There are some common themes that encompass the development of original ideas.

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12 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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There are some common
themes that encompass the
development of original ideas.






These eight themes or categories
provide a link between how designers
generate innovative products and or
processes and the types of products we
see emerging throughout our society.


Eight themes




SUPERIOR SOLUTION TO AN OLD PROBLEM



APPLICATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY



GREEN DESIGN



EXPLORING NEW SHAPES



ADDRESSING A NEW USER GROUP



APPROPRIATE MINIATURISATION



DOWN
-
TECHING



COMBINING FUNCTIONS






1.

SUPERIOR SOLUTION
TO AN OLD PROBLEM



Many aspects of an innovation address an
existing problem in a new way. New materials
or processes may be incorporated into a
design or invention of a solution to a problem.


The problem may be accepted by society as
the limits of a product until a further
development is undertaken and this new
ground
-
breaking

solution emerges.



An example of this type of innovation is the
Dyson vacuum cleaner. Society had accepted
the limits of efficiency of vacuum cleaners
available to consumers. James Dyson
developed a new system for dust extraction/
capture and challenged consumers’
preconceived idea of the limits of domestic
cleaning appliances.



Other examples include the new materials
developed for swimsuits used by Olympians
and other athletes to gain an
edge

upon their
competition, e.g. Ian Thorpe. The governing
body had to assess the new swimsuit
technology to categorise its effectiveness and
aide

capacity.



2.

APPLICATION

OF NEW
TECHNOLOGY



New technology provides society with
the raw materials to enable designers to
approach a problem from a different
aspect. For example, how we receive
and process information has been
totally changed by the development of
the Internet
.
Some designers may find
new ways of using technology.


How much information can
mobile phone systems handle?


Photonics is an area of new
technological development that will
provide for emerging development of
products and systems. For example,
Fibre Bragg Gratings, a new Australian
technology, will assist the
communication industry in developing
an optimum network.



Other examples are infrared transmission and
robotics and the controversial genetic
modification of plants and animals. Even the
facelifting BOTOX injections have revealed a
side effect found useful in treating migraine
headache and muscular spasms associated
with cerebral palsy. Interestingly BOTOX was
originally developed as a biological warfare
tool (used in higher doses than current
applications).


3.
GREEN DESIGN



The impact on society and the
environment of products and systems
developed by designers is becoming
increasingly important. Whether by
choice, or because of legislation, many
designers are now considering the
effects their designs may have on the
environment:

human ergonomics and
the natural environment.



1.

Via their processing throughout production,
usage and waste at the end of the product’s
life cycle.

2.

Designers of domestic appliances and
personal computers are also considering
design for disassembly. This involves making
components that can easily be identified and
processed at the end of their life c
ycle.



This can be seen with common
household appliances that have
become designed for extended use. For
example, food processors, blenders and
extractors that share a common power
centre so that only one item needs to be
purchased to perform multi
-
functions
instead of three or more. Power tools
have also undergone a similar trend in
design.



The energy source utilised by products
such as photovoltaic cells in solar
appliances has undergone recent re
-
design to provide greater efficiency and
viability for domestic use. Examples
include items from climate control
systems for housing to the simple
outdoor garden light.

4.
EXPLORING NEW SHAPES



Design fashion and styles often determine
how the end product will appear to/ for the
consumer. Products may have a status
attached to them without regard for the
products function. Trends in the fashion of
design in recent years have been towards
curves in many product exterior components.
For example, the Eveready Dolphin Torch
has changed from the brick shape to a more
curved form without major changes to its
functioning components.



The function of a product may also drive
the design towards changing form and
aesthetics. This can be evidenced in the
development of the carbon fibre bicycle.


5. Addressing a new user
group


Mainstream design caters for the majority of a
projected market population. Some groups
within the community may require specific
design needs to be addressed by adaptation
of existing products or the development of
products specifically for a need. Examples of
this type of design may be evidenced in areas
of physical ability; mental ability; disposable
income.



Products such as a keyboard adapter for
computer use by cerebral palsy sufferers.
Also, devices to aid limited grip as
experienced by arthritis sufferers, such as tap
turners and jar openers.


A product to suit a specific need may be seen
in the design of the Cochlear implant. This
product assists a deaf person to
hear

and is
part of a system implanted to benefit a new
user group.



6.
APPROPRIATE
MINIATURISATION





Some large products may find an increased
application when miniaturised. For example,
the telecommunication industry has
undergone rapid innovation and emerging
technology focus in recent years. This may be
evidenced in the development of mobile
phones and associated systems; laptop
computers; home theatre systems.




Inappropriate miniaturisation may include
those items that have been rendered
functionally inadequate due to changes in
form. For example, wristwatch calculators that
have buttons so small thereby making the
task of using the calculator nearly impossible.
A portable television
/DVD player

that does
not have sufficient screen size for comfortable
viewing.


7.

DOWN
-
TECHING



Many products in our society are aimed
towards the consumer market. There are
extensive opportunities for designers to
improve the quality of life for the non
-
consumers of the world.


Designers may also provide products for
those members of society who wish to
reverse the trend of high resource use and
dependency.



A high tech product such as a radio or electric
system for a community can find a new
application through down
-
teching. Radios
have been developed with power sources
from solar to wind up mechanisms. Solar
street or village lighting and water heating
systems as well as electrical supply for
domestic appliances.



