RFID and its applications

inspectorwormsΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

27 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

167 εμφανίσεις

Group 1

Ng Wing
Yiu
, Yoyo (10000577)

Chan
Wai

Po, Ball (10000623)

Hui

Yi Yuk, Ken (11001542)

Ip

Kwan Yuen,
Issac

(09003495)


1


ISEM
3410

Telecommunications
and Networking
in Business


RFID and its applications

Table of Content

2

1. Background of RFID

2. Concepts

3. Advantages and disadvantages of RFID

4. Application of RFID

5. Further Development



Background of RFID

1. Background of RFID (1/4)


Basic concept behind RFID is same as
“Mirror
-
Sunlight
-
Reflection theory ”


Invented
in 1948 by Harry
Stockman


Initial application was during
World War II
-
The
United
Kingdom
used RFID devices to distinguish
returning English
airplanes from inbound German
ones


Commercial Operation begun from 1960’s



1. Background of RFID (2/4)

5


RFID =
Radio
-
Frequency Identification


Briefly
the
RF
stand for “
radio
-
frequency
” and
ID

means “
identifier
” that allows an
item to
be identified,
accessed, stored, reprogrammed and communicated by
using radio waves


The acronym refers to small electronic devices that consist of a
small chip and an antenna
. The chip typically is capable of
carrying 2,000 bytes of data or less.

6


Manufacturing and Processing


Supply chain management


Security


Controlling
access to
building


P
ayment systems


Location Tracking


Retail


1. Background of RFID (3/4)

RFID advantages over
bar
-
codes

7


No line of sight required for reading


Multiple items can be read with a
single
scan


Each tag can carry a lot of data
(read/write)


Individual items identified and not
just the
category


Passive tags have a virtually
unlimited lifetime


Active tags can be read from great
distances


Can be combined with barcode
technology


1. Background of RFID (4/4)

Concept of RFID

Basic Components of RFID

RFID Tags

(or Transponders)

(or Interrogator)

RFID Architecture

10

Tags

Reader





Gateway

Database

Database


Application

User
Interface

Backend

Fig.1. A General Overview of RFID
Architecture

Scanned

2. Concept of RFID (1/7)


Firstly

items
-
tag

are

scanned

by

reader
;


Secondly

in

backend

transmitted

data

coming

through

antenna

(RF
-
wave)

are

being

recognized

by

RFID
-
based

system

PC
.



It

acts

as

a

middleware

communication

gateway

among

items,

reader

and

system

database
;


Finally

it

filters

out

and

store

data

in

RFID
-
databases

for

checking

the

data

fault

and

relevant

operation
.

Key component
-

tag

11

1. Chips
: Hold information
about physical object.

2. Concept of RFID (2/7)

2. Antenna
: Transmit radio
signal

3. Package
: Encases the
Chips and Antenna, so that
can be attached to the
physical object.

Are All Tags The Same?


Three Basic
Types:


Active


Battery powered memory, radio & circuitry


Long Read Range (300 feet)


Active Backscatter (Semi
-
active)


Reader activates tag,

but battery powers memory

and circuitry


Medium Read Range (10
-

50 feet)


Passive Backscatter


Reader powered


Shorter Read Range (4 inches
-

18 feet)


2. Concept of RFID (3/7)

2. Concept of RFID (
4/7)

RFID Tag Operational Frequencies

Band

Frequency

LF

30


300 kHz

HF

3


30MHz

UHF

300MHz



3GHz

Microwave

2



30GHz

Typical RFID
frequencies


125


134kHz

13.56
MHz

865



956MHz

2.45GHz

Read

range

<0.5

m

Up to 1.5m

~0.5



5 m

Up to 10m

Data Rate

Slower

Moderate

Faster

Faster

Characteristics

Short
-
range,

Low data

transfer
rate, penetrates
water but not
metal


Higher

ranges,
reasonable data
rates, penetrates
water but not
metal


Long ranges,

high
data transfer rate,
concurrent read of
<100 items, cannot
penetrate water or
metals

