Culture & Personality

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13 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Culture & Personality

Lecture Study Guide


How do people in different cultures think about
themselves differently (particularly comparing Eastern
and Western cultures)?


To what extent and in what ways is personality
structure universal vs. variable across cultures?


To what extent and in what ways is personality
functioning, or the utility of personality, similar or
different across cultures?


How might we evaluate existing approaches to
personality from a cultural framework?


What insight can be gained from the cultural
psychology of personality for discussions of ontology?


How do people in different cultures think
about themselves differently?


Western

Eastern

Motivated to esteem the self.

Motivated

to esteem the group

Into positive self
-
esteem

Not as much into positive

self
-
esteem

Approach motivation

Avoidance motivation

Internal frame of reference

External

frame of reference

Independent self

Interdependent self

Entity theory of abilities

Incremental theory of abilities

Uncomfortable

with contradictions

Comfortable with contradictions

To what extent and in what ways is personality
structure universal vs. variable across cultures?



Using Big 5 measures (developed in Western cultures),
generally find the Five Factors.


When using measures developed in Eastern cultures,
new factors emerge (although some are found similar
to the Five Factors).


Mean levels often different across cultures, but, hard
to tell if they really are different, or people just
differentially interpret/respond to the items.


What people think of “national character” often not
correlated with personality indexes.


For these and other reasons, cross
-
country
comparisons on self
-
report measures are “suspect.”

To what extent and in what ways is personality functioning, or
the utility of personality, similar or different across cultures?

Western

Eastern

Self
-
concept based on abstract traits

Self
-
concept based

on social roles

Entity theory of self and personality

Incremental theory

of self and personality

Personality is stable/consistent

Personality is flexible/contextual

Attribute

other’s behavior to person

Attribute

other’s behavior to situation

Infer

traits from behavior

Rely more on behavior
-
descriptive

verbs
and social roles

Personality is good explanation for
behavior

Personality traits less predictive of
behavior (because more contextual)

How might we evaluate existing approaches to
personality from a cultural framework?



Which personality theory or approached
discussed this semester do you think do the least
to appreciate and capture variation in personality
across cultures, or account for the role of culture
in personality?


Which
personality theory or approached
discussed this semester do you think best
appreciate
and
capture
variation in personality
across cultures, or
account for the
role of culture
in
personality?

What insight can be gained from the cultural
psychology of personality for discussions of ontology?



Western


“individualist, egocentric, separate, autonomous,
idiocentric
, self
-
contained”


“”independent, self
-
contained, autonomous entity who (a) comprises a unique
configuration of internal attributes…and (b) behaviors primarily as a consequence
of these internal attributes.”


“relatively independent of specific others and…invariant over time and context”


Eastern



sociocentric
, holistic, collective,
allocentric
,
ensembled
, constitutive,
contextualist
, connected, and relational.”


“changes structure with the nature of the particular social context.”


“Inseparability of…self and other, and person and situation”


“relationship as the functional unit of conscious reflection”


“uniqueness…derives from specific configuration of relationships that each person
has developed”


“persons are only parts that when separated from the larger social whole cannot
be fully understood”

Take Home Messages


There are a lot of ways to think about and study personality
(not just Freud and traits).


Most approaches are Western, and thus grounded in
naturalism and abstractionism.


There are alternative worldviews/ontologies, such as
theism (more in line with most real people’s worldviews)
and
relationalism

(more in line with Eastern thought and
sense of self).


There are a lot of fascinating trends in personality
psychology these days, for better or for worse.


A lot of what you’ve learned this semester can be applied in
everyday life, to understanding yourself and others,
changing your own behavior/personality or that of others,
and strengthening your relationships.


Last but not least, I hope you’ve grown to love personality
psychology!!!


Have a great summer!