Hardware side of

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Hardware side of
Cryptography

Anestis Bechtsoudis

mpechtsoud@ceid.upatras.gr

Patra

2010

COMPANY LOGO

Hardware side of Cryptography

Contents

Introduction

1

Cryptography

2

Software vs. Hardware

3

Reconfigurable Hardware

4

Conclusions

5

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1.

Introduction

3

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Introduction 1/2


Shift to

embedded & special
purpose devices


Increase of electronic transactions
& eCommerce


Large amount (soon bigger) of
sensitive data transferred through
insecure communication channels

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Introduction 2/2


Imperative need to work
under a secure model


Prevent unauthorized access


Warranty authenticity and integrity


Protect privacy


Application specific security level


Software, hardware and smart card
cryptographic solutions

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2.

Cryptography

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Cryptography 1/3


Cryptographic algoritmhs classes


Secret/Symmetric key ciphers (DES, AES,
IDEA, Cast128, Camellia)


Public/Assymetric key ciphers (RSA, ECC)


Hash functions (MD5, SHA2, Whirlpool)


Modern ciphers designed to
achieve high throughputs through
high parallelism in hardware.

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Cryptography 2/3


Advantages of secret key ciphers


higher rates of data throughput compared to
public ciphers


hardware implementations achieve encrypt rates
of hundreds of megabytes per second


software implementations achieve throughput
rates of megabytes per second


much less computationally intensive than public
key algorithm

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Cryptography 3/3


Secret key ciphers operations


bit shuffling (permutation)


simple non
-
linear functions implemented as
lookup tables (S
-
Boxes)


linear mixing (modulo) using XOR networks



Public key ciphers operations


modular addition/subtraction


modular multiplication
-
exponentiation


variable length rotation

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3.

Hardware vs. Software

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Hardware side of Cryptography

VS.




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Hardware vs. Software 1/2

Software

+

Ease of use

+

Ease of upgrade

+

Portability

+

Low development costs

+

Flexibility

-

Low speed

-

High power consumption

-

Limited security

Cryptographic

Implementations

Hardware

+

Low prices per unit

+

High speeds

+

Low power consumption

+

High parallelism level

+

High level security

-

High development costs

-

Lack of flexibility




!
What about reconfigurable hardware?

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Hardware vs. Software 2/2

Crypto
-

System

Cost

Performance

Security

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4.

Reconfigurable Hardware

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Reconfigurable Hardware 1/3


Combine characteristics from both
software and hardware

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Reconfigurable Hardware 2/3


Algorithm Agility: switching cryptographic
algorithms (SSL, IPSec etc)


Algorithm Upload: Remote connection


Algorithm Modifications: Change parameters


Architecture Efficiency: For specific set of
parameters
-
> efficient hardware


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Reconfigurable Hardware 3/3


Cryptographic implementations in FPGA
devices are in their first stages


Security issues


Side Channel Attacks


Timing Attacks


Power Analysis Attacks


Fault Injection Attacks


Noise Analysis Attacks


Cache Observation Attacks


Electromagnetic Analysis Attacks


Much effort from scientific community to
establish a base secure model for
cryptosystem designers

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5.

Conclusions

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Conclusions


Large amount of digital info that need to be
manipulated in a secure way.


The designer/user must make a tradeoff
between performance, cost and security level.


FPGAs and hybrid reconfigurable hardware
architectures are ideal for next generation
cryptosystems.


Nothing is 100% secure!!!!

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Anestis Bechtsoudis

mpechtsoud@ceid.upatras.gr

Patra

2010