computer Vision
and Pattern Recognition, 17
-
22, June 2007 Page(s): 1
-
8.



[21] D. Anguelov, P. Srinivasan, D. Koller, S. Thrun, J. Rodgers, J. Davis, SCAPE: Shape Completion and Animation of People,
ACM

Trans. Graphics,
24(3):408
-
416, 2005.



[22] Motion Analysis, found on the web:
http://www.motionanalysis.com/html/animation/film.html



[23] PhaseSpace, found on the web:
http://www.phasespace.com/applicationsMain.html



[24] Improving Quality with Virtual Technology, found on the web:
http://www.ford.com/innovation/automotive
-
technology/developing
-
better
-
ideas/virtual
-
ergonomics/391
-
virtual
-
ergonomics


Questions?