Alternative material use


Developing countries have many needs that may be
addressed by alternative material use for products.
For example, bicycle frames made from bamboo,
demountable wheelchairs made from wood/ bamboo.
Resources may also be recycled from consumer rich
countries. For example, in Australia there are
programs that currently disassemble unwanted
bicycles to utilise their components to reuse as raw
materials for wheelchairs. These are made available
for individuals from developing countries who would
otherwise be severely hampered in mobility.


8.
COMBINING FUNCTIONS





The design of a product that
incorporates a range of functions may
be considered innovative. Combination
products such as the Swiss Army knife
are an example of a range of functions
within a product. However, some of the
individual components may be seen as
having little value and are more of a
sales gimmick on multi
-
functionality.



Other products such as a floor rug that may be easily
converted into a lounging chair, or a cradle rocking
chair stretch the limits that society pre
-
conceives for
the use of particular products.



Function is not always the driving force or the
ultimate state for a product to achieve. Aesthetics of
products are a feature that society may place value
upon. Combining functions may also challenge
creative urges to design products that respond to the
environments we live in.


Examples can be evidenced in Australian society in
common products such as caravans, camper trailers,
yachts, multi
-
function ovens, kitchen appliances,
power
-
tools, sofa

beds.





TRENDS


By looking at innovative products and
analysing what makes them innovative, we
may find features that could be incorporated
into future design. We can see the trends that
emerge throughout society as fashion and
innovation tempt the consumer the driving
force behind product acceptance and
financial success.





Often innovation is linked to problem
redefinition, that is, looking at a problem
in a different way. This allows for the
designer to have a clear picture of the
whole problem and re
-
evaluate
accepted limits. This is perhaps the
highest form of innovation.


INGENUITY OR STUPIDITY?



Trends in Australian society today
are largely governed by the needs of
the community.


Design and production activities aim
to satisfy the needs of the
community.



The following examples are a small
indication of innovative design
activities that are currently being
undertaken by Australians either
independently or as part of a team.


CURRENT TRENDS


1. BIOTECHNOLOGY



The mission of
Prana Biotechnology

is to
develop therapeutic drugs to treat the central
disease pathways that cause degeneration of
the brain and the eye as we age.


Prana aims to play a major role in providing
therapies for age
-
related disease, initially
focussing on the treatment of Alzheimer's
disease and thereby preserving the "life
force", the "Prana", within each and every
sufferer of the disease.


Prana Biotechnology is developing therapies for a
broad spectrum of age
-
related diseases, based on
technology arising from a series of discoveries about
the causes of major age
-
related diseases.


The discoveries have emerged from the laboratories
of Professor Ashley Bush and Professor Rudolph
Tanzi, at the Massachusetts General Hospital and
Harvard Medical School, and the laboratory of
Professor Colin Masters at the University of
Melbourne and the Mental Health Research Institute.




CURRENT TRENDS


2. ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY





The Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems
(CSES) is part of the Faculty of Engineering
and Information Technology at the Australian
National University


CSES invented a thin crystalline silicon solar
cell technique called
Epilift
. In this process a
thin layer of silicon (50 microns thick) is
grown on a conventional silicon wafer. The
grown layer is peeled off and converted into a
solar cell.


Over the next year Origin Energy will
make a decision about
commercialisation of the technology.
Recently Origin Energy was awarded

$1 million by the Australian Greenhouse
Office (RECP6) towards the cost of
building a pilot plant.


CURRENT TRENDS


3. HEALTH


CURRENT TRENDS


4. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY



Redfern Photonics is an investor in
start
-
up companies within in the
Information and Communications
Technologies (ICT) sector. Australian
based, with a focus on international
markets, their investment reach is
global, with portfolio companies having
their headquarters in the USA, Germany
and China as well as in Australia.


CURRENT TRENDS


5.

MANUFACTURING



Hypersonic aerodynamics has been a
major research activity at The University
of Queensland over the last 20 years.
The researchers in this group have
been active internationally and, during
that period, have been involved in
collaborative research programs with
about 20 universities and research
organisations around the world.



CURRENT TRENDS


6.


TRANSPORT






The

Permo
-
Drive system harnesses the previously
wasted braking energy of a vehicle, stores this
energy and is able to release it back into the drive
shaft

as required. For example, a truck going down a
hill or braking can store that energy for use at a later
time. If the truck needs to accelerate or go up a hill,
or through a gear change, the Permo
-
Drive system
can be automatically activated to deliver additional
torque to the drive shaft during periods of peak
engine demand.



Environmental benefits




Reduction in exhaust, carbon and
noxious emissions.



Reduction in engine exhaust braking
noise.


Reduction in brake dust pollutants.




CURRENT TRENDS


6.


ORGANISATIONS




The development of co
-
operative research
centres enables both government and private
sponsorship organisations to develop design
solutions in many varied areas especially
those that are related to scientific
technological advancement.


University research centres also act
independently and in co
-
operation with the
CSIRO in many endeavours.

For example,
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CONCLUSION


Where do these trends lead ?


In wealthier countries trends of design in our
society are related to capital investment
strategies and the role of Co
-
operative
research centres (CRCs). This aims to bring
together isolated groups towards sharing
limited resources of expertise and finance to
achieve goals in a competitive timeframe.