Long range,

high
data transfer rate,
cannot penetrate
water or metal

Typical

use

Animal ID,

car immobilizer

Smart labels,

Travel

cars

Tracking logistics

Moving

vehicle
toll

14






2. Concept of RFID (5/7)


RFID tag memory


Read
-
only tags


Tag ID is assigned at the factory during manufacturing


Can never be changed


No additional data can be assigned to the tag


Write once, read many (WORM) tags


Data written once, e.g., during packing or manufacturing


Tag is locked once data is written


Similar to a compact disc or DVD


Read/Write


Tag data can be changed over time


Part or all of the data section can be locked

Key component
-

Reader

15

2. Concept of RFID (6/7)


Reader functions:


Remotely power tags


Establish a bidirectional data link


Inventory tags, filter results


Communicate with networked
server(s)


Can read 100
-
300 tags per second


Readers (interrogators) can be at a
fixed point such as


Entrance/exit


Point of sale


Readers can also be mobile/hand
-
held


Reader Products


Network Readers

OEM Reader Boards


Serial Readers

OEM Reader Boards



Peripheral Controllers



PC Card Readers


RFID Enabled Label
Printers




Portable Readers



Wireless Integrated

Handheld Reader


Key component


Host computer

2. Concept of RFID (7/7)


data
acquired by the
readers is then passed to a
host
computer


run
specialist RFID
software or middleware to
filter the data


route
it to the correct
application, to be
processed into useful
information

Advantages

3. Advantages of RFID (1/8)

19

1. RFID tags can hold higher data capacity and better
capability



RFID
tags can
hold more data
than bar codes
.



data capacity

capability

RFID tags

up to 2 KB

an be read or written

Barcode

just 10
-
12 digits

no read or write

3. Advantages of RFID (2/8)

2. The technology of RFID is efficient


Does not require a
direct line of sight


Read at
much greater distances
up to 300 feet


Read
multiple product
at the same time


Read through packaging


Provide
unique identification



3. Advantages of RFID (3/8)

21

3. RFID tags can be used different environments


RFID technology has been widely in the medical industry


Animal identification


Human identification




3. Advantages of RFID (4/8)

22

4. RFID tags provide higher security


Cannot
be easily
replicated


Stronger
sensor networking

system
or monitoring system



Disadvantages

3.
Disadvantages of RFID (5/8)

24

1. High cost


Hard to implement in low cost products


The
benefits of RFID
> additional
cost

3. Disadvantages of RFID (6/8)

25

2. Materials Problems


Problems
with some
materials


(
Metals and liquids
)


reflect
the radio
waves

unreadable



3. Disadvantages of RFID (7/8)

26

3. Interference problem has been occurred


The presence of mobile phone towers has been found to
interfere
with RFID radio
waves


3. Disadvantages of RFID (8/8)

27

4. The risk of using RFID technology


Do not need to have direct contact


Consumers are apprehensive about their
privacy


Others can
be tracked
the personal
information
by
the RFID reader


Applications

4.1 Application of RFID (1/9)

Case 1


Autotoll

29


Hong
Kong's leading
ITS

services provider in the
transport

and
logistics
industries



10 years
of experience in the application and implementation
of
RFID technologies

https://www.autotoll.com.hk

4.1 Application of RFID (2/9)

Target Market Segment

30

Market
Segment

Transport
Industry

Logistics

Industry

Industries

in
Supply Chain
Network

Target
Customers

Government

Consumer

(e.g. Motorist,

Private

car driver
)

Logistics Company

Upper stream:
Manufacturer


Middle stream:

3PL, Distributor


Lower stream:
Retailer

4.1 Application of RFID (3/9)

Transport Industry

31


Make use of ITS (Intelligent Transport System)



Adapt RFID to control the traffic



Allow more vehicles flow in



Save time for consumers

4.1 Application of RFID (4/9)

Electronic Toll Collection

32


Reduce the time being queued



Prevent traffic congestion



4.1 Application of RFID (5/9)

Logistics Industry

33


Make use of LMS (Logistics Management System)



Adapt RFID, GPS and GPRS technology



Increase efficiency and productivity



Lower the operating costs

4.1 Application of RFID (6/9)

Industry in Supply Chain Network

34


Make use of SCM (Supply Chain Management)



Reduce the use of paperwork



Increase information accuracy



Promote customer satisfaction

4.1 Application of RFID (7/9)

RFID Equipment

35



Multi
-
protocol
for agility and
flexibility



Real
-
time reading and writing for all EPC
-
compliant
tags



Reduce time and maintenance
costs



4.1 Application of RFID (8/9)

RFID Equipment

36



Wide Read
Field



Long range and large area RFID tag reading
.



High Speed RF Signal
Conversion



Fast and optional communication of EPC
-
compliant passive tag data



4.1 Application of RFID (9/9)

RFID Equipment

37



Electronic Product Code (EPC)™
-

Compliance



Unique identification



Non line
-
of
-
sight data capture



Easily attached to containers, pullets and boxes



4.2 Application of RFID (1/7)

Case 2


Access Control in Luxury Residential Area

38


Leading RFID
hardware manufacturer, distributor and
consultancy
firm


http://www.hk
-
rfid.com/home/active_case.php

4.2 Application of RFID (2/7)

RFID Control System

39


Implement in
residential area
, all the control in that area are
automated

by computer
system



Secure and Safe



No need to remember passwords or bring keys


4.2 Application of RFID (3/7)

RFID Control System

40



Resident card equipped with RFID tags



RFID readers and antennas are installed at entrances or any facilities
in the residential
area



O
ne
active RFID tag
access all controlled areas



4.2 Application of RFID (4/7)

Lobby

41






Readers
and antennas are installed at the entrance
.



E
ntry
and exit history is
recorded



Doors will open automatically

4.2 Application of RFID (5/7)

Mailbox

42




Mailbox will open automatically



N
o
longer need to carry keys to unlock

4.2 Application of RFID (6/7)

Lift

43




Antennas and readers are installed in the lift
lobby



Only

lift buttons of
floor where residents live in can
be pressed by
residents



Improve security

4.2 Application of RFID (7/7)

Benefit using RFID in House

44


Enhanced security through limiting access to authorized residents
only



Improved
customer satisfaction



Accurate in
-
out records of residents


Further Development

5 Further Development (1/7)

The Trend of RFID


Global Standards of RFID


-

Reduce supply chain complexity


-

Promote RFID adoption


For Interested parties


Learn the procedures and steps


Increase their competitive

5 Further Development (2/7)

The Trend of RFID


Steps of Implement RFID



1) Planning and Evaluating the current situation


2) Understanding company position


3) Pilot test


4) Ensuring RFID providers responses


5) Communicating with supply chain partners

5 Further Development (3/7)

In
-
depth uses of RFID


1) Transportation payment



2) Animal and Human identification


5 Further Development (4/7)

In
-
depth uses of RFID


3) Sports



4) School and Universities


5 Further Development (5/7)

In
-
depth uses of RFID


5) Entertainment




E.g. Disneyland


-


MagicBand




5 Further Development (6/7)

Challenges


1) Lack of Global Standard for adoption



2) Security and Privacy Problem


5 Further Development (7/7)

Challenges


3) Data Management



4) Hardware and Software Selection



5) Cost


References

Part 1 & Part 2

1.
http://bibhutipattanaik.blogspot.hk/search?q=Mirror
-
Sunlight
-
Reflection+theory

2.
http://www.discoverrfid.org/how
-
it
-
works/history/development
-
of
-
rfid.html

3.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octopus_card

4.
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/technology
-
article.asp?artnum=60

5.
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/technology
-
article.asp?artnum=2

6.
http://www.datamars.com/default.aspx?menuitemid=258&menusubid=14&Aspx
AutoDetectCookieSupport=1

7.
http://www.rfidaa.org/upload/documents/PDF/RFID%20explained.pdf

Part 3

1.
http://www.activewaveinc.com/technology_rfid_advantage.php

2.
http://www.inlogic.com/rfid/rfid_vs_barcode.aspx

3.
http://www.albaspectrum.com/news/000003610.html

4.
http://www.ehow.com/list_6783799_problems
-
rfid.html

References

Part 4

1.
http
://
americanrfidsolutions.com/members/download/10th%20M
AY%20RFID_SUMMIT_PDF/autotoll/Autotoll_RFID_v1.pdf

2.
http
://
www.autotoll.com.hk/radiofrequencyidentification.php?lang
=e

3.
http
://
www.hk
-
rfid.com/home/active_case.php

Part 5

1.
http://search.proquest.com/docview/222716691/13D4D845FA04
67BE4C2/48?accountid=11440

2.
http://search.proquest.com/docview/445772056/13D4D845FA04
67BE4C2/14?accountid=11440

3.
http://pixievacations.com/2013/01/mymagic
-
disney
-
world
-
2013/